Adductor magnus muscle
The adductor magnus is a large triangular muscle, situated on the medial side of the thigh. It consists of two parts; the portion which arises from the ischiopubic ramus is called the pubofemoral portion, adductor portion, or adductor minimus, the portion arising from the tuberosity of the ischium is called the ischiocondylar portion, extensor portion, or "hamstring portion". Due to its common embryonic origin and action the ischiocondylar portion is considered part of the hamstring group of muscles; the ischiocondylar portion of the adductor magnus is considered a muscle of the posterior compartment of the thigh while the pubofemoral portion of the adductor magnus is considered a muscle of the medial compartment. Those fibers which arise from the ramus of the pubis are short, horizontal in direction, are inserted into the rough line of the femur leading from the greater trochanter to the linea aspera, medial to the gluteus maximus; those fibers from the ramus of the ischium are directed downward and laterally with different degrees of obliquity, to be inserted, by means of a broad aponeurosis, into the linea aspera and the upper part of its medial prolongation below.
The medial portion of the muscle, composed principally of the fibers arising from the tuberosity of the ischium, forms a thick fleshy mass consisting of coarse bundles which descend vertically, end about the lower third of the thigh in a rounded tendon, inserted into the adductor tubercle on the medial condyle of the femur, is connected by a fibrous expansion to the line leading upward from the tubercle to the linea aspera. By its anterior surface the adductor magnus is in relation with the pectineus, adductor brevis, adductor longus, femoral artery and vein, profunda artery and vein, with their branches, with the posterior branches of the obturator artery, obturator vein and obturator nerve. By its posterior surface with the semitendinosus, semimembranosus and gluteus maximus muscle. By its inner border with the gracilis and sartorius. By its upper border with the obturator externus, quadratus femoris, it is a composite muscle as the adductor and hamstring portions of the muscle are innervated by two different nerves.
The adductor portion is innervated by the posterior division of the obturator nerve while the hamstring portion is innervated by the sciatic nerve. At the insertion of the muscle, there is a series of osseoaponeurotic openings, formed by tendinous arches attached to the bone; the upper four openings are small, give passage to the perforating branches of the profunda femoris artery. The lowest is large, transmits the femoral vessels to the popliteal fossa; the upper, lateral part of the adductor magnus is an incompletely separated division considered a separate muscle — the adductor minimus. These two muscles are separated by a branch of the superior perforating branch of the profunda femoris artery; the adductor magnus is a powerful adductor of the thigh, made active when the legs are moved from a wide spread position to one in which the legs parallel each other. The part attached to the linea aspera acts as a lateral rotator; the part which reaches the medial epicondyle acts as a medial rotator when the leg is rotated outwards and flexed, acts to extend the hip joint.
In other tetrapods, the adductor magnus crosses the knee joint and inserts into the tibia. In humans, the distal part of the tendon detaches and becomes the medial collateral ligament of the knee; because of this, the medial collateral ligament of the knee in humans may contain a few muscle fibres as an atavistic variation. Adductor hiatus This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 473 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:14:st-0401 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center PTCentral
Anterior compartment of thigh
The anterior compartment of thigh contains muscles which extend the knee and flex the hip. The anterior compartment is one of the fascial compartments of the thigh that contains groups of muscles together with their nerves and blood supply; the anterior compartment contains the sartorius muscle and the quadriceps femoris group, which consists of the rectus femoris muscle and the three vasti muscles – the vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, the vastus medialis. The iliopsoas is sometimes considered a member of the anterior compartment muscles, as is the articularis genus muscle; the anterior compartment is separated from the posterior compartment by the lateral intermuscular septum and from the medial compartment by the medial intermuscular septum. The nerve of the anterior compartment of thigh is the femoral nerve. Innervation for the quadriceps muscles come from the posterior division of the femoral nerve, while the anterior division gives a lateral and a medial branch, the second being responsible for the innervation of the sartorius muscle.
The iliacus and the psoas major and psoas minor muscles, sometimes considered part of the anterior compartment, do not share the same innervation. Whereas the iliacus is innervated by the femoral nerve, the psoas is innervated by ventral rami of L1-L3; when the external iliac artery crosses the inguinal ligament, it becomes the femoral artery, which supplies blood to the anterior compartment and is the largest blood vessel of the inferior member. The anterior compartment of thigh contains muscles which are extensors of the knee and flexors of the hip joints; the anterior compartment may be affected as part of a compartment syndrome. Antthigh at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman knee/muscles/thigh1 at the Dartmouth Medical School's Department of Anatomy Overview at stanford.edu
Vastus intermedius muscle
The vastus intermedius arises from the front and lateral surfaces of the body of the femur in its upper two-thirds, sitting under the rectus femoris muscle and from the lower part of the lateral intermuscular septum. Its fibers end in a superficial aponeurosis, which forms the deep part of the quadriceps femoris tendon; the vastus medialis and vastus intermedius appear to be inseparably united, but when the rectus femoris has been reflected during dissection a narrow interval will be observed extending upward from the medial border of the patella between the two muscles, the separation may be continued as far as the lower part of the intertrochanteric line, however, the two muscles are continuous. Due to being the deeper middle-most of the quadriceps muscle group, the intermedius is the most difficult to stretch once maximum knee flexion is attained, it cannot be further stretched by hip extension as the rectus femoris can, nor is it accessible to manipulate with massage therapy to stretch the fibres sideways as the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis are.
This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 471 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy PTCentral
Vastus lateralis muscle
The vastus lateralis called the"vastus externus" is the largest and most powerful part of the quadriceps femoris, a muscle in the thigh. Together with other muscles of the quadriceps group, it serves to extend the knee joint, moving the lower leg forward, it arises from a series of flat, broad tendons attached to the femur, attaches to the outer border of the patella. It joins with the other muscles that make up the quadriceps in the quadriceps tendon, which travels over the knee to connect to the tibia; the vastus lateralis is the recommended site for intramuscular injection in infants less than 7 months old and those unable to walk, with loss of muscular tone. The vastus lateralis muscle arises from several areas of the femur, including the upper part of the intertrochanteric line; these form a broad flat tendon that covers the upper three-quarters of the muscle. From the inner surface of the aponeurosis, many muscle fibers originate; some additional fibers arise from the tendon of the gluteus maximus muscle, from the septum between the vastus lateralis and short head of the biceps femoris.
The fibers form a large fleshy mass, attached to a second strong aponeurosis, placed on the deep surface of the lower part of the muscle. This lower aponeurosis becomes contracted and thickened into a flat tendon that attaches to the outer border of the patella, subsequently joins with the quadriceps femoris tendon, expanding the capsule of the knee-joint; the vastus lateralis muscle is innervated by the muscular branches of the femoral nerve. Notes This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 470 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Cross section image: pembody/body18b—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna PTCentral
Inferior gemellus muscle
The inferior gemellus muscle is a muscle of the human body. The Gemelli are two small muscular fasciculi, accessories to the tendon of the Obturator internus, received into a groove between them; the Gemellus inferior arises from the upper part of the tuberosity of the ischium below the groove for the Obturator internus tendon. It blends with the lower part of the tendon of the Obturator internus, is inserted with it into the medial surface of the greater trochanter. Absent. Like the obturator internus muscle, the gemellus superior and gemellus inferior help to steady the femoral head in the acetabulum. Both muscles help to laterally rotate the extended thigh and abduct the flexed thigh at the hip Superior gemellus muscle This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 477 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy PTCentral Anatomy photo:13:st-0401 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center
The adductor canal is an aponeurotic tunnel in the middle third of the thigh, extending from the apex of the femoral triangle to the opening in the adductor magnus, the adductor hiatus. It is an intermuscular cleft situated on the medial aspect of the middle third of the thigh on anterior compartment of thigh, has the following boundaries: Anteromedial wall - sartorius. Posterior wall - adductor longus and adductor magnus. Laterally - vastus medialis, it is covered in by a strong aponeurosis which extends from the vastus medialis, across the femoral vessels to the adductor longus and magnus. Lying on the aponeurosis is the sartorius muscle; the canal contains the subsartorial artery, subsartorial vein, branches of the femoral nerve. The femoral artery with its vein and the saphenous nerve enter this canal through the superior foramen; the saphenous nerve and artery and vein of genus descendens exit through the anterior foramen, piercing the vastoadductor intermuscular septum. The femoral artery and vein exit via the inferior foramen through the inferior space between the oblique and medial heads of adductor magnus.
The eponym'Hunter’s canal' is named for John Hunter. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 627 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:12:07-0103 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Anterior and Medial Thigh Region: Sartorius Muscle and the Adductor Canal" Anatomy photo:12:08-0105 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Anterior and Medial Thigh Region: Structures of the Adductor Canal"
Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology uses many unique terms and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek and Latin; these terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise, reducing ambiguity and errors. Since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less to change, less to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand. By using precise anatomical terminology such ambiguity is eliminated. An international standard for anatomical terminology, Terminologia Anatomica has been created. Anatomical terminology has quite regular morphology, the same prefixes and suffixes are used to add meanings to different roots; the root of a term refers to an organ or tissue. For example, the Latin names of structures such as musculus biceps brachii can be split up and refer to, musculus for muscle, biceps for "two-headed", brachii as in the brachial region of the arm.
The first word describes what is being spoken about, the second describes it, the third points to location. When describing the position of anatomical structures, structures may be described according to the anatomical landmark they are near; these landmarks may include structures, such as the umbilicus or sternum, or anatomical lines, such as the midclavicular line from the centre of the clavicle. The cephalon or cephalic region refers to the head; this area is further differentiated into the cranium, frons, auris, nasus and mentum. The neck area is called cervical region. Examples of structures named according to this include the frontalis muscle, submental lymph nodes, buccal membrane and orbicularis oculi muscle. Sometimes, unique terminology is used to reduce confusion in different parts of the body. For example, different terms are used when it comes to the skull in compliance with its embryonic origin and its tilted position compared to in other animals. Here, Rostral refers to proximity to the front of the nose, is used when describing the skull.
Different terminology is used in the arms, in part to reduce ambiguity as to what the "front", "back", "inner" and "outer" surfaces are. For this reason, the terms below are used: Radial referring to the radius bone, seen laterally in the standard anatomical position. Ulnar referring to the ulna bone, medially positioned when in the standard anatomical position. Other terms are used to describe the movement and actions of the hands and feet, other structures such as the eye. International morphological terminology is used by the colleges of medicine and dentistry and other areas of the health sciences, it facilitates communication and exchanges between scientists from different countries of the world and it is used daily in the fields of research and medical care. The international morphological terminology refers to morphological sciences as a biological sciences' branch. In this field, the form and structure are examined as well as the changes or developments in the organism, it is functional.
It covers the gross anatomy and the microscopic of living beings. It involves the anatomy of the adult, it includes comparative anatomy between different species. The vocabulary is extensive and complex, requires a systematic presentation. Within the international field, a group of experts reviews and discusses the morphological terms of the structures of the human body, forming today's Terminology Committee from the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, it deals with the anatomical and embryologic terminology. In the Latin American field, there are meetings called Iberian Latin American Symposium Terminology, where a group of experts of the Pan American Association of Anatomy that speak Spanish and Portuguese and studies the international morphological terminology; the current international standard for human anatomical terminology is based on the Terminologia Anatomica. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and was released in 1998.
It supersedes Nomina Anatomica. Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross anatomical structures. For microanatomy, known as histology, a similar standard exists in Terminologia Histologica, for embryology, the study of development, a standard exists in Terminologia Embryologica; these standards specify accepted names that can be used to refer to histological and embryological structures in journal articles and other areas. As of September 2016, two sections of the Terminologia Anatomica, including central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, were merged to form the Terminologia Neuroanatomica; the Terminologia Anatomica has been perceived with a considerable criticism regarding its content including coverage and spelling mistakes and errors. Anatomical terminology is chosen to highlight the relative location of body structures. For instance, an anatomist might describe one band of tissue as "inferior to" another or a physician might describe a tumor as "superficial to" a deeper body structure.
Anatomical terms used to describe location