Gerrit Zalm is a Dutch banker and former politician of the Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy. He served as Minister of Finance and Deputy Prime Minister from 27 May 2003 until 22 February 2007 in the Cabinets Balkenende II and III and he served earlier as Minister of Finance in the Cabinets Kok I and II from 22 August 1994 until 22 July 2002. He served in this position for a year before becoming Minister of Finance. He was the longest serving Minister of Finance in the History of the Netherlands and has been responsible for reforms of the Economy of the Netherlands. Zalm retired from politics after the completion of the term of the Cabinet Balkenende III and he served as chief economist, CFO, of DSB Bank in 2007–2008, and transferred to the newly nationalized ABN AMRO to become its CEO in February 2009. Following his graduation from school in Enkhuizen, Zalm began a study in economics at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. In the same year he joined the Ministry of Finance, from 1983 he worked for the Ministry of Economic Affairs, where he eventually became a director.
In 1988 he was appointed deputy director of the Centraal Planbureau, in 1989 he became director of this institute. In that capacity Zalm had, although not formally a politician, from 1990 he gave lectures at the Vrije Universiteit. Between 22 August 1994 and 22 July 2002, member of the liberal party Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy, was Minister of Finance in the first. On 27 May 2003 he started his term as Minister of Finance, in the second Balkenende administration. On 30 June 2006, he succeeded Laurens Jan Brinkhorst as Minister of Economic Affairs, ad interim, on 7 July 2006 Joop Wijn was appointed as the new Minister of Economic Affairs. On 26 November 2006, Zalm announced in the Sunday morning talk show Buitenhof that he would step down from politics and would probably seek employment in the private sector. He initially held the position of chief economist, but quickly became CFO of the bank after the Dutch central bank DNB had threatened to curtail DSBs financial autonomy. This new position came under scrutiny after Zalms previous employer DSB went bankrupt in 2009, Zalm is a fan of Pinball and during his second term as Minister of Finance he had a pinball machine in his department.
Hendrikus Hendrik Colijn was a Dutch soldier and politician who was Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1925 to 1926 and again from 1933 to 1939. He was the first of six children, all born in Haarlemmermeer, Colijn grew up in the Land of Altena. At the age of 16, he went to an academy in Kampen for officer training. In 1893, he married Helena Groenenberg and was sent to the Dutch East Indies, one of our bullets killed the mother as well as the child. From now on we couldnt give any mercy, it was over, I did give orders to gather a group of 9 women and 3 children who asked for mercy and they were shot all together. It was not a pleasant job, but something else was impossible and our soldiers tacked them with pleasure with their bayonets. After his return to the Netherlands in 1909, he was elected as an Anti Revolutionary Party Member of Parliament for the district Sneek, in 1911, he was appointed Minister of War and revised the Dutch Selective Service System. In May 1918 he acted as an intermediary between the British and Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany to arrange an armistice, resulting in the Kaiser getting refuge in The Netherlands.
In 1910 the Holland Dakota Landbouw Compagnie is established with Hendrikus Colijn and his brother nl, from 1914 to 1922 he served as CEO for the Bataafse Petroleum Maatschappij. In 1925, he became CEO of Royal Dutch Shell, in 1922 he accepted the political leadership of the Anti Revolutionary Party from Dr. Abraham Kuyper. Between 1925-1926 and 1933-1939 he served five times as Prime Minister, during the 1930s his government faced the effects of the Great Depression, which took a heavy toll on the Netherlands. Colijns government responded to the crisis with a very strict fiscal policy. Colijns decision to adhere to the Gold Standard until 1937, long after most of the partners of the Netherlands had dropped it. In 1939, his latest cabinet, with Protestant and liberal ministers but without Catholic ministers, from 1927-1929, he was head of the Dutch delegation to the League of Nations in Geneva. His view was influenced by the show of force the German blitzkrieg had shown. Soon thereafter, he tried to organize resistance but was arrested in June 1941.
The Germans tried to have him confess that he had conspired with the British to invade the Netherlands to serve as an excuse for the German invasion, the very fact that the Gestapo allowed the visit suggests that Himmler was already making contingency plans in case of a German loss. In March 1943 Colijn was put under house arrest in a mountain hotel in Ilmenau
Jelle Zijlstra was a Dutch politician of the now defunct Anti-Revolutionary Party, which merged into the Christian Democratic Appeal in 1977. He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 22 November 1966 until 5 April 1967, an economist by occupation, he became a professor of Economics at the Vrije Universiteit at the age of thirty in 1948. After a slow cabinet formation the third Drees cabinet was formed, the Drees III cabinet fell on 22 December 1958 and a caretaker cabinet was formed by former Prime Minister Louis Beel of the Catholic Peoples Party. Zijlstra remained as Minister of Economic Affairs and simultaneously served as Minister of Finance in the second Beel cabinet, after a quicker formation the new De Quay cabinet was formed on 19 May 1959. Zijlstra remained Minister of Finance under the new Prime Minister Jan de Quay of the Catholic Peoples Party, and served until 14 July 1963, Zijlstra became a Member of the Senate on 25 June 1963 and returned to the Vrije Universiteit as an associate professor of Public finances.
The Dutch political landscape was fractured and Zijlstra was asked to form a cabinet of which the primary task was to write out an early general election in 1967. Zijlstra became Prime Minister of the Netherlands and Minister of General Affairs on 22 November 1966, Zijlstra simultaneously served as Minister of Finance, leading the Zijlstra cabinet until 5 April 1967 when the De Jong cabinet was installed. He had already appointed as President of the bank on 16 September 1966. Zijlstra occupied numerous seats on supervisory boards in the business, Zijlstra was widely respected for his expertise and integrity, and was a godparent of King Willem-Alexander. On 30 April 1983 he was granted the title of Minister of State. After completing his education he studied at the Netherlands School of Economics. Even so, he completed his economics degree in October 1945 as a Master of Economics, immediately after graduating, Zijlstra became a research assistant at the Netherlands School of Economics and was promoted a year to senior research assistant and in 1947 to lecturer.
In 1948 he was awarded a doctorate as a Doctor of Philosophy with cum laude for his thesis on the rate of circulation of money and its bearing on the value of money, in the same year he was appointed professor of economics at the Vrije Universiteit. Following his ministerial career, Zijlstra returned to the Vrije Universiteit as professor of public finance, in 1973 Zijlstra became member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. After the fall of the Cabinet Cals, Zijlstra headed a government as Prime Minister of the Netherlands. He has sat on boards in the public and private sectors. On 11 March 1946 Zijlstra married his childhood sweetheart Hetty Bloksma and they had three daughters and two sons, who were born between 1947 and 1961. The last months of life were dominated by his deteriorating health, jelle Zijlstra died in Wassenaar on 23 December 2001 at the age of eighty-three Zijlstra, and was buried at the cemetery of the local Reformed Church in Wassenaar
Anne Vondeling was a member and former chairman of the Dutch Labour Party. He was a minister in the fourth Drees cabinet and vice prime minister in the Cals cabinet, he became President of the Dutch House of Representatives, in which capacity he put much emphasis on the usage of correct and clear words by the MPs. He became a member of the European Parliament, after his death he was succeeded there by Phili Viehoff. The Anne Vondeling prize is given annually to journalists who write in a clear manner concerning political subjects, media related to Anne Vondeling at Wikimedia Commons
Wouter Jacob Bos (Dutch pronunciation, is a retired Dutch politician of the Labour Party. He returned to the House of Representatives on 23 May 2002, the Labour Party suffered a landslide defeat in the election losing 23 seats, Party leader Ad Melkert was blamed for the defeat and resigned. Bos announced his candidacy for the Labour Party leadership election and won by a landslide with 60% of the votes, the Labour Party was the largest winner of the election, gaining 19 seats and became the second largest party in the House of Representatives. After a failed cabinet formation a new cabinet was formed without the Labour Party, Bos served as opposition leader during the parliamentary period of the Cabinets Balkenende II and III. For the Dutch general election of 2006 Bos again as lijsttrekker lost 9 seats, the following cabinet formation resulted in a coalition agreement which formed the Cabinet Balkenende IV, comprising the Christian Democratic Appeal, Labour Party and the ChristianUnion. Bos became Minister of Finance and Deputy Prime Minister, the cabinet took office on 22 February 2007, the cabinet fell on 20 February 2010 as the result of disagreement between CDA and Labour Party over the extension of ISAF mission in Afghanistan.
Bos resigned his position as Party leader to spend time with his family. Since his retirement from politics, Bos became a partner at the services firm KPMG and is a consultant for the financial sector. On 21 June 2013 Bos was appointed as chairman of the board of directors of VU University Medical Center, Bos was raised in a Doorbraak social-democratic family with a Protestant background in Vlaardingen. His father founded the development cooperation fund ICCO, which he led for many years. Between 1969 and 1974 Bos attended the Protestant elementary school de Beurthonk in Odijk, from 1974 he attended the Protestant high school Christelijk Lyceum in Zeist. In 1980 he graduated specializing in sciences and classics, in 1980–81 he was a Voluntary Instructor at the YMCA National Centre in Curdridge in the United Kingdom. He became a member of the PvdA in 1981, in the same year Bos started studying Political Science at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. In 1982 he took up Economics, in 1988 he graduated cum laude in both subjects.
From 1988 till 1998 he worked for Royal Dutch Shell in various positions, with a background in Shell, he differs from other Dutch leftwing politicians, who rarely have a background in a major multinational corporation. Bos began to work for Shell because he thought that the Dutch Left should not leave the world to the Dutch Right. Between 1988 and 1990 he worked at the Pernis Refinery as a management consultant, in 1992–93 he was stationed as general affairs manager for Shell Romania Exploration, where he was responsible for setting up the Romanian branch of Shell. In 1996 he returned to Europe, and worked as a consultant for new markets for Shell International Oil Products in London, focusing on acquisition in developing LPG markets in South America, in 1998 he left Shell to enter Dutch politics
Franciscus Henricus Johannes Joseph Andriessen is a senior Dutch politician. In 1967 he was first elected to the House of Representatives for the Katholieke Volkspartij, from 1971 to 1977 he was leader of the KVP. In 1977, the KVP merged with two protestant parties to form the Christen-Democratisch Appel, for the CDA, he served as Minister of Finance and European Commissioner for Competition and External Relations and Trade. He is one of few politicians to serve three terms as an EU Commissioner
Nicolaas Gerard Pierson was a Dutch economist and Liberal statesman who served as the chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Netherlands from 1897 until 1901. Pierson was an economics and statistics at the University of Amsterdam and director and presiding director of the De Nederlandsche Bank. He was minister of Finance in the Cabinet Van Tienhoven, during his term of office he introduced an important tax revision. After serving as chairman of the Council of Ministers for four years he took a seat in the House of Representatives for the constituency of Gorinchem from 1905 to 1909, Pierson received an honorary doctorate from the University of Cambridge. Nicolaas Gerard Pierson was born in Amsterdam on 7 February 1839, to Jan Lodewijk Gregory Pierson, the youngest of six children, Pierson had two brothers and three sisters. Two of his brothers and Hendrik Pierson, would become famous pastors and his father was a merchant, while his mother was a Réveil writer. Pierson attended a French school in Amsterdam from 1845 to 1853 and he went to an English school in Brussels in 1853, but switched to a trade school in Amsterdam a year later.
On 2 June 1864, Pierson graduated as a teacher in political economy, Pierson started his career as a merchant. He worked in his fathers glass shop from 1860 to 1861, shortly before his graduation, on 1 April 1864, he became chief executive of De Surinaamsche Bank, and director of De Nederlandsche Bank on 1 June 1868. On 15 January 1885, he was appointed as President of De Nederlandsche Bank by Royal Decree and he took office 1 February the same year, and kept his position until 21 Augustus 1891. Piersons main two economist texts were Grondbeginselen der Staathuiskunde and Leerboek der Staathuiskunde, the latter being translated into English, in 1883 Pierson became member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Pierson served as minister of Finance from 21 August 1891 to 9 May 1894, during his second his second term as minister, he was the chairman of the Council of Ministers, a positional that would be dubbed Prime Minister of the Netherlands. During his time as minister, he reformed the corporate and capital tax systems, and was instrumental in the establishment of Statistics Netherlands, on 26 July 1905, Pierson was elected into the House of Representatives for the constituency of Gorinchem.
He did not seek election in 1909, giving up his seat on 1 August, Pierson is credited with an important role in the Socialist Calculation Debate, when he criticised Karl Kautsky, who had delivered a speech in Delft in 1902. On 30 October 1862, Pierson married Catharina Rutgera Waller in Amsterdam and she died shortly after their marriage, and the couple remained childless. Pierson died on 24 December 1909, in Heemstede, media related to Nicolaas Pierson at Wikimedia Commons
Jonkheer Dirk Jan de Geer was a Dutch nobleman, conservative statesman and prime minister of the Netherlands. He was disgraced for advocating a settlement between the Kingdom and Nazi Germany in 1940. Born in Groningen, he was a descendant of the De Geer family painted by Rembrandt, after receiving his doctorate in law in 1895, De Geer worked as a journalist and acted as town councillor of Rotterdam. He served from 1907 as a Christian Historical) member of Parliament, De Geer was a stable and respected politician before the war. From 1920 to 1921 de Geer served as mayor of Arnhem, between 1921 and 1923 de Geer served as Minister of Finance. He resigned in 1923 because of his disagreement with the Naval Law of 1924, from 1925-1926 he served as minister of the interior and minister of agriculture. He was Prime Minister from 8 March 1926 to 10 August 1929 and he served as Minister of Finances from 1926 to 1933. After the end of the cabinet of Colijn he was again asked to form a government in August 1939, concurrently holding the office of Minister of Finance.
However, he was not suited for the role of minister of a nation at war as he knew himself. When the Germans attacked the Netherlands on 10 May 1940, the situation became very serious. Because of this the government decided to flee to London, when in London, De Geer advocated negotiating a separate peace between the Netherlands and the Third Reich. He damaged the Dutch government and the Dutch morale by openly stating that the war could never be won and he was finally removed from office on the instigation of the iron-willed Queen Wilhelmina, and replaced by Gerbrandy. Later on, he was sent with a package to the Dutch East Indies. He never arrived there, on a stop-over in Portugal he left and this greatly angered Queen Wilhelmina, who called him a traitor and deserter to the Dutch cause. He wrote a controversial leaflet with instructions for the people on how to cooperate with the Germans, Wilhelmina warned him that if he went on to publish this, he would be put on trial after the liberation.
Nonetheless, he went through with the publication, after the war he was duly accused and he was found guilty and stripped of all of his honorary titles. ”He died some 15 years in Soest and still believing in his innocence. His grandson is ex-footballer Boudewijn de Geer, and his great-grandson is current footballer Mike de Geer
Jeroen René Victor Anton Dijsselbloem is a Dutch politician of the centre-left Labour Party. Dijsselbloem studied agricultural economics at Wageningen University and he served as member of the municipal council of Wageningen and as member of the House of Representatives of the Netherlands. In 2007, he led an inquiry on education reform. Jeroen René Victor Anton Dijsselbloem was born on 29 March 1966 in Eindhoven and his parents both worked in education, his father as an English teacher and his mother as schoolteacher. He was raised as a Roman Catholic, Dijsselbloem went to a Roman Catholic primary school in Son en Breugel and the Roman Catholic secondary school Eckartcollege in Eindhoven. Dijsselbloem did research in economics at the University College Cork in Ireland. Dijsselbloem’s interest in politics began in 1983, spurred by the protests against US Pershing cruise missiles that drew hundreds of thousands of Dutch youth into leftwing movements. In 1985, he became a member of the Dutch Labour Party, from 1993 to 1996 he worked for the parliamentary group of the Labour Party.
From 1994 to 1996 he was a member of the council of Wageningen. From 1996 to 2000 he worked at the Ministry of Agriculture and Fishery under Minister Jozias van Aartsen and State Secretary Geke Faber. From 2000 to 2012, Dijsselbloem was a member of parliament for the Labour Party, in 2007, he led a parliamentary inquiry on education reform. He focused on matters of youth care, special education and teachers, since 15 November 2012, Dijsselbloem is the Minister of Finance in the Cabinet Rutte II. From the start, Dijsselbloem emphasised his commitment to fiscal discipline, on 1 February 2013, he nationalized the financial institution SNS Reaal, preventing its bankruptcy. Shareholders and owners of subordinated debt are expropriated with no compensation and others banks of the country have to contribute to the takeover up to one billion euros. By December 2013, Dutch press named Dijsselbloem politician of the year 2013, describing him as “intelligent and good at finding compromises. ”In a response, he said that he was surprised about winning the prize because he not work on the forefront.
”In the Netherlands, he was named as a possible European Commissioner following the 2014 European elections. Spain was the country not to back his candidacy, on fears that it is being dictated to by ‘triple A’ countries. Dijsselbloem struggled early in his 2-1/2 year term and faced criticism for his handling of the Cyprus bail-in, on 24 March 2013, the Financial Times and Reuters reported that Dijsselbloem saw the Cyprus bail-in as a template for resolution of a bankruptcy. However, it was the interviewer that had used the word template, on 26 March 2013, Dijsselbloem said explicitly that he did not consider the Cyprus case to be a template
Willem Drees, Sr. was a Dutch politician of the Labour Party. He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 7 August 1948 until 22 December 1958 and he served as Member of the House of Representatives from May 9,1933 until June 24,1945. He served again a short periode as a Member of the House of Representatives, after the Dutch general election of 1948, Drees became Prime Minister of the Netherlands, leading the Cabinets Drees-Van Schaik, Drees I, Drees II and Drees III. After his premiership, Drees retired from active politics and he was already seventy-two and second oldest person who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands after Johan Rudolph Thorbecke, who died in office at the age of seventy-four. On December 22,1958 he was granted the title of Minister of State. He remained an active observer of Dutch politics, publishing a substantial number of books. Willem Drees died on May 14,1988 at the age of 101 years,314 days and he is praised by many as the most important Dutch politician after World War II for his important contributions and social reforms laws.
Drees was chosen as the best Prime Minister of the Netherlands after World War II after an opinion polling conducted by the VPRO in 2006, Willem Drees was born in Amsterdam on July 5,1886. After completing his education in 1903 he worked until 1906 for the Twentsche Bank in Amsterdam. This was followed by a period as a stenographer with the Municipal Council of Amsterdam, in 1904 he joined the Social Democratic Workers Party, which was absorbed into the Labour Party in 1946. From 1910 to 1931 he was chairman of The Hague branch of the Social Democratic Workers Party, during that period he was alderman for social affairs from 1919 to 1931 and for finance and public works through to 1933. For 22 years between 1919 and 1941 Drees held a seat on the Provincial Council of South Holland and for 19 years between 1927 and 1946 one on the Social Democratic Workers Party executive. From August 7,1948 to December 22,1958 he was Prime Minister of the Netherlands in four successive cabinets Drees I, Drees II, Drees III and Drees IV.
When his Cabinet broke up in December 1958, he was appointed to the position of Minister of State. Due to impaired hearing he stopped attending its meetings in 1966 and he strongly disagreed with New Left tendencies in the membership and strategies of the Dutch Labour Party. He eventually gave up membership of a party he had served for close to 67 years, a wide range of social reforms were carried out durings Drees tenure as prime minister. A law of August 1950 established equal rights for illegitimate children, in 1950, works councils were established, and in 1957 the dismissal of female civil servants upon marriage was abolished. In the field of housing, the Implementation for Rent Act fixed rents and rent increases, while the Regional, in addition, the Reconstruction Act of 1950 established housebuilding programmes, and legislation was passed on house building standards, the uniformity of buildings, and uniform building standards
Mr. Pieter Philip van Bosse was a Dutch liberal politician. Serving as minister of Finance in six cabinets throughout the middle of the 19th century and he led a cabinet himself as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 4 June 1868 to 4 January 1871. Pieter Philip van Bosse was born in Amsterdam, to an insurance broker, three of his siblings died at a young age, and his father died when he was eleven years old, after which his mother successfully took over the brokerage firm. He attended the Athenaeum Illustre of Amsterdam, and studied Roman, after his graduation, Van Bosse settled in Weesp as a manufacturer before returning to Amsterdam to work as a lawyer. In 1845, he was appointed referendary of the import and export rights department of the Ministry of Finance, on 3 June 1848, Van Bosse was appointed Minister of Finance. At the time, most of the revenue came from excises, and Van Bosses attempts to introduce a limited income tax. Under the premiership of Johan Rudolph Thorbecke, Van Bosse introduced reforms that liberalised the economy, a strong supporter of free trade, he procured the right of transit and discontinued levy on shipping rights on the Rhine and the IJssel.
He reformed the coinage by introducing the standard and a simpler system of nickels, quarters. Moreover, he reformed the system, establishing a government monopoly of postal service. Van Bosses first ministership came to an end in 1853 with the fall of Thorbeckes cabinet, Van Bosse was elected to the House of Representatives for the constituency of Rotterdam on 14 June 1853, and was re-elected in 1856. In his five years in opposition, he insisted on tax reform. Moreover, Van Bosse won a seat in the council of The Hague in 1857. He served another term as minister of Finance from 12 March 1858 to 22 February 1860 and this term was marked by the introduction of inheritance tax. In 1860, Van Bosse returned to the House of Representatives for Zutphen, on 3 June 1868, Van Bosse started another term as minister of Finance in a cabinet formed by Thorbecke as formateur. However, Thorbecke did not proceed to lead the cabinet, and Van Bosse himself headed the cabinet as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, as Prime Minister, Van Bosse executed a policy based on financial solidity.
The cabinet was responsible for the abolition of the death penalty, when several ministers in the cabinet resigned for different reasons in late 1870, Van Bosse was forced to resign as Prime Minister. On 4 January 1871, he was succeeded by Thorbecke, Van Bosse was given the honorary title of Minister of State in 1872. However, to his surprise, Van Bosse was appointed Minister of Colonial Affairs at the age of 68 and he ceased to be minister in 1872, but served another term as minister of Colonial Affairs from 1877