Geographic Names Information System
It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States Board on Geographic Names to promote the standardization of feature names, the database is part of a system that includes topographic map names and bibliographic references. The names of books and historic maps that confirm the feature or place name are cited, variant names, alternatives to official federal names for a feature, are recorded. Each feature receives a permanent, unique feature record identifier, sometimes called the GNIS identifier, the database never removes an entry, except in cases of obvious duplication. The GNIS accepts proposals for new or changed names for U. S. geographical features, the general public can make proposals at the GNIS web site and can review the justifications and supporters of the proposals. The Bureau of the Census defines Census Designated Places as a subset of locations in the National Geographic Names Database, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28 gives standards for addressing mail.
In this publication, the postal service defines two-letter state abbreviations, street identifiers such as boulevard and street, department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey, National Mapping Division, Digital Gazeteer, Users Manual. Least Heat Moon, Blue Highways, A Journey Into America, standard was withdrawn in September 2008, See Federal Register Notice, Vol.73, No. 170, page 51276 Report, Principles and Procedures, Domestic Geographic Names, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28, November 2000. Board on Geographic Names website Geographic Names Information System Proposals from the general public Meeting minutes
The snow petrel is the only member of the genus Pagodroma. It is one of three birds that breed exclusively in Antarctica and has been seen at the geographic South Pole. It has the most southerly breeding distribution of any bird, the snow petrel is the only member of the genus Pagodroma, and a member of the sub-family fulmarine petrels. They in turn are all members of the Procellariidae family, and they all share certain identifying features. First, they have passages that attach to the upper bill called naricorns. The bills of Procellariiformes are unique in that they are split into seven and nine horny plates. They produce an oil made up of wax esters and triglycerides that is stored in the proventriculus. This can be sprayed out of their mouths as a defense against predators and as a rich food source for the chicks. Finally, they have a gland that is situated above the nasal passage and helps desalinate their bodies. It excretes a high saline solution from their nose, there are two subspecies, Pagodroma nivea confusa breeds on the South Sandwich Islands and Géologie Archipelago.
Pagodroma nivea nivea breeds on the Antarctic Peninsula, South Georgia Islands and they differ in size, and the greater form has a stouter, larger beak. The issue of taxonomy and nomenclature for this species is complex, the snow petrel was first named Procellaria nivea by Georg Forster, during Captain James Cooks third voyage in 1777. As Forsters mention of the petrel was only an observation, the authority of the fell to Gmelin, in his Systema Naturae. Incidentally, a skin was procured by Cook, who noted this in his own account. It was J. R. Forster who painted a picture of it, and made measurements as well, but only the latter were published, posthumously, by M. H. K. Lichtenstein in 1844. While Gmelin was recognized as the authority for P. nivea until the twentieth century. In addition, Latham had described the type, which was in the Leverian Museum, charles Lucien Bonaparte, in his Conspectus Generum Avium, volume II, designated two subspecific binomial terms with no further descriptions to them, Pagodroma major and Pagodroma minor.
It was Bonaparte who created the generic name Pagodroma, in the Paris academic journal Compte Rendus, James Francis Stephens equated Pagodroma nivea in the genus Daption, Heinrich Reichenbach included it in the genus Thalassoica, and George Robert Gray included it in the genus Fulmarus
Bransfield Strait is a body of water about 100 kilometres wide extending for 300 miles in a general north-east - south-west direction between the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula. The strait was named in about 1825 by James Weddell, Royal Navy, for Edward Bransfield, Master, RN and it is called Mar de la Flota by Argentina. On 23 November 2007, the MS Explorer struck an iceberg and sank in the strait, all 154 passengers were rescued, the undersea trough through the strait is known as Bransfield Trough. The basin is about 400 km long and 2 km deep and it was formed by rifting behind the islands, which began about 4 million years ago. Ongoing rifting has caused recent earthquakes and volcanism, the Strait hosts a chain of submerged seamounts of volcanic origin, including the presently inactive Orca Seamount. Zélée Rocks This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document Bransfield Strait, bathymetric map of the Bransfield Straight, Antarctic Peninsula, showing zone of active rifting and volcanism
Antarctic was a Swedish steamship built in Drammen, Norway in 1871. She was used on several expeditions to the Arctic region. In 1895 the first confirmed landing on the mainland of Antarctica was made from this ship, Antarctic was a barque with three masts and equipped with a steam engine. Build in 1871 at Holmen in Drammen under the name Cap Nor, in the early 1890s Norwegian ship-owner Svend Foyn wanted to expand his business to the Antarctic Ocean thereby needing capable ships. Foyn purchased Cap Nor, made repairs and after completion renamed the ship Antarctic. From 1893 the ship was deployed to the Antarctic ocean for whale hunting, in 1897 the ship was purchased by Alfred Gabriel Nathorst for his planned expedition to Svalbard. Again extensive repairs were made prior to the expedition in 1898, in 1899 Nathorst sold the ship to Georg Carl Amdrup for his expedition to East Greenland. In 1900 Amdrup sold Antarctic to Otto Nordenskjöld who needed the ship for his Antarctic expedition, in 1893 Antarctic captained by Leonard Kristensen set off on a whaling expedition to Antarctica led by Henrik Johan Bull and financed by Foyn.
The ship was equipped with 11 harpoon guns, an arsenal of explosives,8 whaleboats and 31 men, the first summer was spent around the Kerguelen Islands with winter camp in Melbourne. On September 28,1894 the ship went off to sea heading for the Ross Sea, on January 24,1895 a boat was put ashore at Cape Adare at the northern extremity of Victoria Land with six men including Bull, Borchgrevink and Tunzelmann. The party performed the first confirmed landing on the continent of Antarctica, in 1898 Antarctic captained by Emil Nilsson carried Nathorst’s polar expedition to Bear Island and Kong Karls Land. Among the participating scientists were Axel Hamberg, Otto Kjellström, Gustaf Kolthoff, the same year Antarctic carried Amdrup’s expedition to East Greenland. In 1901 the ship, on loan from Nordenskjöld, carried the second season of the Swedish-Russian Arc-of-Meridian Expedition under the command of Gerard De Geer to Svalbard, on October 16,1901 Antarctic now captained by Carl Anton Larsen left Gothenburg harbor on Nordenskjold’s Antarctic expedition.
This would become the ships last voyage, after exploring parts of the South Shetland Islands the expedition continued through the Antarctic Sound towards the Antarctic Peninsula. On January 15,1902 Hope Bay was discovered, in February Nordenskjöld chose Snow Hill Island as winter camp for part of the expedition. After all preparations were completed Antarctic left for the Falkland Islands, after the winter the ship left the Falklands on November 5 heading back to the Antarctic Peninsula by way of Ushuaia for supplies. On December 29 Antarctic was trapped in ice near Hope Bay. Antarctic broke free and continued towards Paulet Island, on the way the ship once again was trapped in ice on January 3,1903
Hope Bay on Trinity Peninsula, is 5 kilometres long and 3 kilometres wide, indenting the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and opening on Antarctic Sound. Other birds nesting at the site include gentoo penguins, brown skuas, Antarctic terns, Wilsons storm-petrels, kelp gulls and they were eventually rescued by Argentine corvette Uruguay. The old British Base D was established here in 1945 and it partially burned in 1948, with the loss of two lives, and was closed in 1964. On December 8,1997 the British Antarctic Survey transferred the base to Uruguay, the present Argentine Esperanza Base was established in 1952. It is operated by the Instituto Antartico Argentino and has an average of 55 inhabitants in winter, the base installations have displaced part of a penguin rookery. The first known birth of any human being in Antarctica occurred here in 1978, the Argentines extended a diplomatic apology, saying that there had been a misunderstanding and that the Argentine military commander on the ground had exceeded his authority.
Sydney, Readers Digest,1985, p. 156-157, Antarctica and South American Geopolitics, Frozen Lebensraum. New York, Praeger Publishers,1988, p.73, Lonely Planet, Antarctica, a Lonely Planet Travel Survival Kit, Oakland, CA, Lonely Planet Publications,1996, 302-304. U. S. National Science Foundation, Geographic Names of the Antarctic, Fred G. Alberts, ed. Washington, British Antarctic Survey Hope Bay Station
Carl Anton Larsen
In December 1893 he became the first person to ski in Antarctica on the Larsen Ice Shelf which was subsequently named after him. Larsen is considered the founder of the Antarctic whaling industry and the settlement at Grytviken on the British-administered island of South Georgia, in 1910, after some years residence on South Georgia, he took British citizenship. The Norwegian whale factory ship C. A, Carl Anton Larsen was born in Østre Halsen, the son of a Norwegian Sea Captain Ole Christian Larsen and his wife Ellen Andrea Larsen. He would continue this for a number of years, until his curiosity for the sea was so strong he enrolled himself in school where he passed the exam for foreign-going mate at the age of 18. Having been to Britain a few times in the years he realized the importance of having a second language. Larsen was eager to get work as an officer on a ship and this was a huge setback, but he decided to swallow his pride and went to work at sea as a cook, learning the importance food played in keeping men happy.
A valuable lesson that would serve him well as a captain and he finally got a position aboard the barque Hoppet out of Larvik, as second mate, first mate and senior officer below the captain. He was now 21 and knew he had to study again so he came ashore and soon became a Shipmaster, having just become a shipmaster, what Larsen most wanted now was a ship of his own. This was more than he could afford so instead, he bought a share of an old barque called the Freden, sadly, it was not to be smooth sailing for Larsen as the barque Freden was all but wrecked after his first voyage. Undeterred he soon got her fixed, only to be faced with another setback, nobody had any freight he could carry. This would turn out to be a stroke of luck for the young Larsen as he decided to go on his first whaling experience. It was time for a newer ship and she was a ship Larsen was familiar with as he had been aboard it during the famous voyage that carried Fridtjof Nansen to Greenland during his east-west crossing in 1888.
Later he captained the ship Antarctic, as part of the Swedish Antarctic Expedition of 1901-04, in 1904 Larsen settled on the British island of South Georgia in the Antarctic, starting the new era of modern whaling. On Christmas Eve,1904, he produced the first whale oil of the season in the newly built whaling station of Grytviken, with Argentine and British capital he founded the first Antarctic whaling corporation, the Compañía Argentina de Pesca. Within a few years the Antarctic was producing about 70% of the worlds oil, as the manager of Compañía Argentina de Pesca, Larsen organized the construction of Grytviken ― a remarkable undertaking accomplished by a team of 60 Norwegians. Larsen had chosen the whaling stations site during his 1902 visit while in command of the ship Antarctic of the Swedish Antarctic Expedition led by Otto Nordenskjöld. Larsen was instrumental, with his brother, in introducing Reindeer to South Georgia in 1911, a Norwegian Lutheran Church was pre-built in Norway and erected in Grytviken by whalers led by Carl Anton Larsen.
This typical Norwegian church, one of the most southern churches on earth, was consecrated on Christmas Day in 1913, in 1922, a funeral service for Sir Ernest Shackleton was conducted in this church before his burial in the church cemetery
The Antarctic Peninsula is the northernmost part of the mainland of Antarctica, located at the base of the Southern Hemisphere. At the surface, it is the biggest, most prominent peninsula in Antarctica as it extends 1,300 km from a line between Cape Adams and a point on the south of Eklund Islands. They are joined together by an ice sheet. Tierra del Fuego, the southernmost tip of South America, lies only about 1,000 km away across the Drake Passage, the Antarctic Peninsula is currently dotted with numerous research stations and nations have made multiple claims of sovereignty. The peninsula is part of disputed and overlapping claims by Argentina, none of these claims has international recognition and, under the Antarctic Treaty System, the respective countries do not attempt to enforce their claims. Argentina has the most bases and personnel stationed on the peninsula, the first sighting of the Antarctic Peninsula by Europeans is disputed but apparently occurred in 1820. But the party did not recognize as the mainland what they thought was a covered by small hillocks.
Three days on 30 January 1820, Edward Bransfield and William Smith, with a British expedition, were the first to part of the Antarctic Peninsula. This area was to be called Trinity Peninsula and is the extreme northeast portion of the peninsula, the next confirmed sighting was in 1832 by John Biscoe, a British explorer, who named the northern part of the Antarctic Peninsula as Graham Land. The first European to land on the continent is disputed, a 19th-century seal hunter, John Davis, was almost certainly the first. But, sealers were secretive about their movements and their logbooks were deliberately unreliable, between 1901 and 1904, Otto Nordenskiöld led the Swedish Antarctic Expedition, one of the first expeditions to explore parts of Antarctica. They landed on the Antarctic Peninsula in February 1902, aboard the Antarctica and they were rescued by an Argentine ship. The British Graham Land Expedition between 1934 and 1937 carried out surveys and concluded that Graham Land was not an archipelago but was a peninsula.
This dispute was resolved by making Graham Land the part of the Antarctic Peninsula northward of a line between Cape Jeremy and Cape Agassiz, and Palmer Land the part southward of that line, Palmer Land is named for the United States seal hunter Nathaniel Palmer. In Chile, the peninsula is officially named OHiggins Land, after Bernardo OHiggins, other Spanish-speaking countries call it Península Antártica, among them Argentina. It officially refers to this as Tierra de San Martín, the first Antarctic research stations were established during World War II by a British military operation, Operation Tabarin. The 1950s saw an increase in the number of research bases as Britain, Chile. Meteorology and geology were the research subjects
Trinity Peninsula is the northernmost part of the Antarctic Peninsula. It extends northeastward for about 130 km to Cape Dubouzet from a line connecting Cape Kater on the north-west coast. Prime Head is the northernmost point of this peninsula, some 20 kilometers southeast of Prime Head is Hope Bay with the year-round Argentinian Esperanza Base. It was first sighted on 30 January 1820 by Edward Bransfield, Royal Navy, in the century following the peninsulas discovery, chartmakers used various names for this portion of it, each name having some historical merit. Scale 1,250000 topographic map No.5697, institut für Angewandte Geodäsie and British Antarctic Survey,1996. Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica – ID14958, Trinity Peninsula
The Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii, is a relatively large and abundant true seal with a circumpolar distribution surrounding Antarctica. Weddell seals have the most southerly distribution of any mammal, with a habitat that extends as far south as McMurdo Sound. It is the species in the genus Leptonychotes, and the only member of the Antarctic tribe of lobodontine seals to prefer in-shore habitats on shore-fast ice over free-floating pack ice. Genetic evidence suggests that Weddell seal population numbers may have increased during the Pleistocene, because of its abundance, relative accessibility, and ease of approach by humans, it is the best-studied of the Antarctic seals. An estimated 800,000 individuals remain today, Weddell seal pups leave their mothers at a few months of age. In those months, they are fed by their mothers warming and they leave when they are ready to hunt and are fat enough to survive in the harsh weather. The Weddell seal was discovered and named in the 1820s during expeditions led by James Weddell, however, it is found in relatively uniform densities around the entire Antarctic continent.
The Weddell seal shares a recent ancestor with the other Antarctic seals. These include the seal, the Ross seal, and the leopard seal. These species share teeth adaptations including lobes and cusps useful for straining smaller prey items out of the water, Weddell seals measure about 2. 5-3.5 m long and weigh 400–600 kg. Males weigh less than females, usually about 500 kg or less and female Weddell seals are generally about the same length, though females can be slightly larger. However, the male tends to have a thicker neck. A molecular genetic based technique has been established to confirm the sex of individuals in the laboratory, the Weddell seal face has been compared to that of a cat due to a short mouth line and similarities in the structure of the nose and whiskers. Their upturned mouths give them the appearance of smiling, the Weddell seal grows a thin fur coat around its whole body except for small areas around the flippers. The colour and pattern of the varies, often fading to a duller colour as the seal ages.
This coat moults around the beginning of summer, adults are generally brown, with lighter ventral pelage. They are mottled with darker and lighter patches, those on the belly being silvery white. Adult males usually bear scars, most of them around the genital region, young Weddell seals have gray pelage for the first 3 to 4 weeks, they turn a darker color