Antennae, sometimes referred to as "feelers", are paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods. Antennae are connected to the first two segments of the arthropod head, they vary in form but are always made of one or more jointed segments. While they are sensory organs, the exact nature of what they sense and how they sense it is not the same in all groups. Functions may variously include sensing touch, air motion, heat and smell or taste. Antennae are sometimes modified for other purposes, such as mating, brooding and anchoring the arthropod to a substrate. Larval arthropods have antennae. Many crustaceans, for example, have free-swimming larvae. Antennae can locate other group members if the insect lives in a group, like the ant; the common ancestor of all arthropods had one pair of uniramous antenna-like structures, followed by one or more pairs of biramous leg-like structures, as seen in some modern crustaceans and fossil trilobites. Except for the chelicerates and proturans, which have none, all non-crustacean arthropods have a single pair of antennae.
Crustaceans bear two pairs of antennae. The pair attached to the first segment of the head are called primary antennae or antennules; this pair is uniramous, but is biramous in crabs and lobsters and remipedes. The pair attached to the second segment are called secondary antennae or antennae; the second antennae are plesiomorphically biramous, but many species evolved uniramous pairs. The second antennae may be reduced absent, or modified to such an extent that they no longer resemble antennae; the subdivisions of crustacean antennae have many names, including flagellomeres, annuli and segments. The terminal ends of crustacean antennae have two major categorizations: flagellate. An antenna is considered segmented if each of the annuli is separate from those around it and has individual muscle attachments. Flagellate antennae, on the other hand, have muscle attachments only around the base, acting as a hinge for the flagellum—a flexible string of annuli with no muscle attachment. There are several notable non-sensory uses of antennae in crustaceans.
Many crustaceans have a mobile larval stage called a nauplius, characterized by its use of antennae for swimming. Barnacles, a modified crustacean, use their antennae to attach to rocks and other surfaces. Insects evolved from prehistoric crustaceans, they have secondary antennae like crustaceans, but not primary antennae. Antennae are the primary olfactory sensors of insects and are accordingly well-equipped with a wide variety of sensilla. Paired and segmented, they are located between the eyes on the forehead. Embryologically, they represent the appendages of the second head segment. All insects have antennae, however they may be reduced in the larval forms. Amongst the non-insect classes of the Hexapoda, both Collembola and Diplura have antenna, but Protura do not. Antennal fibrillae play an important role in Culex pipiens mating practices; the erection of these fibrillae is considered to be the first stage in reproduction. These fibrillae serve different functions across the sexes; as antennal fibrillae are used by female C. pipiens to locate hosts to feed on, male C. pipiens utilize them to locate female mates.
The three basic segments of the typical insect antenna are the scape or scapus, the pedicel or pedicellus, the flagellum, which comprises many units known as flagellomeres. The pedicel contains the Johnston's organ, a collection of sensory cells; the scape is mounted in a socket in a more or less ring-shaped sclerotised region called the torulus a raised portion of the insect's head capsule. The socket is closed off by. However, the antenna does not hang free on the membrane, but pivots on a rigidly sprung projection from the rim of the torulus; that projection on which the antenna pivots is called the antennifer. The whole structure enables the insect to move the antenna as a whole by applying internal muscles connected to the scape; the pedicel is flexibly connected to the distal end of the scape and its movements in turn can be controlled by muscular connections between the scape and pedicel. The number of flagellomeres can vary between insect species, is of diagnostic importance. True flagellomeres are connected by membranous linkage that permits movement, though the flagellum of "true" insects does not have any intrinsic muscles.
Some other Arthropoda do however have intrinsic muscles throughout the flagellum. Such groups include the Symphyla and Diplura. In many true insects the more primitive groups such as Thysanura and Blattodea, the flagellum or consists of a flexibly connected string of small ring-shaped annuli; the annuli are not true flagellomeres, in a given insect species the number of annuli is not as consistent as the number of flagellomeres in most species. In many beetles and in the chalcidoid wasps, the apical flagellomeres form a club shape, the collective term for the segments between the club and the antennal base is the funicle. However, traditionally in working on wasps the funicle is taken to comprise the segments between the club and the pedicel. Quite the funicle beyond the pedicel is
A Spoonful of Sherman is a musical revue which premiered on January 6, 2014 at the St. James Theatre in London and, poised for its first UK/Ireland tour. Produced and emceed by Robert J. Sherman, A Spoonful of Sherman first served as the UK book launch for Sherman's father's autobiography: Moose: Chapters From My Life for which Sherman was the book's editor. After each performance of that original run, Sherman participated in a book signing after the show; the show was billed as "A Celebration of the Life and Songs of Robert B. Sherman" and was received well by the crowd and the critics alike; the cast consisted of four rising West End theatre stars including Charlotte Wakefield, Emma Williams, Stuart Matthew Price and Greg Castiglioni. Musical Direction was provided by Colin Billing and the show was directed by Stewart Nicholls. Lighting was designed by the show's Stage Manager Andrew Holton. In the 2017 version of the show, focus of the show's narrative shifted to both Sherman Brothers' lives as well as to the life of their father, Al Sherman.
The show was produced by MusicWorld in association with the St. James Theatre, James Albrecht, Creative Director. Joanne Benjamin and Clive Chenery of The Entertainment Business provided General Management. A Spoonful of Sherman received outstanding notices, garnering four stars from Clive Davis of the London Times as well as four and five star reviews from dozens of other papers and online reviewers; the show covered ninety years of Sherman songwriting but the focus of the evening was the music and lyrics of Robert B. Sherman and the Sherman Brothers. "In deciding what songs to select, particular emphasis was put on material that would propel the narrative of Robert B. Sherman's life story forward. My narration would fill in the gaps. Of course all of the famous stuff made it in. Mary Poppins, Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, Winnie the Pooh, The Jungle Book and "It's A Small World" were represented, but I'm pleased that we were able to include some unexpected gems in the mix as well." A Spoonful of Sherman was so successful in its own right, that further shows were scheduled for April 2014.
A Spoonful of Sherman returned to London, playing August 7–20, 2017 at "Live at Zédel". Helena Blackman and Daniel Boys starred alongside pianist/singer Christopher Hamilton. Narrating the show once again was Robert J. Sherman. While the book for the two 2014 productions remained the same, in the 2017 version, Sherman modified his script, removing emphasis on his father, Robert B. Sherman's life and making the story more about both Sherman Brothers and their Tin Pan Alley era songwriter father, Al Sherman. New musical arrangements were provided by Rowland Lee. Robert J. Sherman explained that changes had to do with the evolution of the show's purpose for being. In 2014 the show was designed to serve as a "happy memorial" to his deceased songwriter father, Robert B. Sherman, but as the show grew, it began to take on a life of its own, the purpose, therefore, the focus of the show needed to change as well. On December 20, 2017, producers James Yeoburn of United Theatrical and Robert J. Sherman announced the launch of the first A Spoonful of Sherman UK/Ireland tour.
The tour premiered on February 14, 2018 at the EM Forester Theatre in Tonbridge, Kent with its press night held on March 27 in Greenwich. The tour production was a radical departure from the previous three incarnations of the show; the evolution was described as a morphing from a clever cabaret to a realized stage musical. Cast members for the tour include Sophie-Louise Dann, Mark Read, Glen Facey, Jenna Innes and Ben Stock. Directing and choreographing is Stewart Nicholls. A new book was devised by Robert Sherman. Stage and costume design was by Gabriella Slade, Lighting Design was by Chris Withers and new musical arrangements and musical supervision is by Rowland Lee; the tour played in as many venues. Tour dates included: Pavilion Theatre. In late 2018 the previous year's UK/Ireland tour version was made available for professional license. In April 2019 A Spoonful of Sherman made its U. S. premiere in California. The San Jose run played for five weeks at the 3Below Stages featuring veteran Bay Area performers, Shannon Guggenheim, Stephen Guggenheim, Susan Gundunas, F. James Raasch, Teresa Swain and pianist Barry Koron.
In July 2019 it was announced that a licensed production of A Spoonful of Sherman would be presented at the Sing Theatre in Singapore starring Hossan Leong, Mina Ellen Kaye, George Chan, Aaron Khaled and Vanessa Kee. A Spoonful of Sherman is derived from the title of the popular song "A Spoonful of Sugar" from the successful 1964 Walt Disney musical motion picture, Mary Poppins; the song was written by the She
Wayne Rosing is an American engineering manager. Rosing was an engineering manager at Digital Equipment Data General in the 1970s, he became a director of engineering at Apple Computer in 1980. There he led the forerunner to the Macintosh, he went on to work at Sun Microsystems in 1985. After managing hardware development for products such as the SPARCstation, he became manager of Sun Microsystems Laboratories in 1990. From 1992 through 1996 he headed the spin-off First Person, he was chief technology officer at Caere Corporation, which developed the optical character recognition product OmniPage. Rosing served as vice president of engineering at Google from January 2001 to May 2005. In May 2005 he was appointed a senior fellow in mathematical and physical sciences at the University of California and continued to serve as an advisor to Google; as a hobby throughout his career, Rosing built telescopes, telescope control systems, ground telescope mirrors. At Davis, Rosing consulted on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope project.
In 2005, Rosing founded Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network. Rosing was chief engineer at the firm; the August 2007 edition of The Sky at Night covered Rosing at Las Cumbres. In 2010, he endowed a professor in theoretical astrophysics at the University of California, Santa Barbara held by Lars Bildsten