An anthem is a musical composition of celebration used as a symbol for a distinct group the national anthems of countries. And in music theory and religious contexts, it refers more to short sacred choral work and still more to a specific form of Anglican church music. Anthem is derived from the Greek ἀντίφωνα via Old English antefn. Both words referred to antiphons, a call-and-response style of singing; the adjectival form is "anthemic". Anthems were a form of liturgical music. In the Church of England, the rubric appoints them to follow the third collect at morning and evening prayer. Several anthems are included in the British coronation service; the words are selected from Holy Scripture or in some cases from the Liturgy and the music is more elaborate and varied than that of psalm or hymn tunes. Being written for a trained choir rather than the congregation, the Anglican anthem is analogous to the motet of the Catholic and Lutheran Churches but represents an English musical form. Anthems may be described as "verse", "full", or "full with verse", depending on whether they are intended for soloists, the full choir, or both.
Another way of describing an anthem is that it is a piece of music written to fit a certain accompanying text, it is difficult to make any other text fit that same melodic arrangement. It often changes melody and/or meter multiple times within a single song, is sung straight through from start to finish, without repeating the melody for following verses like a normal song. An example of an anthem with multiple meter shifts a, repeated sections is "Claremont", or "Vital Spark of Heav'nly Flame". Another well known example is William Billing's "Easter Anthem" known as "The Lord Is Risen Indeed!" after the opening lines. This anthem is still one of the more popular songs in the Sacred harp tune book; the anthem developed as a replacement for the Catholic "votive antiphon" sung as an appendix to the main office to the Blessed Virgin Mary or other saints. During the Elizabethan period, notable anthems were composed by Thomas Tallis, William Byrd and Farrant but they were not mentioned in the Book of Common Prayer until 1662 when the famous rubric "In quires and places where they sing here followeth the Anthem" first appears.
Early anthems tended to be simple and homophonic in texture, so that the words could be heard. During the 17th century, notable anthems were composed by Orlando Gibbons, Henry Purcell, John Blow, with the verse anthem becoming the dominant musical form of the Restoration. In the 18th century, famed anthems were composed by Croft, James Kent, James Nares, Benjamin Cooke, Samuel Arnold. In the 19th, Samuel Sebastian Wesley wrote anthems influenced by contemporary oratorio which stretch to several movements and last twenty minutes or longer. In the century, Charles Villiers Stanford used symphonic techniques to produce a more concise and unified structure. Many anthems have been composed since this time by organists rather than professional composers and in a conservative style. Major composers have composed anthems in response to commissions and for special occasions. Examples include Edward Elgar's 1912 "Great is the Lord" and 1914 "Give unto the Lord", Benjamin Britten's 1943 "Rejoice in the Lamb", and, on a much smaller scale, Ralph Vaughan Williams's 1952 "O Taste and See" written for the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.
With the relaxation of the rule, in England at least, that anthems should be only in English, the repertoire has been enhanced by the addition of many works from the Latin repertoire. The word "anthem" is used to describe any celebratory song or composition for a distinct group, as in national anthems. Many pop songs are used as sports anthems, notably including Queen's "We Are the Champions" and "We Will Rock You", some sporting events have their own anthems, most notably including UEFA Champions League. Further, some songs are artistically styled as anthems, whether or not they are used as such, including Marilyn Manson's "Irresponsible Hate Anthem", Silverchair's "Anthem for the Year 2000", Toto's "Child's Anthem". A national anthem is a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history and struggles of a country's people, recognized either by that state's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people; the majority of national anthems are hymns in style.
The countries of Latin America, Central Asia, Europe tend towards more ornate and operatic pieces, while those in the Middle East, Oceania and the Caribbean use a more simplistic fanfare. Some countries that are devolved into multiple constituent states have their own official musical compositions for them. A flag anthem is a patriotic musical composition that extols and praises a flag one of a country, in which case it is sometimes called a national flag anthem, it is either sung or performed during or before the raising or lowering of a flag during a ceremony. Most countries use some other patriotic song for this purpose. Ho
Pocklington Reef is a coral reef and a submerged atoll in the far southeast of Papua New Guinea. It is 162.4 km from the closest island, Loa Boloba, a tiny coral islet within the fringing reef near Cape Deliverance, the south east point of Rossel Island in the Louisiade Archipelago, belongs to Milne Bay province, Samarai-Murua District, Yaleyamba Rural Local Level Government Area. Pocklington Reef sits on top of Pocklington Ridge; the reef is up to 4 km wide. Its longer axis is north-east-south-west; the rim of the reef encloses a deep lagoon. The northern rim reaches closer to the surface, several above water rocks with heights between 0.9 and 3 metres high lie along its length. There is a small spit of sand about the size of a football field at the north-east end. There is a shipwreck at that location. On 28 April 1962, Panamanian SS Dona Ourania grounded on Pocklington Reef. Pocklington Reef Marine Park is a proposed marine protected area. Satellite image at the Wayback Machine Maritime boundaries Papua New Guinea Act
Lisbeth Salander is a fictional character created by Swedish author and journalist Stieg Larsson. She is the lead character in Larsson's award-winning Millennium series, along with the journalist Mikael Blomkvist. Salander first appeared in the 2005 novel The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, she reappeared in its sequels: The Girl Who Played with Fire, The Girl Who Kicked the Hornets' Nest, The Girl in the Spider's Web, The Girl Who Takes an Eye for an Eye and The Girl Who Lived Twice. In the only interview he did about the series, Larsson stated that he based the character of Lisbeth Salander on what he imagined Pippi Longstocking might have been like as an adult. In the Millennium series, Salander has the name "V. Kulla" displayed on the door of her apartment on the top floor of Fiskargatan 9 in Stockholm. "V. Kulla" is the name of Pippi Longstocking's house. Another source of inspiration was Therese. A rebellious teenager, she wore black clothing and makeup, told Larsson several times that she wanted to get a tattoo of a dragon.
The author emailed Therese while writing the novels to ask her about her life and how she would react in certain situations. She that she practiced kickboxing. After his death, many of Larsson's friends said the character was inspired by an incident in which Larsson a teenager, witnessed three of his friends gang-raping an acquaintance of his named Lisbeth, he did nothing to stop it. Days wracked with guilt, he begged her forgiveness, which she refused to grant; the incident, he said, haunted him for years afterward, in part moved him to create a character with her name, a rape survivor. The veracity of this story has since been questioned, after a colleague from Expo magazine reported to Rolling Stone that Larsson had told him he had heard the story secondhand and retold it as his own. Lisbeth Salander has red hair. Upon her first appearance in the series, she is described as a pale, androgynous young woman who has hair as short as a fuse, a pierced nose and eyebrows, she has a wasp tattoo, about two centimeters long, on her neck, a tattooed loop around the biceps of her left arm, another loop around her left ankle, a Chinese symbol on her hip, a rose on her left calf.
She has a large tattoo of a dragon on her back that runs from her shoulder, down her spine, ends on her buttocks. This was changed in the English translation to a small dragon on her left shoulder blade. Salander visits a clinic in Genoa between the first and second books, where she had her wasp tattoo removed as she felt it was "too conspicuous and it made her too easy to remember and identify." She has a breast enlargement, having "been flat-chested, as if she had never reached puberty. She thought her breasts had looked ridiculous, she was always uncomfortable showing herself naked". Salander is a world-class computer hacker. Under the pseudonym "Wasp", she becomes a prominent figure in the international hacker community known as the Hacker Republic, she uses her computer skills as a means to earn a living, doing investigative work for Milton Security. She has an eidetic memory, is skillful at concealing her identity. Salander has a complicated relationship with investigative journalist Mikael Blomkvist, which veers back and forth between romance and hostility throughout the series.
She has an on-again/off-again romantic relationship with Miriam "Mimi" Wu. The survivor of a traumatic childhood, Salander is introverted and asocial, has difficulty connecting to people and making friends, she is hostile to men who abuse women, takes special pleasure in exposing and punishing them. This is a major theme throughout the entire series. In the series, Blomkvist speculates, her mental state is never definitively described, however, an ambiguity that many antagonists in the series try to use against her: her sexually abusive public guardian, Nils Bjurman, describes her as "a sick, insane fucking person", while her one-time jailer Dr. Peter Teleborian describes her as "paranoid", "psychotic", "obsessive", an "egomaniacal psychopath". On the other hand, Larsson stated that he thought that she might be looked upon as somewhat of an unusual kind of sociopath, due to her traumatic life experiences and inability to conform to social norms. In the book The Psychology of the Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, on the question "Is Salander a psychopath?", Melissa Burkley, Ph.
D. and Dr. Stephanie Mullins-Sweatt write: "Although Salander is antagonistic and violent, she doesn't appear to lack a conscience, the hallmark trait of a psychopath. While she may not always follow society's rules, she does have her own set of moral principles that abide by a code of right and wrong."Despite all the opinions and speculations about her mental health diagnoses, at the end of the third book in the series Salander is declared sane and competent: In the exhilarating court scene in The Girl Who Kicked the Hornet's Nest, Salander's lawyer, Anita Giannini, tramples Dr. Teleborian as she demonstrates that Lisbeth is'just as sane and intelligent as anyone in this room.' This victory puts Lisbeth back on the right side of the asylum's doors, as her declaration of incompetence is rescinded and there. Sanity prevails." Writers have described Salander as a "fiercely unconventional and darkl
The Warratahs are a band from Wellington, New Zealand. Barry Saunders Wayne Mason Nik Brown John Donahue Marty Jorgensen Clinton Brown Rob Clarkson Mike Knapp Barry Saunders Alan Norman Nik Brown Mo' Newport Sid Limbert - The group have appeared on a few compilations since their inception; the following is a list of these albums. New Zealand: Our Land, Our Music - "Cruisin' on the Interislander" Pagan Gold - "Maureen" The Very Best of Kiwi Country - "Hand of My Heart" and "Maureen" The Warratahs have appeared on albums recorded by other artists; the following is a list of albums by other artists. The Gypsy Pickers and Friends by the Gypsy Pickers - "West Coast Bound"
International Open Data Day is an annual event that promotes awareness and use of open data. It takes place globally in February or March. Typical activities include talks, demonstrations, training or the announcement of open data releases or other milestones in open data. In some countries it occurs along with Code Across coding events. International Open Data Day was first proposed by David Eaves in 2010; the idea followed discussions with Edward Ocampo-Gooding, Mary Beth Baker, Daniel Beauchamp, Pedro Markun, Daniela Silva. Today, the event coordination is done through its google mailing list; the date for the event is chosen by the group members taking into consideration different cultural events. From 2015, Open Knowledge Foundation in cooperation with other NGOs from the open data world, offers mini-grants to support the facilitation of events around the globe. Anyone can organise an Open Data Day event. Organisers are encouraged to record their events in the map section of the Open Data Day website.
December 4, 2010 December 3, 2011 February 23, 2013 February 22, 2014 February 21, 2015 March 5, 2016 March 4, 2017 March 3, 2018 March 2, 2019 March 7, 2020 In 2016, Megan Smith, United State CTO, endorsed Open Data Day with a special video. “ We need you the most. If it weren’t for you, this whole thing wouldn’t be happening. We need ideas and friends to spread the word.” “This day is a chance for people around the world to support and encourage the adoption of open data policies by local and central governments,” said New Zealand Land Information Minister Louise Upston in 2016. Open Access Week https://opendataday.org/ - a dedicated site for Open Data Day, supported by Open Knowledge Foundation Twitter hashtag #opendataday
1984 is an opera by the American conductor and composer Lorin Maazel, with a libretto by J. D. McClatchy and Thomas Meehan; the opera is based on Nineteen Eighty-Four. It premiered on 3 May 2005 at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden in a production directed by Robert Lepage. 1984 was the first opera composed by Maazel, following a conducting career that spanned more than 50 years. The opera was commissioned by August Everding, the director of the Bavarian State Opera, Maazel admitted surprise at the offer. "I'd never thought of writing an opera, it took years to convince me," he stated in an interview prior to the premiere. After Everding died, it appeared the work might not proceed, but Maazel got it picked up by Covent Garden and the Tokyo Opera; this was to be a joint endeavour, but Tokyo backed out, leaving it in limbo again. Maazel stepped in and paid about £400,000 to finance the project through a company he formed for the purpose, Big Brother Productions. By picking up nearly half the costs, he allowed the Royal Opera House to spend what it would for a typical revival from the standard repertoire, rather than a more expensive new production.
This saved the opera from oblivion, but led to charges that the Royal Opera House was spending taxpayer money to support a vanity project. Sir Simon Keenlyside: Winston Nancy Gustafson: Julia Richard Margison: O'Brien Diana Damrau: Gym Instructor/Drunken Woman Lawrence Brownlee: Syme Jeremy White: Parsons Graeme Danby: Charrington Mary Lloyd-Davies: Prole Woman Johnnie Fiori: Café Singer The Demon Barbers: Pub QuartetIn contrast with the conventions of most operas, 1984 casts the hero, Winston, as a baritone, while the lead tenor takes the role of the villain, O'Brien; the part of Julia was sung by soprano Nancy Gustafson in the original production. Other individual parts in the opera include Syme and Charrington, a gym instructor/drunken woman, a prole woman, a café singer. Maazel incorporates an important role for the chorus, which sings a "hate chorus" for the rallies Orwell called Two Minutes Hate, as well as a rousing "National Anthem of Oceania." The telescreen voice was spoken by Jeremy Irons.
The children's chorus was provided by the New London Children's Choir. Production directed by Robert Lepage Set Designer: Carl Fillion Costume Designer: Yasmina Giguère Lighting: Michel Beaulieu Choreography: Sylvain Émard Assistant Director: Neilson Vignola Projection Designer: Jacques Collin Image Designer: Lionel Arnould Properties Designer: Patricia Ruel Sound Effects: Jean-Sébastien Côté Production Manager: Bernard Gilbert Technical Director: Michel Gosselin Technical Consultant: Tobie Horswill Producer for Ex Machina: Michel Bernatchez The British press reviews for the London premiere were negative. Andrew Clements' review in The Guardian berated the effort, declaring that it was "both shocking and outrageous that the Royal Opera, a company of supposed international standards and standing, should be putting on a new opera of such wretchedness and lack of musical worth." Andrew Clark of the Financial Times stated that the "only reason we find this slick perversion of Orwell on the Covent Garden stage is because super-rich Maazel bought his way there by stumping up the production costs," while Rupert Christiansen in the Daily Telegraph dismissed it as "operatic fast food."More sympathetic reviews appeared outside of the British media.
Newsweek, which noted that, while the "score may sound more like an overblown film soundtrack than the meaty orchestration of an opera," the production "effectively conjures up the dispiriting emptiness of Orwell's awful vision. The unusual and inspired choice of a baritone, Simon Keenlyside, for the lead role of Winston, lends the work a darker edge." The Spanish newspaper La Vanguardia praised Maazel by stating "the maestro knows a lot of music and he shows it, just as he shows his prowess in orchestral and vocal work."The opera's Royal Opera House engagement was sold out, as was a engagement at La Scala in Milan, Italy. The production was recorded for DVD release. Since February 2009, the DVD is available for sale in USA. Official website