Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology uses many unique terms and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek and Latin; these terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise, reducing ambiguity and errors. Since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less to change, less to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand. By using precise anatomical terminology such ambiguity is eliminated. An international standard for anatomical terminology, Terminologia Anatomica has been created. Anatomical terminology has quite regular morphology, the same prefixes and suffixes are used to add meanings to different roots; the root of a term refers to an organ or tissue. For example, the Latin names of structures such as musculus biceps brachii can be split up and refer to, musculus for muscle, biceps for "two-headed", brachii as in the brachial region of the arm.
The first word describes what is being spoken about, the second describes it, the third points to location. When describing the position of anatomical structures, structures may be described according to the anatomical landmark they are near; these landmarks may include structures, such as the umbilicus or sternum, or anatomical lines, such as the midclavicular line from the centre of the clavicle. The cephalon or cephalic region refers to the head; this area is further differentiated into the cranium, frons, auris, nasus and mentum. The neck area is called cervical region. Examples of structures named according to this include the frontalis muscle, submental lymph nodes, buccal membrane and orbicularis oculi muscle. Sometimes, unique terminology is used to reduce confusion in different parts of the body. For example, different terms are used when it comes to the skull in compliance with its embryonic origin and its tilted position compared to in other animals. Here, Rostral refers to proximity to the front of the nose, is used when describing the skull.
Different terminology is used in the arms, in part to reduce ambiguity as to what the "front", "back", "inner" and "outer" surfaces are. For this reason, the terms below are used: Radial referring to the radius bone, seen laterally in the standard anatomical position. Ulnar referring to the ulna bone, medially positioned when in the standard anatomical position. Other terms are used to describe the movement and actions of the hands and feet, other structures such as the eye. International morphological terminology is used by the colleges of medicine and dentistry and other areas of the health sciences, it facilitates communication and exchanges between scientists from different countries of the world and it is used daily in the fields of research and medical care. The international morphological terminology refers to morphological sciences as a biological sciences' branch. In this field, the form and structure are examined as well as the changes or developments in the organism, it is functional.
It covers the gross anatomy and the microscopic of living beings. It involves the anatomy of the adult, it includes comparative anatomy between different species. The vocabulary is extensive and complex, requires a systematic presentation. Within the international field, a group of experts reviews and discusses the morphological terms of the structures of the human body, forming today's Terminology Committee from the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, it deals with the anatomical and embryologic terminology. In the Latin American field, there are meetings called Iberian Latin American Symposium Terminology, where a group of experts of the Pan American Association of Anatomy that speak Spanish and Portuguese and studies the international morphological terminology; the current international standard for human anatomical terminology is based on the Terminologia Anatomica. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and was released in 1998.
It supersedes Nomina Anatomica. Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross anatomical structures. For microanatomy, known as histology, a similar standard exists in Terminologia Histologica, for embryology, the study of development, a standard exists in Terminologia Embryologica; these standards specify accepted names that can be used to refer to histological and embryological structures in journal articles and other areas. As of September 2016, two sections of the Terminologia Anatomica, including central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, were merged to form the Terminologia Neuroanatomica; the Terminologia Anatomica has been perceived with a considerable criticism regarding its content including coverage and spelling mistakes and errors. Anatomical terminology is chosen to highlight the relative location of body structures. For instance, an anatomist might describe one band of tissue as "inferior to" another or a physician might describe a tumor as "superficial to" a deeper body structure.
Anatomical terms used to describe location
Inferior tympanic artery
The inferior tympanic artery is a small branch of the ascending pharyngeal artery. It is a small branch which passes through a minute foramen in the petrous portion of the temporal bone, called tympanic canaliculus or inferior tympanic canaliculus, in company with the tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve, to supply the medial wall of the tympanic cavity and anastomose with the other tympanic arteries. In the case of a missing or underdeveloped cervical ICA, the Inferior tympanic artery can provide collateral ICA circulation by reversing flow of the caroticotympanic artery; this can result in pulsatile tinnitus. The resulting Aberrant Carotid artery can mimic neoplasm on CT; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 557 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy
Posterior meningeal artery
The posterior meningeal artery is the largest vessel supplying the dura region of the posterior fossa. It arises from the ascending pharyngeal artery although other origins have been seen, such as the occipital artery; the artery or its branches enter the cranium through jugular foramen, foramen magnum or hypoglossal canal. MeningesThis article incorporates text in the public domain from page 558 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Diagnostic Cerebral Angiography, 2nd edition, Anne G. Osborn
The optic tract is a part of the visual system in the brain. It is a continuation of the optic nerve that relays information from the optic chiasm to the ipsilateral lateral geniculate nucleus, pretectal nuclei, superior colliculus, it is composed of two individual tracts, the left optic tract and the right optic tract, each of which conveys visual information exclusive to its respective contralateral half of the visual field. Each of these tracts is derived from a combination of temporal and nasal retinal fibers from each eye that corresponds to one half of the visual field. In more specific terms, the optic tract contains fibers from the ipsilateral temporal hemiretina and contralateral nasal hemiretina; the optic tract carries retinal information relating to the whole visual field. The left optic tract corresponds to the right visual field, while the right optic tract corresponds to the left visual field. To form the right visual field, temporal retinal fibers from the left eye and nasal retinal fibers from the right eye form the left optic tract, to form the left visual field, temporal retinal fibers from the right eye and nasal retinal fibers from the left eye form the right optic tract.
Several autonomic ocular motor responses are consensual. The optic tract is responsible for relaying visual information to the LGN, but it is peripherally responsible for transducing these bilateral autonomic reflexes, including the pupillary light reflex and pupillary dark reflex; the pupillary light reflex is an autonomic reflex that controls pupil diameter to accommodate for increases in illumination as perceived by the retina. Higher light intensity causes pupil constriction, the increase of light stimulation of one eye will cause pupillary constriction of both eyes; the neural circuitry of the pupillary light reflex includes the optic tract which joins the optic nerve to the brachium of the superior colliculus. To the pupillary light reflex, the pupillary dark reflex is an autonomic reflex that controls pupil diameter to accommodate for decreases in illumination as perceived by the retina. Lower light intensity causes pupil dilation, the decrease of light stimulation of one eye will cause pupillary dilation of both eyes.
The neural circuitry of the pupillary dark reflex includes the optic tract which joins the optic nerve to the hypothalamus. Lesions in the optic tract correspond to visual field loss on the left or right half of the vertical midline known as homonymous hemianopsia. A lesion in the left optic tract will cause right-sided homonymous hemianopsia, while a lesion in the right optic tract will cause left-sided homonymous hemianopsia. Stroke, congenital defects, tumors and surgery are all possible causes of optic tract damage. Peripheral prism expanders and vision restitution therapy are employed in patients with visual field loss resultant of permanent optic tract damage. In certain split-brain patients who have undergone a corpus callosotomy to treat severe epilepsy, the information from one optic tract does not get transmitted to both hemispheres. For instance, a split-brain patient shown an image in the left visual field will be unable to vocally name what has been seen as the speech-control center is in the left hemisphere of the brain.
Pupillary reflexes the pupillary light reflex, are a powerful diagnostic tool employed in clinical and emergency medical practice. A lack of equal consensual pupillary constriction to a light stimulus a Marcus Gunn pupil, can be indicative of optic nerve damage, brainstem death, or optic tract damage in between
Loyola University Chicago
Loyola University Chicago is a private Catholic research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1870 by the Jesuits, today Loyola is one of the largest Catholic universities in the United States. Loyola's professional schools have educated generations of local business and civic leaders, distinguished programs in medicine and health sciences are anchored by the nationally recognized Loyola University Medical Center. Comprising eleven colleges and schools, Loyola offers over 80 undergraduate and 140 graduate/professional programs and enrolls 16,000 students. Loyola has six campuses across the Chicago metropolitan area, as well as a campus in Rome and guest programs in Beijing and Ho Chi Minh City; the flagship Lake Shore Campus is on the shores of Lake Michigan in the Rogers Park and Edgewater neighborhoods of Chicago, eight miles north of the Loop. Loyola's athletic teams, nicknamed the Ramblers, compete in NCAA Division I as members of the Missouri Valley Conference. Loyola won the 1963 NCAA men's basketball championship, remains the only school from Illinois to do so.
The Ramblers are two-time NCAA champions in men's volleyball. Among the more than 150,000 Loyola alumni, there are executives of major Chicago-based corporations such as McDonald's and Baxter International, as well as dozens of local and national political leaders including the current Illinois Attorney General and Speaker of the House. Loyola alumni have won Emmy, Grammy and Pulitzer awards, as well as Guggenheim and MacArthur fellowships. Loyola was established as St. Ignatius College on June 30, 1870, by Jesuit educator Fr. Arnold Damen. At that time Chicago was a much smaller, but growing, city just shy of 300,000 people, as a result the original campus was much closer to the city center along Roosevelt Road. In 1909 the school was renamed Loyola University, in 1912 it began to move to the current Lake Shore Campus. To meet the growing needs of Chicago, Loyola established professional schools in law, medicine and nursing; the Chicago College of Dental Surgery became part of the university in 1923, was closed 70 years later.
A downtown campus was founded in 1914, with it the School of Sociology. As the predecessor to the School of Social Work, it enrolled Loyola's first female students, though the school would not become coeducational until 1966. Loyola Academy, a college prep high school, occupied Dumbach Hall on the Lake Shore Campus until it was relocated to north suburban Wilmette in 1957; the current Water Tower Campus opened in 1949. In 1962, Loyola opened a campus in Rome near the site of the 1960 Summer Olympics. In 1969, Loyola established the School of Education and consolidated medical programs at the Loyola University Medical Center, a hospital and health care complex located in Maywood, an immediate suburb of Chicago; the university separated from the Jesuits in 1970, today is under lay control and governed by a board of trustees. Loyola purchased neighboring Mundelein College in 1991. Major capital campaigns since the turn of the century have enhanced Loyola's academic profile and campuses. In 2005 the Loyola University Museum of Art was established on the Water Tower Campus, the Rome campus was renamed in honor of Director Emeritus John P. Felice.
In 2009, the Cuneo Foundation presented the university with the Cuneo Mansion and Gardens, a 100-acre estate with an Italianate mansion and extensive collections of art and furnishings located in suburban Vernon Hills. The $50 million gift is the largest in Loyola history. In 2010, Loyola purchased the Resurrection Retreat Center in Woodstock, which became the school's fifth campus for retreat and ecological study. In 2012, Loyola alumnus Michael R. Quinlan donated $40 million to the business school, renamed in his honor. During this time over 200,000 square-feet of LEED-certified sustainable spaces have been built on the Lake Shore Campus alone, along with significant mixed-use developments on the Water Tower Campus. Today, Loyola ranks among the top 89 universities in the nation, is in the midst of over $800 million in capital construction projects. In 2015, the university established Arrupe College, a uniquely structured two-year college designed to give low-income students access to a Loyola education.
On May 23, 2016, Loyola named Jo Ann Rooney its 24th president. She is the first female president in the history of the university. Loyola's flagship Lake Shore Campus is along the shores of Lake Michigan in the Rogers Park and Edgewater neighborhoods on the north side of Chicago, eight miles north of the Loop. Founded in 1912, it is the primary residential campus for the school, is the home of the College of Arts and Sciences, a variety of graduate programs. A collection of over forty buildings, the campus offers ample green space and lakeshore access, as well as several landmarks: The Madonna della Strada Chapel, a striking Art Deco masterpiece completed in 1939, is the center of Loyola's religious life; the Mundelein Center, a 200-foot tall Art Deco skyscraper completed in 1930, is the home of Loyola's fine and performing arts programs and a National Historical Landmark. The Joseph J. Gentile Arena, which holds 5,500 for basketball and campus events, was expanded to include the Norville Center, a student-athlete academic center and home of Rambler athletics.
One of the largest events held annually in Gentile Arena is Colossus, which features a musical artist and comedian. Artists including Jason Derulo and John Mulaney have performed for Colossus; the Halas Recreation Center was remodeled and incorp
The submental artery is a branch of the facial artery that runs on the underside of the chin. The submental artery is the largest of the cervical branches of the facial artery, given off just as that vessel leaves the submandibular gland: it runs forward upon the mylohyoid, just below the body of the mandible, beneath the digastric muscle, it supplies the surrounding muscles, anastomoses with the sublingual artery and with the mylohyoid branch of the inferior alveolar artery. The submental vessels supply a territory of skin in the submental area. Surgeons can use the skin and vessels in reconstruction of the oral cavity; when the submental artery turns upward over the border of the mandible it divides into a superficial and a deep branch. The superficial branch passes between the integument and depressor labii inferioris, anastomoses with the inferior labial artery; the deep branch runs between the muscle and the bone, supplies the lip, anastomoses with the inferior labial artery and the mental branch of the inferior alveolar artery.
This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 555 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy
Inferior labial artery
The inferior labial artery arises near the angle of the mouth as a branch of the facial artery. It supplies the labial glands, the mucous membrane, the muscles of the lower lip; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 555 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy figure: 23:05-07 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Superficial arteries of the face." Http://www.dartmouth.edu/~humananatomy/figures/chapter_47/47-5. HTM