A vestibule known as an arctic entry, is an anteroom or small foyer leading into a larger space, such as a lobby, entrance hall, etc. for the purpose of waiting, withholding the larger space view, reducing heat loss, providing space for outwear, etc. The term applies to structures in both historical architecture since ancient times. In modern architecture, vestibule refers to a small room next to the outer door and connecting it with the interior of the building. In ancient Roman architecture, vestibule referred to a enclosed area between the interior of the house and the street. In contemporary usage, a vestibule constitutes an area surrounding the exterior door, it acts as an antechamber between the interior structure. It connects the doorway to a lobby or hallway, it is the space one occupies once passing the door, but not yet in the main interior of the building Although vestibules are common in private residences, as a modified mud room, they are prevalent in more opulent buildings, such as government ones, designed to elicit a sense of grandeur by contrasting the vestibule's small space with the following greater one, by adding the aspect of anticipation.
The residence of the White House in the United States is such an example, but somewhat confusing. At the north portico, it contains a tiny vestibule now between the doors flushed with the outer and inner faces of the exterior wall of, in the past inside, the Entrance Hall separated from the not much bigger Cross Hall by just 2 double columns; the difference in sizes between a vestibule and the following space is better illustrated by the—so called—entrance to the main gallery in the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum by Frank Lloyd Wright. Many government buildings mimic the classical architecture from. A purely utilitarian use of vestibules in modern buildings is to create an "air lock" entry; such vestibules consist of a set of inner doors and a set of outer doors, the intent being to reduce air infiltration to the building by having only one set of doors open at any given time. An ATM vestibule is an enclosed area with automated teller machines, accessible from the outside of a building, but features no further entrance beyond the vestibule.
There may be a secure entrance to the vestibule. Between the priorities financial institutions had for 2020, in Europe and USA implementing new technology was in the top 3. Since the customers were most affected by criminal activity in the last years, with a lot of the incidents happening at or around ATMs and ATM Vestibules, law enforcement agencies are working alongside the banks to develop new ways to improve the security. Now, most of these designated areas are equipped with closed-circuit monitoring system and fire alarms and restriction access systems; the latter is where most of the improvements are being made nowadays, as new technology is developed year by year. If until recent days’ access in the ATM Vestibules was made with the help of the magnetic band of the credit card, now we have access control devices such as PASSCHIP which are using a technology dedicated to CHIP based cards; this is bringing new hurdles on criminal’s path and an increased sense of security for the self-banking process, which should make customers feel more secure whilst carrying out their transactions.
The vestibule on a railroad passenger car is an enclosed area at the end of the carbody separated from the main part of the interior by a door, power-operated on most modern equipment. Entrance to and exit from the car is through the side doors, which lead into the vestibule; when passenger cars are coupled, their vestibules are joined by mating faceplate and diaphragm assemblies to create a weather-tight seal for the safety and comfort of passengers who are stepping from car to car. In British usage the term refers to the part of the carriage; the U. S. Department of Energy Building Energy Codes Program released a publication on June 19th, 2018 which detailed the requirements of a vestibule to be used in commercial buildings; the publication states it requires vestibules to reduce the amount of air that infiltrates a space in order to aid in energy conservation, as well as increasing the comfortability near entrance doors. By creating an air lock entry, vestibules reduce infiltration gains caused by wind.
Designers of commercial buildings must install a vestibule between the main entry doors leading to spaces that are greater than or equal to 3,000 square feet. One other requirement of the design is that it is not necessary for both sets of door to be open in order to pass through the vestibule, they should have devices that allow for self-closing. Vestibules were common in ancient Greek temples. Due to the construction techniques available at the time, it was not possible to build large spans. Many entrance ways had two rows of columns that supported the roof and created a distinct space around the entrance. In ancient Greek houses, the prothyrum was the space just outside the door of a house, which had an altar to Apollo or a statue, or a laurel tree. In elaborate houses or palaces, the vestibule could be divided into three parts, the prothyron, the thyroreion, the proaulion; the vestibule in ancient Greek homes served as a barrier to the outside world, added security to discourage unwanted entrance into the home and unwanted glances into the home.
Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences
Cyclopædia: or, An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences was an encyclopedia published by Ephraim Chambers in London in 1728, reprinted in numerous editions in the eighteenth century. The Cyclopaedia was one of the first general encyclopedias to be produced in English; the 1728 subtitle gives a summary of the aims of the author: Cyclopædia, or, an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences: Containing the Definitions of the Terms, Accounts of the Things Signify'd Thereby, in the Several Arts, both Liberal and Mechanical, the Several Sciences and Divine: the Figures, Properties, Productions and Uses, of Things Natural and Artificial. The first edition included numerous cross-references meant to connect articles scattered by the use of alphabetical order, a dedication to the King, George II, a philosophical preface at the beginning of Volume 1. Among other things, the preface gives an analysis of forty-seven divisions of knowledge, with classed lists of the articles belonging to each, intended to serve as a table of contents and as a directory indicating the order in which the articles should be read.
A second edition appeared in 1738 with 2,466 pages. This edition was retouched and amended in a thousand places, with a few added articles and some enlarged articles. Chambers was prevented from doing more because the booksellers were alarmed by a bill in Parliament containing a clause to oblige the publishers of all improved editions of books to print their improvements separately; the bill, after passing the House of Commons, was unexpectedly thrown out by the House of Lords. Five other editions were published in London from 1739 to 1751–1752. An edition was published in Dublin in 1742. An Italian translation appearing in Venice, 1748–1749, 4to, 9 vols. was the first complete Italian encyclopaedia. When Chambers was in France in 1739, he rejected favorable proposals to publish an edition there dedicated to Louis XV. Chambers' work was done, popular. However, it had omissions, as he was well aware. George Lewis Scott was employed by the booksellers to select articles for the press and to supply others, but he left before the job was finished.
The job was given to Dr. John Hill; the Supplement was published in London in 1753 in two folio volumes with 12 plates. Hill was a botanist, the botanical part, weak in the Cyclopaedia, was the best. Abraham Rees, a nonconformist minister, published a revised and enlarged edition in 1778–1788, with the supplement and improvements incorporated, it was published as a folio of 5 vols. 5010 pages, 159 plates. It was published in 418 numbers at 6d. Each. Rees claimed to have added more than 4,400 new articles. At the end, he gave an index of articles, classed under 100.heads, numbering about 57,000 and filling 80 pages. The heads, with 39 cross references, were arranged alphabetically. Among the precursors of Chambers's Cyclopaedia was John Harris's Lexicon Technicum, of 1704. By its title and content, it was "An Universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences: Explaining not only the Terms of Art, but the Arts Themselves." While Harris's work is classified as a technical dictionary, it took material from Newton and Halley, among others.
Chambers's Cyclopaedia in turn became the inspiration for the landmark Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert, which owed its inception to a proposed French translation of Chambers' work begun in 1744 by John Mills, assisted by Gottfried Sellius Bocast, Alexander. Chambers on Definition. McLean: Berkeley Bridge Press, 2016.. Bradshaw, Lael Ely. "Ephraim Chambers’ Cyclopedia." Notable Encyclopedias of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: Nine Predecessors of the Encyclopédie. Ed. Frank Kafker. Oxford: The Voltaire Foundation, 1981. 123–137.. Collison, Robert. Encyclopædias: Their History Throughout the Ages. New York: Hafner, 1966. OCLC 368968 Kafker, Frank. A. Notable Encyclopedias of the Late Eighteenth Century: Eleven Successors of the Encyclopédie. Oxford: Voltaire Foundation at the Taylor Institution, 1994. Kolb, Gwin J. and James H. Sledd. “Johnson’s ‘Dictionary’ and Lexicographical Tradition.” Modern Philology 50.3: 171–194. Mack, Ruth. “The Historicity of Johnson’s Lexicographer.”
Representations 76: 61–87. Shorr, Phillip. Science and Superstition in the Eighteenth Century: A Study of the Treatment of Science in Two Encyclopedias of 1725–1750. New York: Columbia, 1932. OCLC 3633346 Walsh, S. Patraig. "Cyclopaedia." Anglo-American General Encyclopedias: A Historical Bibliography, 1703–1967. New York: R. R. Bowker, 1968. 38–39. OCLC 577541 Yeo, Richard. "The Best Book in the Universe": Ephraim Chambers’ Cyclopedia. In Encyclopædic Visions: Scientific Dictionaries and Enlightenment Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001. 120–169. Yeo, Richard R. "A Solution to the Multitude of Books: Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopaedia as "the Best Book in the Universe."" Journal of the History of Ideas, v. 64, 2003. Pp. 61–72. Chambers' Cyclopaedia, 1728, 2 volumes
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
An amusement park is a park that features various attractions, such as rides and games, as well as other events for entertainment purposes. A theme park is a type of amusement park that bases its structures and attractions around a central theme featuring multiple areas with different themes. Unlike temporary and mobile funfairs and carnivals, amusement parks are stationary and built for long-lasting operation, they are more elaborate than city parks and playgrounds providing attractions that cater to a variety of age groups. While amusement parks contain themed areas, theme parks place a heavier focus with more intricately-designed themes that revolve around a particular subject or group of subjects. Amusement parks evolved from European fairs, pleasure gardens and large picnic areas, which were created for people's recreation. World's fairs and other types of international expositions influenced the emergence of the amusement park industry. Lake Compounce opened in 1846 and is considered the oldest continuously-operating amusement park in North America.
The first theme parks emerged in the mid-twentieth century with the opening of Santa Claus Land in 1946, Santa's Workshop in 1949, Disneyland in 1955. The amusement park evolved from three earlier traditions: traveling or periodic fairs, pleasure gardens and exhibitions such as world fairs; the oldest influence was the periodic fair of the Middle Ages - one of the earliest was the Bartholomew Fair in England from 1133. By the 18th and 19th centuries, they had evolved into places of entertainment for the masses, where the public could view freak shows, acrobatics and juggling, take part in competitions and walk through menageries. A wave of innovation in the 1860s and 1870s created mechanical rides, such as the steam-powered carousel, its derivatives, notably from Frederick Savage of King's Lynn, Norfolk whose fairground machinery was exported all over the world; this inaugurated the era of the modern funfair ride, as the working classes were able to spend their surplus wages on entertainment.
The second influence was the pleasure garden. An example of this is the world's oldest amusement park, opened in mainland Europe in 1583, it is located north of Copenhagen in Denmark. Another early garden was the Vauxhall Gardens, founded in 1661 in London. By the late 18th century, the site had an admission fee for its many attractions, it drew enormous crowds, with its paths noted for romantic assignations. Although the gardens were designed for the elites, they soon became places of great social diversity. Public firework displays were put on at Marylebone Gardens, Cremorne Gardens offered music and animal acrobatics displays. Prater in Vienna, began as a royal hunting ground, opened in 1766 for public enjoyment. There followed coffee-houses and cafés, which led to the beginnings of the Wurstelprater as an amusement park; the concept of a fixed park for amusement was further developed with the beginning of the world's fairs. The first World fair began in 1851 with the construction of the landmark Crystal Palace in London, England.
The purpose of the exposition was to celebrate the industrial achievement of the nations of the world and it was designed to educate and entertain the visitors. American cities and business saw the world's fair as a way of demonstrating economic and industrial success; the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago, Illinois was an early precursor to the modern amusement park. The fair was an enclosed site, that merged entertainment and education to entertain the masses, it set out to bedazzle the visitors, did so with a blaze of lights from the "White City." To make sure that the fair was a financial success, the planners included a dedicated amusement concessions area called the Midway Plaisance. Rides from this fair captured the imagination of the visitors and of amusement parks around the world, such as the first steel Ferris wheel, found in many other amusement areas, such as the Prater by 1896; the experience of the enclosed ideal city with wonder, rides and progress, was based on the creation of an illusory place.
The "midway" introduced at the Columbian Exposition would become a standard part of most amusement parks, fairs and circuses. The midway contained not only the rides, but other concessions and entertainments such as shooting galleries, penny arcades, games of chance and shows. Many modern amusement parks evolved from earlier pleasure resorts that had become popular with the public for day-trips or weekend holidays, for example, seaside areas such as Blackpool, United Kingdom and Coney Island, United States. In the United States, some amusement parks grew from picnic groves established along rivers and lakes that provided bathing and water sports, such as Lake Compounce in Connecticut, first established as a picturesque picnic park in 1846, Riverside Park in Massachusetts, founded in the 1870s along the Connecticut River; the trick was getting the public to the resort location. For Coney Island in Brooklyn, New York, on the Atlantic Ocean, a horse-drawn streetcar line brought pleasure seekers to the beach beginning in 1829.
In 1875, a million passengers rode the Coney Island Railroad, in 1876 two million visited Coney Island. Hotels and amusements were built to accommodate both the upper classes and the working class at the beach; the first carousel was installed in the 1870s, the first roller coaster, the "Switchback Railway", in 1884. In England, Blackpo
In a building, a room is any space enclosed within four walls to which entry is possible only by a door that connects it either to a passageway, to another room, or to the outdoors, large enough for several persons to move about, whose size, fixtures and sometimes placement within the building support the activity to be conducted in it. The use of rooms dates at least to early Minoan cultures about 2200 BC, where excavations at Akrotiri on Santorini reveal defined rooms within certain structures. In early structures, the different room types could be identified to include bedrooms, bathing rooms, reception rooms, other specialized uses; the aforementioned Akrotiri excavations reveal rooms sometimes built above other rooms connected by staircases, bathrooms with alabaster appliances such as washbasins, bathing tubs, toilets, all connected to an elaborate twin plumbing systems of ceramic pipes for cold and hot water separately. Ancient Rome manifested complex building forms with a variety of room types, including some of the earliest examples of rooms for indoor bathing.
The Anasazi civilization had an early complex development of room structures the oldest in North America, while the Maya of Central America had advanced room configurations as early as several hundred AD. By at least the early Han Dynasty in China, comfort room complex multi-level building forms emerged for religious and public purposes; some rooms were specially designed to support the work of the household, such as kitchens and root cellars, all of which were intended for the preparation and storage of food. A home office or study may be used for household paperwork or external business purposes; some work rooms are designated by the intended activity: for example, a sewing room is used for sewing, the laundry room is used for washing and ironing laundry. Other rooms are meant to promote comfort and cleanliness, such as the toilet and bathroom, which may be combined or which may be in separate rooms; the public equivalent is the restroom, which features a toilet and handwashing facilities, but not a shower or a bathtub.
In the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries, among those who could afford it, these facilities were kept in separate areas. The kitchen was detached from the main part of the house, or put in the basement, to reduce the risk of fire and keep the heat and smell of cooking away from the main house during the warm months; the toilet a simple pit latrine, was put in an outhouse or privy, to keep the smell and insects away from the main house. A variety of room types have been distinguished over time whose main purpose was socializing with other people. In previous centuries large homes featured a great hall; this room was so named because it was large, regardless of any excellence in it. It was a public room and most seen in the main home of a noble estate. In this room, people who had business with the local landowner or his household could meet; as the largest room, it could be used as a dining room for large banquets, or cleared of tables, provided with music, turned into a ballroom. Off the side, or in a different part of the house, might be a drawing room, used as a room with greater privacy, for the owner's family and their friends to talk.
A sitting room, living room, or parlour is a place for social visits and entertainment. One decorated to appeal to a man might be called a man cave; some large homes have special rooms for entertainment. A bedroom is the room where a bed is located, whose primary purpose is sleeping. A master bedroom may have an en suite bathroom. A guest room is a bedroom used by overnight guests; the nursery is a bedroom for young children. It may be separate from the playroom, a room where the children's toys are kept. Bedrooms may be used for other purposes. A large house might have separate rooms for these other functions, such as a dressing room for changing clothes. In Tudor times, a bedroom might have a separate closet, for seeking privacy. In the United Kingdom, many houses are built to contain a box-room, identifiable, being smaller than the others; the small size of these rooms limits their use, they tend to be used as a small single bedroom, small child's bedroom, or as a storage room. Other box rooms may house a live-in domestic worker.
Traditionally, seen in country houses and larger suburban houses up until the 1930s in Britain, the box room was for the storage of boxes, trunks and the like, rather than for bedroom use. A sick room is specialized room, sometimes just large enough to contain a bed, where a family member could be conveniently tended and kept separate from the rest of the household while recuperating from an illness. In smaller homes, most rooms were multi-purpose. In a bedsit, communal apartment, or studio apartment, a single main room may serve most functions, except the toilet and bath. Types of multi-purpose rooms include the great room, which removes most walls and doors between the kitchen and living rooms, to create one larger, open area. In some places, a lady's boudoir was a combination sleeping room and place to entertain small numbers of friends. In others, the boudoir