Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
South Melbourne FC
South Melbourne Football Club is an Australian semi-professional soccer club based in suburb of Albert Park, in Melbourne, Victoria. The club competes in the National Premier Leagues Victoria, with matches played at Lakeside Stadium. Founded in 1959 as South Melbourne Hellas, with a basis in the Greek community, South Melbourne were once considered the most successful soccer club in Australia; the club has won four national championships, a string of Victorian State League titles, represented Oceania in the 2000 FIFA Club World Championship. Along with the Marconi Stallions, they were one of two clubs to compete in every season of the National Soccer League; the club was chosen by the IFFHS as the Oceania team of the 20th century. South Melbourne was formed in 1959 with the amalgamation of three struggling Melbourne soccer clubs—South Melbourne United, the oldest of the three clubs with a history dating back to the early 1900s—the Greek-backed Yarra Park Aias, Hellenic. Theo Marmaras, initiator of the merger proposal and president of Hellenic, became the first president of the new club.
In recognition of the large Greek Australian support base of Hellenic and Yarra Park, which were the best-supported of the three clubs, the new club was named South Melbourne Hellas, the name by which it was to be known for the majority of its 50 years. The first emblem reflected the colour scheme of the Greek national flag; the first uniform consisted of jersey of white with a red'V' around the collar, the was that of South Melbourne United, as well as blue shorts and blue and white hooped socks. On they would adopt predominantly blue and white strips, with various designs throughout the seasons, with the most common being a predominantly royal blue strip. South Melbourne won the Victorian First Division championship of 1960, the club's inaugural year of competition; the club was promoted to the Victorian State League First Division the following year, where it finished fifth in its first year. With a number of astute signings—Scottish journeyman Tommy Anderson, Ernie Ackerley, Leo Damianakos, Jim Pyrgolios and Andreas Roussis of Panathinaikos and Apollon Athens—the club won the division championship in 1962, 1964, 1965.
In 1965, South Melbourne secured the services of 35-year-old former AEK Athens F. C. star Kostas Nestoridis as player-coach. The result was a significant increase in crowd attendances and a fourth league title in 1966. Eager to repeat its success, the club recruited a number of Greek and local footballers, but they failed to make any impact. By 1969, the import experiment was considered a failure and most of the Greek players returned to their homeland. In 1970, the club focused its attention on recruiting local soccer players, it soon signed two players that would become South Melbourne's greatest players, Steve Walker and striker Jim Armstrong. South Melbourne missed out on the title by a point in the 1971 season, edged out by Footscray JUST, but with Armstrong scoring goals aplenty, South Melbourne went on to win the championship in 1972; the season saw coach Bill Curran consolidate the first team's strength by signing midfielder Peter Bourne and promoting skilled youngsters Giovanni Batticiotto, Fethon Ileris and Bill Hasapis.
The club continued its successful run with the 1974 title, second place in 1975, with star recruits Jimmy Mackay, Peter Ollerton and Duncan Cummings, capped off its final year in the Victorian State League by winning the 1976 championship. South Melbourne joined Mooroolbark, Heidelberg United, Footscray JUST as Melbourne's participants in the newly formed National Soccer League in 1977. A mass exodus of its best players, saw the team slump to 11th place in its inaugural year, but a recruiting drive by coach Dave Maclaren gave the club a respectable third in 1978, it wasn't to last. South Melbourne finished at the bottom of the league table in 1979; the recruitment of Alan Davidson, George Campbell, Steve Blair, Branko Buljevic, Alun Evans, Charlie Egan, helped South Melbourne climb the NSL ladder in the early part of the decade, with South becoming runners up in the NSL in 1981, their best NSL placing at the time. They won the Ampol Cup in 1982; some solid player signings such as gave the club some respectability, but a combination of committee problems and a string of coaches, never allowed the team to settle and gain consistency.
South Melbourne finished first on the league ladder in 1984, but in a newly restructured NSL competition, it had to win the finals series to win the title. The club powered past local rivals Heidelberg United in the Southern Division play-offs, edged out Sydney Olympic in the Grand Final to win the 1984 national championship. After the departure of George Campbell to rivals Preston Makedonia in 1983/84, Branko Buljevic to Footscray Just in 1985 and others, South Melbourne could not repeat the success of the previous year. Despite finishing in first place, it was knocked out of the finals series by local rivals Brunswick Juventus and Preston. A major overhaul by coach Brian Garvey saw a number of new signings being made, including youngsters Paul Trimboli, David Healy, Kimon Taliadoros and Harry Micheil; the young team put in some memorable performances as the decade came to a close, finishing in the top half of the league table, but failed to win another championship. The club appointed Ferenc Puskás as coach for the 1989/90 season, helping South win the NSL Cup tournament for that season, as well backing up their 1988 Dockerty Cup win with victory in the 1989 tournament.
On 28 November 1981, South Melbourne Hellas and Melb
Adelaide Raiders SC
Adelaide Croatia Raiders is a soccer club in Adelaide, South Australia, that plays in the National Premier Leagues South Australia. Its home ground is the Croatian Sports Centre in a northern suburb of Adelaide, it is a Croatian Australian-backed club and is known by the name "Adelaide Croatia". The Adelaide Croatia Soccer Club was founded in 1952 by a group of Croatian migrants who named the club after their homeland; the group included Fahrudin Cerić, the President, Cvjetko Milanović and Drago Pišpek. The club played in the metropolitan division for five years, its first game was against a team from the Philips factory at Hendon. Its first home ground was in the South Parklands on Greenhill Rd. In 1954 Branko Filipi, a significant leader in the club's early history, became the club president and remained so for the next 14 years. Along with his enthusiastic committee, Filipi began securing the services of a number of promising recruits. In 1958 Adelaide Croatia entered into the fourth division and narrowly missed being promoted into the third division.
That same year, the late Charles Perkins, more famous as an Aboriginal activist, joined the team. Perkins played as a captain/coach for two seasons. In his autobiography he reflected with fondness on his friendships with Adelaide Croats and other immigrants he met through the club. In 1959 the club convincingly won the second division championship and secured a place in the first division for the first time. Once in the first division, Adelaide Croatia's fixtures and results were listed in the international football pools. In 1960 the club moved to its new headquarters at Hanson Reserve, it remained there until 2000. The club's first major milestone was in 1961 when Croatia defeated Cumberland 4-nil to win the Ampol Cup; the Advertiser, in its report on the match, wrote that no team in the state could have beaten Croatia. The 1960s proved to be a successful decade for the club in the South Australian State League, finishing in third place in 1961, 1962 and 1963, while finishing Runner-Up in 1965 and 1969.
Despite these strong results it wasn't until 1980 that Croatia won the coveted first place in the South Australian State League. Since Croatia has won the league on another four occasions: in 1984, 1988, 1997 and 2002. In 1962 the club competed in the inaugural Australian Cup, the first nationwide club tournament held in Australia. Croatia Adelaide were one of 16 participants in the knock-out competition and were the first Croatian backed club to compete; the side lost its first round match, losing to Brunswick Juventus 3–1 at Melbourne's Olympic Park to see the club knocked out. The club would again compete in the Australian Cup twice more in 1963 and 1965; the year 1977 saw the formation of the National Soccer League. Following the failure of Melbourne Croatia and Sydney Croatia in their applications for the league, Adelaide Croatia led a move backed by the Croatian Soccer Association of Australia which saw a proposal put forward for a Croatian'super club' to enter the NSL; the submission failed.
A major highlight in the club's history came in 1985. Adelaide Croatia had a remarkable run defeating both of Adelaide's NSL sides, Adelaide City and West Adelaide, 1–0 in the opening two rounds; the club lost in the quarter-finals to Sunshine George Cross. It was a valiant display seeing Croatia go down 1–0 in a fought match. Midway through the 2010 season John Kosmina who managed Adelaide United and Sydney FC in the A-League was announced as the new coach for the Raiders. In 2013, the Raiders made the finals series of the FFSA Premier League following a fifth placed league finish; the finals run came to a quick end after going down to Campbelltown City on penalties at the first hurdle. The Raiders narrowly avoided relegation in the 2015 season, finishing above relegated sides Port Adelaide Lion and Modbury Jets on goal difference alone, with all three sides finishing the season with 27 points. In the post-season, former international striker Joel Porter was announced as the new head coach. Adelaide Raiders parted ways with senior head coach Porter nine rounds into the NPLSA season, with the club languishing in bottom place.
Porter was replaced by former Raiders player Robert Matosevic. In August 2016, Adelaide Raiders finished bottom of the league in the 2016 FFSA season and were relegated to the 2017 FFSA season. In 2018 Adelaide Croatia Raiders earned promotion back in to the NPL by reaching the 2nd division play off series final against the minor premiers Adelaide Blue Eagles. Adelaide Croatia Raiders earned their spot in the grand final after a resounding 5-0 on aggregate victory over Adelaide Blue Eagles. Goals to Scott Tunbridge, Yasmin Sudic and Michael Paleka in a 3-1 over Blue Eagles, gifted Adelaide Croatia Raiders the championship. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. South Australian Champions: 1980, 1984, 1988, 1997, 2002 South Australian Runner-Up: 1965, 1969, 1983, 1986, 1990, 1992, 1995, 2005, 2007 South Australian Minor-Premiers: 1997 South Australian Regular Season Runner-Up: 1992, 1995, 2005 Federation Cup Winners: 1960, 1962, 1974, 1977, 1982, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 2003 Federation Cup Runner-Up: 1959, 1998, 2005 Errea Cup: 2007 Coca-Cola Cup Winners: 1984 Ampol Cup Winners: 1961, 1989, 1990 South Australian Division One Champions: 1959, 1972, 1975, 2018 Australian Croatian Soccer Tournament: 1984, 1995, 1997, 2002, 2009 Sergio Melta Medal – South Aust
Floreat Athena FC
Floreat Athena Football Club is an association football club based in Perth, Western Australia. The club competes in the National Premier Leagues Western Australia; the club's founders were of Greek heritage. Floreat Athena has been crowned the Western Australian State Champions four times, League Premiers seven times, State Cup Winners six times, Night Series Champions six times. In 1997, the club won all three trophies to claim its first treble; the club was formed in 1951 as the Florina Athena Club by Greek-Australians as place for the local Greek community to unite around football. The club entered the third division of WA's state league football in 1953. In 1960 the club withdrew from the Western Australian Soccer Football Association to form WA's first official semi-professional league under the Western Australia Soccer Federation, it was in 1960 that Athena played their first season in the state league's top tier, ending the season sixth and maintained its status in the top flight. The 1960s were turbulent times for Athena on the pitch.
The club finished third in 1961 and 1963, but declined to just avoid relegation in subsequent years before being relegated in 1966 after finishing 9th in the State Premier League. Athena finished second in the 1967 Second Division season, gaining promotion to the State League for the 1968 season. In 1968 they were relegated for the second time in three years. Athena remained in the First Division for five successive seasons. In 1973 Athena clinched the Second Division title and entered the top flight in 1974, finishing sixth. In the 1975 and 1976 seasons, Athena finished third; the club has finished no higher than third on four separate occasions since 1960. In 1977, internal disputes at the committee level resulted in the sacking of coach Bill Dumbbell despite Athena claiming its first state league title. Athena maintained its status in the top flight until 1980 when the club was relegated for finishing tenth under coach Ulysses Kokkinos. After being relegated in 1980, the club secured its second First Division title in 1981 and returned to the top flight of Western Australia football.
Since 1982, Floreat Athena has not been relegated, remaining in the State Premier League for three decades. From 1984 until 1991 Floreat Athena entered into a "golden era" of Western Australian Premier League football. After winning the Top Four Cup in 1984 Athena proceeded to win the Night Series trophy in 1985. From 1986, Athena were placed no lower than third for six straight seasons. Having finished third in 1986 and 1987, Athena claimed only its second State Premier League title in 1988 under coach Ken Worden. Besides its great league achievements Athena won the State D'orsogna Cup three years in a row during these halcyon years. Following the 1988 triumph, the Soccer Federation strangely decided that from the 1989 season onwards, the championship would be decided by a top four finals playoff, discarding the'first past the post' format after nearly a century of Association Football; this was to imitate the Australian Rules code. In the subsequent three years, 1989, 1990 and 1991, under coach Worden and Alan Vest, Athena continually topped the State Premier League.
The phenomenal 1990 team finished the season first with 17 wins, 1 draw and no losses with a goal difference of +55. A feat only three other teams have matched in going unbeaten, but never surpassed. However, Athena having achieved the top positions in all three seasons, lost in the top four play-off finals against rivals Perth SC and Stirling Macedonia; the Soccer Federation intelligently decided to revert to the more accepted and traditional'first past the post' league championship format continually used around the world from 1992 onwards. If this rule had not changed, Floreat Athena would have seven league championships rather than the recorded four. In 1997, under coach Jim Pyraglios, the club won a record treble of titles winning the Night Series, League Championship and Association Cup. In 1999, they finished runners up to Inglewood in the Association Cup Final. In 2000, Athena won their fourth Night Series trophy. In 2001, Athena finished runners up in both the Association Cup Final and the Night Series Final to arch rival Perth Italia.
In 2002, Athena again finished runners up to Perth Italia, this time in the State Premier League Championship. In the newly formed Football West, Floreat Athena was competing for their fourth State Premier League title. In 2004, a young squad was assembled under former Floreat Athena players Michael Roki and Taki Nicolaidis. Both players had been part of that 1990 side. After finishing the 2004 season in ninth position, Athena finished fifth in 2005 and fourth in 2006, climbing the ladder. Athena signed former Perth Glory defender Ante Kovacevic, to prove instrumental in the 2007 season. Jerry Karpeh scored Josip Magdic played the wing. Captain Bajo Savic played his last game for Athena against Cockburn in a match that helped seal the title for Athena. Savic suffered a serious knee injury and subsequently never played again. In the 2007 Football West Premier League season, Athena clinched the title undefeated with a 15-point gap over second place. There were several notable events during the season: James Isaia's 94th minute long range goal to draw the match against Fremantle Spirit, the 4–1 victory over rivals Perth SC at Dorrien Gardens, the 4–0 win over the Stirling Lions at Litis Stadium, the bicycle kick goal by Garin Collins on debut, the last round against Armadale at Alfred Skeet Oval, where Athena found itself down 2–0 in the first 10 minutes, but rallied to win the match 5–3.
Being the fourth side in Western Australian State Premier League history to go through an e
Perth Glory FC
Perth Glory Football Club is an Australian professional soccer club based in Perth, Western Australia. It competes in the country's premier competition, the A-League, under licence from Football Federation Australia. Founded in 1995, Perth Glory is one of three A-League clubs to survive from the now defunct National Soccer League. Glory entered the A-League competition for the inaugural 2005–06 season, eight years after the club's formation in 1995. Perth won their first silverware in the A-League era; the club plays at Perth Oval known as HBF Park for sponsorship purposes, with a seated capacity of 20,500. A youth team competes in the Y-League, a women's team competes in the W-League. Both the youth and women's team play at various locations across Perth, most played at Dorrien Gardens. Perth first showed interest in joining the National Soccer League prior to its inaugural year in 1977. However, a series of logistical problems and financial concerns meant that the league was not keen to include a Western Australian side.
While the state representative side continued to perform well in national and international cup competitions, WA continued to be unrepresented at a senior club level until 1994. In 1994, a group of businessmen led by Joe Claudio formed the Perth Kangaroos IFC; the club competed in the 1994 Singapore Premier League along with the Darwin Cubs. At the time, there were visions of establishing an Asia-Pacific Super League which could become a sporting and financial empire in the east, it turned out to be something of a farce. The Kangaroos finished the league season undefeated and won the Singapore league title. However, with dwindling support and resources, the experiment proved to be a financial disaster and Perth Kangaroos IFC soon folded. In 1995, another consortium led by Nick Tana made a bid for entry into the National Soccer League. Perth Glory was subsequently licensed to join the 1996–97 NSL season and on 1 December 1995 the club was launched. From a unheralded start, the club would develop beyond all expectations and help commercially re-establish Association football in a state where Australian rules football dominates the media and Rugby league was commercially about to fail.
Former Adelaide City player and Perth Kangaroos coach Gary Marocchi was appointed coach for the first two seasons and won many fans with his bold, attacking style. Believed to be nothing more than a token participant, Perth surprised many by only just missing the cut for the finals; the exciting style of "you score three, we score four" drew fans – including many British expatriates. Players like NSL-title-winning sweeper Vinko Buljubašić, Perth-based striker Bobby Despotovski and young local star Vas Kalogeracos were brought into the team and achieved cult status. New Zealand international Gavin Wilkinson was signed while local midfielder Gareth Naven was appointed captain. In their first match in the NSL, Perth Glory lost to Sydney Olympic 4–1, with veteran Scot Alan MacKenzie scoring the first goal for Glory and Doug Ithier winning the first Man-of-the-Match award. Large crowds and good results soon followed with an exciting win over defending champions the Melbourne Knights thrilling a huge crowd.
Glory needed only a point in their final match of the season but were defeated by the Knights and fell just short of making the finals. Glory midfielder Paul Strudwick was sent off during the match in controversial circumstances while trouble in the crowd marred the match. In the 1997–98 season, despite again narrowly missing the top six and signing more high-profile players like Ernie Tapai, Danny Hay and Nigerians Samson Siasia and Peter Anosike it was a disappointing season for the Glory. Fan support was further consolidated in the era of Bernd Stange; the former East German national coach became a media star after replacing Gary Marocchi, sacked and took the team into the competition playoffs. The success of the team created record attendances along with record exposure in the local media. During Stange's reign, Glory competed in its first-ever NSL Grand Final in 1999–2000 after having won the League championship. In his first season, Stange had taken Glory to their first finals series the previous season and had fallen in the preliminary final against Sydney United.
With new signings John Markovski and Con Boutsianis fitting straight into the side, local player Jamie Harnwell started to develop into a key defender and made the step to replace the injured Vinko Buljubašić. A horror form slump at the height of summer denied the Glory a top two place but massive crowds still attended their two home finals at the WACA Ground against Adelaide City and Marconi Stallions; the following year, Glory recruited young players Ivan Ergić, Jason Petković and Olyroo Kasey Wehrmann. The 1999/2000 grand final is remembered. Earlier in the Championship Playoff series, Perth had narrowly beaten the Wollongong Wolves in a two-legged Major Semi Final – needing a dramatic 80th-minute penalty and goal in extra time to advance. In the grand final, Perth again faced the Wolves and led 3–0 at half time against a miserable Wolves outfit. Yet, the Wolves rallied superbly and Perth experienced a series of defensive blunders to be pegged back to 3–3 at full-time. Perth subsequently lost on penalties, but this defining moment galvanised the team and would be a motivating force for years to come.
James Afkos, a young defender and son of Glory co-owner Paul Afkos saw his penalty saved, which gav
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
St Albans Saints SC
St Albans Saints Soccer Club is an Australian semi-professional soccer club based in St Albans, Victoria. Established by local Croatian Australians, the club is a regular participant in the Australian-Croatian Soccer Tournament; the club is well known for having produced many great players over the years, including many that have gone on to play for its sister club the Melbourne Knights. Dinamo won promotion to the National Premier League Victoria for the 2017 season but, after finishing second last, was relegated to the NPL 2; the club was formed by Croatian migrants as Dinamo in 1975. The club based its identity on the Croatian club GNK Dinamo Zagreb. In 1982, Dinamo took over the German backed St Albans Soccer Club, near bankruptcy; the club took residence at Churchill Reserve in St Albans. The club still remains there to this day; the club would go on to build a social club there. It has become an important meeting place for the local Croatian community. St Albans Dinamo won its first title in 1983, winning the Victorian State League Division 2 with Melbourne Knights legends Billy Vojtek and Branko Culina leading the way.
Billy Vojtek was the league's top goal scorer with 16 goals. The following year the club joined the Victorian Premier League, skipping Division 1, after several VPL clubs joined the expanded National Soccer League; the club had a poor first year in 1984. By the late 1980s the club had become one of the leading sides in the competition. From 1986 to 1989 the club finished in the top 5 each season. 1988 was the season the club came closest to winning the championship, they finished 4th only 3 points behind first place. In this time the club produced many great players like Ivan Duzel, Ivan Kelic, Velimir Kupersak and Oliver Pondeljak, all of whom went on to great success in the National Soccer League. Over the next decade the club would struggle, with fluctuating results; the only joy came in 1993 with the club making the finals. But the club was eliminated at the first phase, but this period was marked by more young talent being produced by the club, in particular Ante Kovacevic and Tom Pondeljak.
Both players went to win the National Soccer League championship with the Melbourne Knights. In 1998 the club had its most successful season; the club finished first. Striker Harry Karl had a great season scoring 23 goals; the club made the Grand Final against the Bulleen Inter Kings. In a thrilling match Bulleen were up 2–0 by the 54th minute, but 10 minutes St Albans had leveled in a remarkable comeback. The joy was short lived, with seven minutes remaining Bulleen scored. After this stand out season, the club would go back to being a mid-table side. In 2005, the club was relegated from the Victorian Premier League, having played 23 consecutive seasons in the state's top tier. Needing only a draw to survive the drop, the club was relegated in the final round after losing to Heidelberg United. Five seasons in the State League 1 would follow, but in 2010, under the guidance of head coach Kruni Ražov, Dinamo would top the table and earn promotion back to the Victorian Premier League. Despite high profiles signings such as Tomislav Milardovic and Daniel Višević, the club won just three of its 24 games in the VPL and was subsequently relegated back to State League 1.
St Albans had a tough time in State 1, finishing 9th in the 12 team league in 2012 and 8th in 2013. In 2014, Football Federation Victoria introduced the National Premier Leagues Victoria and Dinamo had their bid for a place in the new competition accepted; the side was placed in the NPL1 division, the second tier of football in Victoria, meaning Dinamo retained the place they had in the Victorian football pyramid previously. In the first season of the NPL, St Albans finished in 6th place, pushing for promotion until the latter part of the season; the 2014 season will be remembered by the Saints' impressive 2014 FFA Cup run. St Albans beat FC Clifton Hill, Avondale FC, Eastern Lions SC and Northcote City FC to qualify for the FFA Cup Round of 32. Dinamo drew Parramatta FC at the Melita Stadium in Australia. Barry Devlin scored the lone goal as Dinamo progressed to the Round of 16. Dinamo drew A-League side Perth Glory; the match was played at sister-club Melbourne Knights' Knights Stadium. The game was played in front of 3,500 supporters, with the entire Victorian Croatian community rallying around the side for this huge encounter.
Dinamo went down by four goals to one, as their professional opponents' quality shone through in the second half. St Albans sacked head coach Toby Paterson and his son Brodie in September 2014, after an altercation broke out in their Round 23 NPL clash against Richmond SC. Captain Ryan McGuffie took on a caretaker player-coach role, leading the side in the remainder of the 2014 season. At the club's AGM towards the end of 2014, Richmond FC star ruckman Ivan Marić was appointed as president of the club. In 2015, the Club finished in 6th place once more, a promising start once again unravelled by a poor second half of the season. Head coach Joe Kovacevic, appointed for the 2015 season, was dismissed with five rounds to go after poor results. Franz Weimper took over for the remainder of the season in a caretaker role. Prior to the beginning of the 2016 pre-season, St Albans announced that Željko Kuzman had been appointed as head manager of the senior side with Steve Bebić his assistant. Kuzman's previous role was assistant manager at Richmond SC.
After losing Stuart Webster and Ross Harvey to Geelong SC, St Albans brought in Richmond wing