Vastus intermedius muscle
The vastus intermedius arises from the front and lateral surfaces of the body of the femur in its upper two-thirds, sitting under the rectus femoris muscle and from the lower part of the lateral intermuscular septum. Its fibers end in a superficial aponeurosis, which forms the deep part of the quadriceps femoris tendon; the vastus medialis and vastus intermedius appear to be inseparably united, but when the rectus femoris has been reflected during dissection a narrow interval will be observed extending upward from the medial border of the patella between the two muscles, the separation may be continued as far as the lower part of the intertrochanteric line, however, the two muscles are continuous. Due to being the deeper middle-most of the quadriceps muscle group, the intermedius is the most difficult to stretch once maximum knee flexion is attained, it cannot be further stretched by hip extension as the rectus femoris can, nor is it accessible to manipulate with massage therapy to stretch the fibres sideways as the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis are.
This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 471 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy PTCentral
External iliac artery
The external iliac arteries are two major arteries which bifurcate off the common iliac arteries anterior to the sacroiliac joint of the pelvis. They proceed inferior along the medial border of the psoas major muscles, they exit the pelvic girdle posterior and inferior to the inguinal ligament about one third laterally from the insertion point of the inguinal ligament on the pubic tubercle at which point they are referred to as the femoral arteries. The external iliac artery is the artery used to attach the renal artery to the recipient of a kidney transplant; the external iliac artery arises from the bifurcation of the common iliac artery. It travels inferiorly and laterally, making its way to the lower limb: The abdominal aorta divides to form the "common iliac arteries" in the lower abdomen, these vessels supply blood to the pelvic organs, gluteal region, legs; each common iliac artery descends a short distance and divides into an internal and an external branch. The external iliac artery provides the main blood supply to the legs.
It passes down along the brim of the pelvis and gives off two large branches - the "inferior epigastric artery" and a "deep circumflex artery." These vessels supply blood to the muscles and skin in the lower abdominal wall. The external iliac artery passes beneath the inguinal ligament in the lower part of the abdomen and becomes the femoral artery. Internal iliac artery Common iliac artery Gray's s157 - "The arteries of the lower extremity" Gray's s173 - "The veins of the lower extremity and pelvis" Anatomy photo:43:12-0104 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "The Female Pelvis: The External and Internal Iliac Vessels" Anatomy figure: 43:07-05 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Sagittal view of the internal iliac artery and its branches in the female pelvis. " Anatomy image:8970 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center pelvis at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman Hypogastric artery - thefreedictionary.com
The sartorius muscle is the longest muscle in the human body. It is a long, superficial muscle that runs down the length of the thigh in the anterior compartment; the sartorius muscle originates from the anterior superior iliac spine and part of the notch between the anterior superior iliac spine and anterior inferior iliac spine. It runs obliquely across the anterior part of the thigh in an inferomedial direction, it passes behind the medial condyle of the femur to end in a tendon. This tendon curves anteriorly to join the tendons of the gracilis and semitendinosus muscles in the pes anserinus, where it inserts into the superomedial surface of the tibia, its upper portion forms the lateral border of the femoral triangle, the point where it crosses adductor longus marks the apex of the triangle. Deep to sartorius and its fascia is the adductor canal, through which the saphenous nerve, femoral artery and vein, nerve to vastus medialis pass. Like the other muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh, sartorius is innervated by the femoral nerve.
It may originate from the outer end of the inguinal ligament, the notch of the ilium, the ilio-pectineal line or the pubis. The muscle may be split into two parts, one part may be inserted into the fascia lata, the femur, the ligament of the patella or the tendon of the semitendinosus; the tendon of insertion may end in the fascia lata, the capsule of the knee-joint, or the fascia of the leg. The muscle may be absent in some people; the sartorius muscle can move the hip joint and the knee joint, but all of its actions are weak, making it a synergist muscle. At the hip, it can flex, weakly abduct, laterally rotate the thigh. At the knee, it can flex the leg. Turning the foot to look at the sole or sitting cross-legged demonstrates all four actions of the sartorius. One of the many conditions that can disrupt the use of the sartorius is pes anserine bursitis, an inflammatory condition of the medial portion of the knee; this condition occurs in athletes from overuse and is characterized by pain and tenderness.
The pes anserinus is made up from the tendons of the gracilis and sartorius muscles. When inflammation of the bursa underlying the tendons occurs they separate from the head of the tibia. Sartorius comes from the Latin word sartor, meaning tailor, it is sometimes called the tailor's muscle; this name was chosen in reference to the cross-legged position. In French, the muscle name itself "couturier" comes from this specific position, referred to as "sitting as a tailor". There are other hypotheses as to the genesis of the name. One is that it refers to the location of the inferior portion of the muscle being the "inseam" or area of the inner thigh that tailors measure when fitting trousers. Another is that the muscle resembles a tailor's ribbon. Additionally, antique sewing machines required continuous cross body pedaling; this combination of lateral rotation and flexion of the hip and flexion of the knee gave tailors enlarged sartorius muscles. The sartorius is called the honeymoon muscle; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 470 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:14:st-0407 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Cross section image: pembody/body15a—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna
Geisel School of Medicine
The Geisel School of Medicine is the medical school of Dartmouth College, an Ivy League research university located in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. The fourth-oldest medical school in the United States, it was founded in 1797 by New England physician Nathan Smith and grew over the course of the 19th century. Several milestones in medical care and research have taken place at Dartmouth, including the first clinical X-ray, the first intensive care unit in the United States, the Brattleboro rat. Today, Dartmouth's Geisel School of Medicine continues to grant the Doctor of Medicine and Doctor of Philosophy degrees, as well as a Master of Public Health and Master of Science degrees; the school has a student body of about 700 students and more than 2,300 faculty members and researchers. Geisel organizes research through over a dozen research centers and institutes, receiving more than $140 million in grants annually; the Geisel School of Medicine is one of seven Ivy League medical schools and is ranked as a "top medical school" by U.
S. News & World Report for both primary care and biomedical research. Dartmouth's medical school has numerous clinical partners, including Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, White River Junction Veterans Administration Medical Center, California Pacific Medical Center, Manchester Veterans Administration Medical Center. Dartmouth's medical school was founded in 1797 as the fourth medical school in the United States, following the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, the medical school of King's College, Harvard Medical School; the founder was Nathan Smith, a Harvard University and University of Edinburgh Medical School educated physician from Cornish, New Hampshire. Noting the dearth of medical professionals in the rural Connecticut River Upper Valley area, Smith petitioned the Board of Trustees of Dartmouth College in August 1796 to fund the establishment of a medical school to train more physicians for the region. Though Dartmouth College as a whole was financially strapped, the Board approved the request, Smith began lecturing on November 22, 1797.
For much of its early life, the school consisted only of Nathan Smith and a small class of students, operating in borrowed space at Dartmouth College. Students of Smith were educated as apprentices, received a Bachelor of Medicine degree upon graduation. Like Dartmouth College as a whole, the medical school had continual funding shortages; as time passed, the popularity of both the medical instruction and the basic sciences taught at the school drew undergraduates and training physicians alike. Soliciting funds from the state of New Hampshire, Smith was able to obtain medical equipment and, by 1811, a dedicated physical plant for the school. Smith acted as the sole administrator and instructor of the medical school until 1810, when a second faculty member was hired. Smith revamped the curriculum, allowing the school to begin offering the Doctor of Medicine degree in 1812. Smith left Dartmouth in 1816, founding three additional schools of medicine at Yale University, Bowdoin College, the University of Vermont.
Smith's departure provided both among the faculty and the student body. Former students of Nathan Smith's replaced him on the faculty, drawing medical professionals in the northeast such as Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. to join them. The first hospital at the school was founded by DMS alumnus Dixi Crosby in 1838, who used it to integrate academic instruction with hands-on patient care. In 1870, Carlton Pennington Frost, DMS'57, replaced Crosby as Dean of the school. Under Frost, the curriculum sustained another revamping, this time into a four-year program that included clinical and academic training. Frost presided over the establishment of Mary Hitchcock Memorial Hospital in 1893, built to replace Crosby's defunct hospital. In 1908, The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching conducted a survey of medical education institutions in the United States. At the time, the discipline emphasized "bedside teaching" and providing students experience with a broad variety of illnesses and patients.
The school's rural location was deemed too remote for proper clinical training, the school was advised to stop offering the Doctor of Medicine degree and only provide pre-clinical instruction. The class of 1914 was the last to receive the Doctor of Medicine degree; the drop of clinical instruction worsened the school's problems by driving away talented faculty members. After World War II, the tide of the medical discipline had shifted towards research. Although the school was well regarded for preparing students for clinical education at other institutions, its faculty was criticized for its apparent disinterest in research; the school was criticized for using Dartmouth College's undergraduate program as a feeder school. Based on these criticisms, DMS was placed on "confidential probation" in 1956 by the Association of American Medical Colleges and the Council on Medical Education. At the time of the probation, Dartmouth College had anticipated the medical school's plight, amassing capital to fund a revitalization of the school.
In 1956, the trustees of the College formally agreed to a "refounding" of the school's academic offerings, physical facilities, faculty. S. Marsh Tenney, DMS class of 1944, was appointed to carry out this task. Tenney more than doubled the size of the faculty and the student body, added several new departments, oversaw the construction of five new campus buildings by 1964. In the 1960s, due to a national shortage of physicians and governmen
Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology uses many unique terms and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek and Latin; these terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise, reducing ambiguity and errors. Since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less to change, less to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand. By using precise anatomical terminology such ambiguity is eliminated. An international standard for anatomical terminology, Terminologia Anatomica has been created. Anatomical terminology has quite regular morphology, the same prefixes and suffixes are used to add meanings to different roots; the root of a term refers to an organ or tissue. For example, the Latin names of structures such as musculus biceps brachii can be split up and refer to, musculus for muscle, biceps for "two-headed", brachii as in the brachial region of the arm.
The first word describes what is being spoken about, the second describes it, the third points to location. When describing the position of anatomical structures, structures may be described according to the anatomical landmark they are near; these landmarks may include structures, such as the umbilicus or sternum, or anatomical lines, such as the midclavicular line from the centre of the clavicle. The cephalon or cephalic region refers to the head; this area is further differentiated into the cranium, frons, auris, nasus and mentum. The neck area is called cervical region. Examples of structures named according to this include the frontalis muscle, submental lymph nodes, buccal membrane and orbicularis oculi muscle. Sometimes, unique terminology is used to reduce confusion in different parts of the body. For example, different terms are used when it comes to the skull in compliance with its embryonic origin and its tilted position compared to in other animals. Here, Rostral refers to proximity to the front of the nose, is used when describing the skull.
Different terminology is used in the arms, in part to reduce ambiguity as to what the "front", "back", "inner" and "outer" surfaces are. For this reason, the terms below are used: Radial referring to the radius bone, seen laterally in the standard anatomical position. Ulnar referring to the ulna bone, medially positioned when in the standard anatomical position. Other terms are used to describe the movement and actions of the hands and feet, other structures such as the eye. International morphological terminology is used by the colleges of medicine and dentistry and other areas of the health sciences, it facilitates communication and exchanges between scientists from different countries of the world and it is used daily in the fields of research and medical care. The international morphological terminology refers to morphological sciences as a biological sciences' branch. In this field, the form and structure are examined as well as the changes or developments in the organism, it is functional.
It covers the gross anatomy and the microscopic of living beings. It involves the anatomy of the adult, it includes comparative anatomy between different species. The vocabulary is extensive and complex, requires a systematic presentation. Within the international field, a group of experts reviews and discusses the morphological terms of the structures of the human body, forming today's Terminology Committee from the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, it deals with the anatomical and embryologic terminology. In the Latin American field, there are meetings called Iberian Latin American Symposium Terminology, where a group of experts of the Pan American Association of Anatomy that speak Spanish and Portuguese and studies the international morphological terminology; the current international standard for human anatomical terminology is based on the Terminologia Anatomica. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and was released in 1998.
It supersedes Nomina Anatomica. Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross anatomical structures. For microanatomy, known as histology, a similar standard exists in Terminologia Histologica, for embryology, the study of development, a standard exists in Terminologia Embryologica; these standards specify accepted names that can be used to refer to histological and embryological structures in journal articles and other areas. As of September 2016, two sections of the Terminologia Anatomica, including central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, were merged to form the Terminologia Neuroanatomica; the Terminologia Anatomica has been perceived with a considerable criticism regarding its content including coverage and spelling mistakes and errors. Anatomical terminology is chosen to highlight the relative location of body structures. For instance, an anatomist might describe one band of tissue as "inferior to" another or a physician might describe a tumor as "superficial to" a deeper body structure.
Anatomical terms used to describe location
Articularis genus muscle
The articularis genus is a small skeletal muscle located anteriorly on the thigh just above the knee. It arises from the anterior surface of the lower part of the body of the femur, deep to the vastus intermedius, close to the knee and from the deep fibers of the vastus intermedius, its insertion is on the synovial membrane of the knee-joint. It is supplied by the lateral femoral circumflex artery, it is innervated by branches of the femoral nerve. Flat and variable, sometimes consisting of several separate muscular bundles, this muscle is without a distinct investing fascia and ranges 1.5–3 cm in width. It is distinct from the vastus intermedius, but blended with it. Articularis genus pulls the suprapatellar bursa superiorly during extension of the knee, prevents impingement of the synovial membrane between the patella and the femur; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 471 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Farshchian's Orthopedic Regenerative Series: The Knee.
Medial compartment of thigh
The medial compartment of thigh is one of the fascial compartments of the thigh and contains the hip adductor muscles and the gracilis muscle. The obturator nerve is the primary nerve supplying this compartment; the muscles in the compartment are: gracilis adductor longus adductor brevis adductor magnusThe obturator externus muscle is sometimes considered part of this group, sometimes excluded.. The pectineus is sometimes included in this group, sometimes excluded. Medialthigh at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman