Batroumine is a small Greek Orthodox village located in north Lebanon. The village is known too for Olives, Soap, Wine, Figs, Batroumine is a Lebanese Village Located in the northern part of the country. Its located in the hilly El-Koura county south east of Tripoli, Batroumine is a Lebanese village with a long history. This history is seen through the examples of traditional Lebanese houses located in the village center. Observation of the architecture shows that the village has roots in the Byzantine period. One of the important sites in Batroumine is the Ain Al-Zarka, it is an ancient water spring, very famous in Batroumine, old men and women in Batroumine told many stories about the origins of this village, which emphasize the explanation Anis Frayha gave. Whether the origin of the word Batroumine is derived from Arabic or Syriac, ruins of the old village were found under the modern Batroumine, around 40 stone houses connected with paved roads going back to the Byzantine era
Ksar Akil is an archeological site 10 km northeast of Beirut in Lebanon. It is located about 800 m west of Antelias spring on the bank of the northern tributary of the Wadi Antelias. It is a rock shelter below a steep limestone cliff. It was first noticed by Godefroy Zumoffen in 1900 and first studied by A. E. Day in 1926 first systematically excavated by J. G. Doherty, S. J. and J. F. Ewing, S. J. in 1937-1938 and again in 1947-1948, later by Jacques Tixier in 1969-1975 before research was interrupted by the Lebanese Civil War. Excavations showed occupational deposits reaching down to a depth of 23.6 m with one of the longest sequences of Paleolithic flint industries ever found in the Middle East, the first level of 8 m contained Upper Levalloiso-Mousterian remains with long and triangular Lithic flakes. The level above this showed industries accounting for all six stages of the Upper Paleolithic. An Emireh point was found at the first stage of level, at around 15.2 m below datum with a complete skeleton of an eight-year-old Homo sapiens was discovered at 11.6 m.
A fragment of a Neanderthal maxilla was discovered in material from level XXVI or XXV, Studies by Hooijer showed Capra and Dama were dominant in the fauna along with Stephanorhinus in Levalloiso-Mousterian levels. It is assumed to be one of the earliest known sites containing Upper Paleolithic technologies including Aurignacian cultural objects and this indicates that the inhabitants were among the first in Western Eurasia to use personal ornaments. Results from radiocarbon dating indicate that the humans may have lived at the site approximately 45,000 years ago or earlier. The presence of ornaments at Ksar Akil is suggestive of modern human behavior. The findings of ornaments at the site are contemporaneous with ornaments found at Late Stone Age sites such as Enkapune ya muto, braidwood, R. Wright, H. E. and Ewing, J. F. Ksar Akil, its Archaeological Sequence and Geological Setting. Journal of Near-Eastern Studies, Volume 10,1951, Ewing, J. Preliminary Note on the Excavations at the Paleolithic Site of Ksar Akil, Republic of Lebanon, vol.
Human types and Prehistoric Cultures at Ksar Akil, Selected papers, University of Pennsylvania Press,1956. A Probably Neanderthaloid from Ksar Akil, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Volume 21, Number 2,1963. Upper Pleistocene Stratigraphy and Early Man in the Levant, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, a Transitional Industry from the Base of the Upper Paleolithic in Palestine and Syria. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Volume 81,1952, the Relations between Southwest Asia and Europe in the Later Paleolithic Age, Journal of World History, Volume 1,1953
Berytus was a Roman colonia that was the center of Roman presence in the eastern Mediterranean shores south of Anatolia. Roman Berytus was the capital of Phoenicia during Roman times, in 140 BC the Phoenician village called Biruta was destroyed by Diodotus Tryphon in his contest with Antiochus VII Sidetes for the throne of the Macedonian Seleucid monarchy. Later it was rebuilt on a more conventional Hellenistic plan. The city was conquered by the Romans of Pompey in 64 BC and renamed Berytus, the city was assimilated into the Roman Empire, veteran soldiers were sent there, and large building projects were undertaken. Was made a Roman colony about 14 B. C, Herod the Great, Agrippa I and II, and Queen Berenice built exedras, temples, a forum, a theater and baths here. The new Roman city spread farther S and W, with its Forum near the Place de lEtoile, on its N side was a civic basilica 99 m long with a Corinthian portico of polychrome materials. Some large baths have been uncovered on the E slope of the Colline du Sérail, Some villas in a S suburb facing the sea had mosaic floors.
Some 12 km upstream on the Beirut river are the ruined arches of an aqueduct. Berytus was considered the most Roman city in the provinces of the Roman Empire. It was one of four Roman colonies in the Syria-Phoenicia region, in 14 BC, during the reign of Herod the Great, Berytus became an important Roman colonia. The city was named Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus in honor of Julia, the veterans of two Roman legions were established in the city of Berytus by emperor Augustus, the fifth Macedonian and the third Gallic. Consequently, the city quickly became fully Romanized, large public buildings and monuments were erected and Berytus enjoyed full status as a part of the empire. But now only ruins remains, in front of the Catholic Cathedral of Beirut. The aqueduct crossed the river at Qanater Zbaydeh and the water reached the place of actual Riad Al Solh Square, there, at the foot of the Serail Hill. An intricate network of lead or clay pipes and channels distributed the water to the pools of the Roman Baths.
Under Nero the son of a roman colonist, Marcus Valerius Probus, was known in all the empire as a Latin grammarian, after the 551 Beirut earthquake the students were transferred to Sidon. Since the third century, the city had an important law college and it was here that the great codification of Roman Law, which was to be propagated by emperors like Theodosius II and Justinian, was prepared. Furthermore, the ecumenical Christian councils of the fifth and sixth centuries AD were unsuccessful in settling religious disagreements within the surviving community, Berytus became a Christian See at an early date, and was a suffragan of Tyre in Phoenicia Prima, a province of the Patriarchate of Antioch. In antiquity its most famous bishop was Eusebius, afterwards Bishop of Nicomedia, from 451 AD Berytus was an exempt metropolis depending directly on the Patriarch of Antioch
Lebanon, officially known as the Lebanese Republic, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, Lebanons location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized country on the entire mainland Asian continent, the earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was the home of the Canaanites/Phoenicians and their kingdoms, a culture that flourished for over a thousand years. In 64 BC, the region came under the rule of the Roman Empire, in the Mount Lebanon range a monastic tradition known as the Maronite Church was established. As the Arab Muslims conquered the region, the Maronites held onto their religion, however, a new religious group, the Druze, established themselves in Mount Lebanon as well, generating a religious divide that has lasted for centuries.
During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church, the ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era. The region eventually was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918, following the collapse of the empire after World War I, the five provinces that constitute modern Lebanon came under the French Mandate of Lebanon. The French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, which was populated by Maronites and Druze. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, establishing confessionalism, a unique, foreign troops withdrew completely from Lebanon on 31 December 1946. Lebanon has been a member of the Organisation internationale de la francophonie since 1973, despite its small size, the country has developed a well-known culture and has been highly influential in the Arab world. Before the Lebanese Civil War, the experienced a period of relative calm and renowned prosperity, driven by tourism, commerce. At the end of the war, there were efforts to revive the economy.
In spite of troubles, Lebanon has the highest Human Development Index and GDP per capita in the Arab world. The name of Mount Lebanon originates from the Phoenician root lbn meaning white, occurrences of the name have been found in different Middle Bronze Age texts from the library of Ebla, and three of the twelve tablets of the Epic of Gilgamesh. The name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn, where R stood for Canaanite L, the name occurs nearly 70 times in the Hebrew Bible, as לְבָנוֹן. The borders of contemporary Lebanon are a product of the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920 and its territory was the core of the Bronze Age Phoenician city-states. After the 7th-century Muslim conquest of the Levant, it was part of the Rashidun, Abbasid Seljuk, with the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Greater Lebanon fell under French mandate in 1920, and gained independence under president Bechara El Khoury in 1943
Aaiha is a village, plain and temporary wetland situated in the Rashaya District and south of the Beqaa Governorate in Lebanon. It is located in a basin near Mount Hermon and the Syrian border. The village sits c.3,750 feet above sea level, wild wheats Triticum boeoticum and T. urartu grow in this area, used for farming goats. The plain is level with no particularly visible outlet for water. The creation of the lake is assisted by fountains that well up through a chasm in the northwest. It has noted that when the waters subside, they drain down these fissures. Investigative potholers have claimed a permanent stream flows underneath these fissures, the smaller southeastern fissure was investigated and found to be 15 feet in diameter,8 feet to 10 feet deep with no sign of water at the bottom. Robinson did not record any investigation of the one to the northwest of the plain. The villagers suggest the underground stream leads to and is the source and fountain of the Hasbani river. This is notably similar to that described in the tale of The Chaff of Phiala in The Jewish War by Flavius Josephus.
Josephus tells a geographically inaccurate tale of a cavern in an ancient place called Phiala or Phiale and he threw chaff into Phiala and found it was carried by the waters to Panium, previously thought to be the origin of the Jordan river. Josephus writes, Edward Robinson commented that this story would appear still current in respect to this chasm, some neolithic flints have been recovered in this area, in the hills 3 kilometres north of Rashaya. Edward Robinson and Eli Smith visited in 1852 and noted a massive Roman temple had once been located near the village that has been grouped by George Taylor amongst the Temples of Mount Hermon. Robinson suggested the temple was bigger than Nebi Safa and spoke of it having been constructed of stones that were large, well hewn. Fragments of architrave and blocks from the temple had been re-used by the villagers making their homes and farmsteads and had left lying all over the fields. Sir Charles Warren later visited and documented the area as part of a survey in 1869.
He noted a long wall leading off into the east away from the village and he noted some vaults and rock-cut features and took a copy of an Ancient Greek inscription from one of the blocks. The temple was completed in 92 AD but only the western part remained when visited, located on the top of a hill overlooking the plain, the temple was constructed of blue limestone with an entrance opening facing east and a sideways bearing of 78°30
Afqa is a village and municipality located in the Jbeil District of the Mount Lebanon Governorate,71 kilometres northeast of Beirut in Lebanon. It has an elevation of 1,200 meters above sea level. Its inhabitants are predominantly Shia Muslims and it is the site of one of the finest waterfalls in the mountains of the Middle East, which feeds into the Adonis River, and forms Lake Yammoune, with which it is associated by legend. In Greek mythology Adonis was born and died at the foot of the falls in Afqa, the ruins of the celebrated temple of Aphrodite Aphakitis— the Aphrodite particular to this site— are located there. Sir Richard Francis Burton and Sir James Frazer further attribute the temple at Afqa to the honouring of Astarte or Ishtar, Afqa is aligned centrally between Baalbek and Byblos, pointing to the summer solstice sunset over the Mediterranean. It is from Byblos that the myth was told of an ark that came ashore containing the bones of Osiris. The ark became stuck in a swamp until Isis found it, the waterfall at Afqa is the source for the River Adonis and is located on a 600-foot bluff that forms an immense natural amphitheatre.
The river emerges from a limestone cave in the cliff wall which stores and channels water from the melted snow of the mountains before releasing it into springs. At Afqa, several watery threads flow from the cave to form numerous cataracts, the cave has over two miles of known passageways inside. A great and ancient temple is located here, where prostitution was practicised until the time of Constantine. Sir James Frazer attributes its construction to the legendary forebear of King Cinyras, the site was finally abandoned during the reign of Theodosius I. Massive hewn blocks and a column of Syenite granite still mark the site. The remains of a Roman aqueduct that carried the waters of the River Adonis to the ancient inhabitants of Jebail are located here. Edward Robinson and Eli Smith camped at the site in 1852, merely remarking on its shapeless ruins, the hamlet stands among groves of noble walnut-trees on the brink of the lyn. A little way off the river rushes from a cavern at the foot of a mighty amphitheatre of towering cliffs to plunge in a series of cascades into the depths of the glen.
There is something delicious, almost intoxicating, in the freshness of these waters, in the sweetness and purity of the mountain air. Marvin H. Pope identified the home of El in the Ugaritic texts of ca, in classical Greek mythology, Afqa is associated with the cult of Aphrodite and Adonis. According to the myth, the King of Cyprus seduced his daughter Myrrha who was transformed into a tree that bears her name, after several months, the tree split open and the child Adonis emerged
It ended when metal tools became widespread. The Neolithic is a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops, the beginning of the Neolithic culture is considered to be in the Levant about 10, 200–8800 BC. It developed directly from the Epipaleolithic Natufian culture in the region, whose people pioneered the use of wild cereals, which evolved into true farming. The Natufian period was between 12,000 and 10,200 BC, and the so-called proto-Neolithic is now included in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic between 10,200 and 8800 BC. By 10, 200–8800 BC, farming communities arose in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa, Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, and the keeping of dogs, sheep. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order, the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture, unlike the Paleolithic, when more than one human species existed, only one human species reached the Neolithic. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, new and λίθος líthos, the term was invented by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC, early development occurred in the Levant and from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the Neolithic 1 period began roughly 10,000 years ago in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe dated around 9500 BC may be regarded as the beginning of the period. This site was developed by nomadic tribes, evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity.
At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals, Stone tools were used by perhaps as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Tahunian and Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming, in the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, and perhaps early seed selection and re-seeding occurred. The grain was ground into flour, emmer wheat was domesticated, and animals were herded and domesticated
Dynamite is an explosive made of nitroglycerin and stabilizers. It was invented by the Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel in Geesthacht and it rapidly gained wide-scale use as a safer alternative to gun powder and nitroglycerin. Dynamite was invented by Alfred Nobel and was the first safely manageable explosive stronger than black powder, Nobel obtained patents for his invention in England on 7 May 1867, in Sweden on 19 October 1867. After its introduction, dynamite rapidly gained wide-scale use as an alternative to black powder. Nobel tightly controlled the patents, and unlicensed duplicating companies were shut down. However, a few American businessmen got around the patent by using a different formula. Nobel originally sold dynamite as Nobels Blasting Powder but decided to change the name to dynamite, from the Ancient Greek word δύναμις dýnamis, an industrialist and inventor, Alfred Nobels father, Immanuel Nobel, built bridges and buildings in Stockholm. His construction work inspired him to new methods of blasting rock.
Immanuels work with on inspired Alfred to make explosives safer. Today dynamite is used in the mining, construction. Dynamite is still the product of choice for trenching applications, Dynamite is occasionally used as an initiator or booster for AN and ANFO explosive charges. Nitroglycerin by itself is a strong explosive, but is extremely shock-sensitive, and degrades over time to even more unstable forms. Dynamite combines nitroglycerin with absorbents and stabilizers, rendering it safe to use, the original composition of dynamite consisted of three parts Explosive Oil, one part diatomaceous earth as the absorbent, and a small admixture of sodium carbonate antacid as the stabilizer. Diatomaceous earth is not usually used today as an absorbent medium and it has replaced by cheaper media like sawdust, wood pulp, flour. Other stabilizers like calcium carbonate or zinc oxide can be used in the place of sodium carbonate, sodium nitrate is added to the medium as an oxidizer that improves the dynamites brisance.
Dynamite is usually sold in the form of cardboard cylinders about 20 cm long and about 3.2 cm in diameter, a stick of dynamite thus produced contains roughly 1 MJ of energy. Other sizes exist, rated by either portion or by weight, Dynamite is usually rated by weight strength, usually from 20% to 60%. For example, 40% dynamite is composed of 40% nitroglycerin and 60% dope, the maximum shelf life of nitroglycerin-based dynamite is recommended as one year from the date of manufacture under good storage conditions
Archaeology of Lebanon
Archaeology of Lebanon reveals thousands of years of history ranging from the Lower Palaeolithic, Jewish, Muslim, Christian and Crusades history. Lebanon features several important Paleolithic sites associated with Neanderthals and these include Adloun, Chekka Jdidé, El-Masloukh, Ksar Akil, Nahr Ibrahim and Naame. Jbail is a archaeological site, known as ancient Byblos, a Phoenician seaport, where the tomb of Ahiram. An ancient Phoenician inscription on the dates to between the 13th and 10th centuries BCE. Byblos, as well as sites in Baalbek, Sidon. Middle paleolithic industries suggested include Amudian, early Yabrudian, Micro-Levalloisian or Micro-Mousterian, Levalloisian and Levalloiso-Mousterian, radio-carbon dating exists for Ksar Akil and Ras El Kelb. R. Neuville and Dorothy Garrod divided the Upper Paleolithic of Lebanon into six stages based on stratified sites in the surrounding area, stage one has Emirian and transitional varieties, stage two was possibly evidenced at Ksar Akil. Stages three and four have been termed Lower and Upper Antelian after the Antelias cave, stage five is Atlitian, possibly developed from stage four.
Stage six is identified as Kebaran, of which there are varieties of assemblage based on locality. Several early Neolithic sites were found by Diana Kirkbride in the Beqaa Valley in 1964, the Neolithic of Lebanon was divided up into three stages by Maurice Dunand based on the stratified levels of Byblos. Various other Neolithic industries have found in Lebanon such as Trihedral Neolithic. Henri Fleisch discovered and termed the Shepherd Neolithic flint industry from the Bekaa Valley in Lebanon and he dated this industry to the Epipaleolithic or Pre-Pottery Neolithic as it is evidently not Paleolithic, Mesolithic or even Pottery Neolithic. One particularly vigorous culture identified at over forty sites by Jesuit archaeologists in Lebanon is called the Qaraoun culture. This culture existed at the dawn of agriculture without pottery and produced Heavy Neolithic flint tools such as axes and picks to work with lumber and their type site is Qaraoun II, located close to the El Wauroun Dam, Mount Hermon and Aaiha.
The Chalcolithic was divided into two periods by Jacques Cauvin based on stratified levels at Byblos, Énéolithique Ancien and Énéolithique Récent, the division is marked largely by differences in pottery more than flints with a few notable exceptions such as fan-scrapers. There are a number of tells in the Beqaa Valley. Another major survey of Lebanese tells was carried out between 1965 and 1966 with 88 tells recorded along with numerous surface sites by Lorraine Copeland, van Liere, G. L. Harding, H. Balfet, Olga Tufnell, Brian Gregor and Ziyad Beydoun. Lebanon contains a range of ruins and remains of Ancient Greek
Ain Aata, Ain Ata, Ain Ata or Ayn Aata is a village and municipality situated southwest of Rashaya,99 kilometres south-east of Beirut, in the Rashaya District of the Beqaa Governorate in Lebanon. The name is thought to mean gift spring, there is a remarkably cold spring in the area. Eusebius in his work Onomasticon, placed it 9 miles from Dora, beth-Anath has been translated to mean temple of Anat, a canaanite goddess linked to a Sumerian predecessor called Ninhursag. Recent epigraphic surveys have confirmed the ruins of a Roman temple and columns of a ruined temple complex in the woods near the village were recorded by William McClure Thomson, who thought them to have once been called Kubrikha. He remarked that the neighborhood is crowded with ancient but deserted sites
The Upper Paleolithic is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. Very broadly, it dates to between 50,000 and 10,000 years ago, roughly coinciding with the appearance of behavioral modernity, modern humans are believed to have emerged about 195,000 years ago in Africa. Although these humans were modern in anatomy, their lifestyle changed very little from their contemporaries, such as Homo erectus, about 50,000 years ago, there was a marked increase in the diversity of artifacts. In Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archeological record, between 45,000 and 43,000 years ago, this new tool technology spread with human migration to Europe. The new technology generated an explosion of modern humans which is believed to have contributed to the extinction of the Neanderthals. The Upper Paleolithic has the earliest known evidence of organized settlements, in the form of campsites, artistic work blossomed, with cave painting, petroglyphs and engravings on bone or ivory.
The first evidence of fishing is noted, from artifacts in places such as Blombos cave in South Africa. More complex social groupings emerged, supported by more varied and reliable food sources and this probably contributed to increasing group identification or ethnicity. By 50, 000–40,000 BP, the first humans set foot in Australia, by 45,000 BP, humans lived at 61° north latitude in Europe. By 30,000 BP, Japan was reached, and by 27,000 BP humans were present in Siberia above the Arctic Circle, at the end of the Upper Paleolithic, a group of humans crossed the Bering land bridge and quickly expanded throughout North and South America. Both Homo erectus and Neanderthals used the same crude stone tools, archaeologist Richard G. Klein, who has worked extensively on ancient stone tools, describes the stone tool kit of archaic hominids as impossible to categorize. It was as if the Neanderthals made stone tools, and were not much concerned about their final forms and he argues that almost everywhere, whether Asia, Africa or Europe, before 50,000 years ago all the stone tools are much alike and unsophisticated.
These new stone-tool types have been described as being distinctly differentiated from each other, the invaders, commonly referred to as the Cro-Magnons, left many sophisticated stone tools and engraved pieces on bone and antler, cave paintings and Venus figurines. The Neanderthals continued to use Mousterian stone tool technology and possibly Chatelperronian technology and these tools disappeared from the archeological record at around the same time the Neanderthals themselves disappeared from the fossil record, about 40,000 years ago. Settlements were often located in valley bottoms, possibly associated with hunting of passing herds of animals. Hunting was important, and caribou/wild reindeer may well be the species of single greatest importance in the anthropological literature on hunting. Technological advances included significant developments in flint tool manufacturing, with industries based on fine blades rather than simpler and shorter flakes and racloirs were used to work bone and hides.
Advanced darts and harpoons appear in period, along with the fish hook, the oil lamp, rope
It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools, probably by Homo habilis initially,2.6 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene around 10,000 BP. The Paleolithic era is followed by the Mesolithic, the date of the Paleolithic–Mesolithic boundary may vary by locality as much as several thousand years. During the Paleolithic period, humans grouped together in small societies such as bands, the Paleolithic is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans used wood and bone tools. Other organic commodities were adapted for use as tools, including leather and vegetable fibers, due to their nature, surviving artifacts of the Paleolithic era are known as paleoliths. About 50,000 years ago, there was a increase in the diversity of artifacts. For the first time in Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archaeological record, the first evidence of human fishing is noted, from artifacts in places such as Blombos cave in South Africa. The new technology generated an explosion of modern humans which is believed to have led to the extinction of the Neanderthals.
Humankind gradually evolved from members of the genus Homo—such as Homo habilis. The climate during the Paleolithic consisted of a set of glacial and interglacial periods in which the climate periodically fluctuated between warm and cool temperatures, by c. 50,000 – c. 40,000 BP, the first humans set foot in Australia. By c. 45,000 BP, humans lived at 61°N latitude in Europe, by c. 30,000 BP, Japan was reached, and by c. 27,000 BP humans were present in Siberia, above the Arctic Circle. At the end of the Upper Paleolithic, a group of humans crossed Beringia, the term Paleolithic was coined by archaeologist John Lubbock in 1865. It derives from Greek, παλαιός, old, and λίθος, stone, human evolution is the part of biological evolution concerning the emergence of anatomically modern humans as a distinct species. The Paleolithic Period coincides almost exactly with the Pleistocene epoch of geologic time and this epoch experienced important geographic and climatic changes that affected human societies.
During the preceding Pliocene, continents had continued to drift from possibly as far as 250 km from their present locations to positions only 70 km from their current location. South America became linked to North America through the Isthmus of Panama, most of Central America formed during the Pliocene to connect the continents of North and South America, allowing fauna from these continents to leave their native habitats and colonize new areas. Africas collision with Asia created the Mediterranean Sea, cutting off the remnants of the Tethys Ocean, climates during the Pliocene became cooler and drier, and seasonal, similar to modern climates. The formation of an Arctic ice cap around 3 million years ago is signaled by a shift in oxygen isotope ratios and ice-rafted cobbles in the North Atlantic. Mid-latitude glaciation probably began before the end of the epoch, the global cooling that occurred during the Pliocene may have spurred on the disappearance of forests and the spread of grasslands and savannas