Sir Oswald Hornby Joseph Birley was an English portrait painter and royal portraitist in the early part of the 20th century. Birley was born on 31 March 1880 in New Zealand to Hugh Francis Birley while his parents were on a world tour, he was born into an old Lancashire family. Upon returning to England, he was educated at Harrow School and Trinity College, Cambridge, he was the great-grandson of Hugh Hornby Birley. He served in France in World War I, first with the Royal Fusiliers transferring to the Intelligence Corps, obtaining the rank of captain and being awarded the Military Cross in 1919. During World War II he served with the rank of major in the Home Guard. A favourite of the Royal Family, he was well known for his portraits of King George V, Queen Mary, King George VI, Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother and the present monarch Queen Elizabeth II, he painted several regarded portraits of his friend Sir Winston Churchill, a life-size portrait of Mahatma Gandhi, the first to be hung in the Lok Sabha shortly after Indian Independence on 28 August 1947.
Other subjects were many war-time leaders such as Generals Eisenhower and Montgomery, as well as Admiral Mountbatten and Air Marshal Trenchard. He painted the wealthy American financiers Andrew Mellon and J. P. Morgan, the psychiatrist Sir James Crichton-Browne, Welsh architect Sir Clough Williams-Ellis. Birley painted the portrait of Leeds Lord Mayor Sir Charles Lupton, he was knighted in 1949. In 1921, the 41-year-old Birley married the 21-year-old "Irish beauty" Rhoda Vava Mary Lecky Pike. Rhoda founded the Charleston Manor Festival; the couple had two children: Maxime Birley, a model and actress who married Count Alain Le Bailly de La Falaise They divorced in 1950, following a series of her infidelities, including an affair with British ambassador Duff Cooper. She married John McKendry, the curator of prints and photographs at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Mark Birley, an entrepreneur and founder of Annabel's in London, who married Lady Annabel Vane-Tempest-Stewart, they divorced in 1975 after her affair with Birley's friend Sir James Goldsmith.
Birley died at his home in London on 6 May 1952, a week after returning from six-week trip to the United States where he received medical assistance. Birley's descendants include Robin Birley, who married Lucy Ferry, India Jane Birley. Other descendants include the fashion designer and muse Loulou de la Falaise, married to Desmond FitzGerald, 29th Knight of Glin, to Thadée Klossowski de Rola, a French writer, the younger son of the painter Balthus. Loulou's niece is the fashion model Lucie de la Falaise. Charleston Manor Entry on Birley family genealogy Works by Oswald Birley
Clifton College is a co-educational independent school in the suburb of Clifton in the city of Bristol in South West England, founded in 1862. In its early years it was notable for emphasising science rather than classics in the curriculum, for being less concerned with social elitism, e.g. by admitting day-boys on equal terms and providing a dedicated boarding house for Jewish boys, called Polacks. Having linked its General Studies classes with Badminton School, it admitted girls to the Sixth Form in 1987 and is now coeducational. Polacks house closed in 2005, it was at Clifton that the second-highest cricket score recorded was made by 13-year-old A. E. J. Collins in June 1899. Collins's 628 not out stood as the record score till January 2016 when Pranav Dhanawade, 15 years old, of Mumbai, scored 1009 in a school game. Collins was killed in World War I; the school was the headquarters of the US army in Britain for part of the Second World War. Clifton is one of the original 26 English public schools as defined by the Public Schools Yearbook of 1889.
The school takes boys and girls aged between 13 and 18. It has its own preparatory school, Clifton College Preparatory School, for children from 8 to 13 which adjoins the school and shares many of the same facilities. To distinguish it from the junior schools, Clifton College proper is referred to as the'Upper School'. There are around 720 children in the Upper School of. At the start of the 2004 – 2005 school year, a new boarding/day house for girls was opened. In 2005, the school was one of fifty of the country's leading private schools which were found guilty of running an illegal price-fixing cartel, exposed by The Times, which had allowed them to drive up fees for thousands of parents; each school was required to pay a nominal penalty of £10,000 and all agreed to make ex-gratia payments totalling three million pounds into a trust designed to benefit pupils who attended the schools during the period in respect of which fee information was shared. During World War II the heavy bombing of Bristol caused the students to be evacuated to Bude.
In February 1941 the buildings were used by the Royal Army Service Corps as an Officer Cadet Training Unit. In 1942 they were replaced by the United States Army who established it as the headquarters of V Corps and the First Army. Staff were involved in preparations for the Normandy landings under General Omar Bradley. After D-Day the college was taken over as headquarters of the Ninth Army under General William Hood Simpson. To enable rapid travel and communications between the headquarters and dispersed units extensive use was made of light aircraft for travel; some flights used Filton Airfield and others Whitchurch, however the majority were from the college's playing fields at Beggars Bush Field, between the college and Leigh Woods, turned into an airfield. Before 1987, Clifton was a boys-only school with three day-houses. In each of the current seven boarding Houses live the Housemaster or Housemistress and family, an Assistant and the Matron. In addition, each House has up to four non-residential Tutors.
Pupils wear ties with different coloured stripes according to their house membership. There are 12 houses in the Upper School of Clifton College, which have an order of precedence based on the date of their foundation. There are houses in Clifton College Preparatory School that are not listed below. Holland's house, a girls day house, was made in 2017 with colours white and navy. Several other houses have existed during the school's history. In WW2, while the school was evacuated to Bude, United House was created from pupils of houses placed in temporary abeyance. Dakyns' House and Brown's House were closed in 1993, Polack's House, which took Jewish boys only, was closed in 2005; these are listed below: In the decades after the school's foundation, with the exception of School House, the Houses were named after the Housemaster at the time, but in the late 19th century this pattern was abandoned, all Houses reverted to the name of their first Housemaster. This nomenclature convention was not however used for Hallward's House (founded in 2004 and named after a former Headmaster, Bertrand Hallward, nor for Worcester House.
When Dakyns' House and Brown's House were merged in September 1993, the original suggestion was to name the new establishment "Dakyns-Brown's House", but following a suggestion from a pupil, the name "Moberly's House" was chosen, commemorating the only teacher, involved in both of the antecedent establishments. The college buildings were designed by the architect Charles Hansom. Only the former was built and a small extra short wing was added in 1866 – this is what now contains the Marshal's office and the new staircase into Big School, it has been designated by English Heritage as a grade II listed building. Hansom was called back in the 1870s and asked to design what is now the Percival Library and the open-cloister classrooms; this project
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press, they are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century; the Press is located on opposite Somerville College, in the suburb Jericho. The Oxford University Press Museum is located on Oxford. Visits are led by a member of the archive staff. Displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary; the university became involved in the print trade around 1480, grew into a major printer of Bibles, prayer books, scholarly works. OUP took on the project that became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century, expanded to meet the ever-rising costs of the work.
As a result, the last hundred years has seen Oxford publish children's books, school text books, journals, the World's Classics series, a range of English language teaching texts. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, beginning with New York City in 1896. With the advent of computer technology and harsh trading conditions, the Press's printing house at Oxford was closed in 1989, its former paper mill at Wolvercote was demolished in 2004. By contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year; the first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood. A business associate of William Caxton, Rood seems to have brought his own wooden printing press to Oxford from Cologne as a speculative venture, to have worked in the city between around 1480 and 1483; the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinus's Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, printer.
Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as "1468", thus pre-dating Caxton. Rood's printing included John Ankywyll's Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century. Records or surviving work are few, Oxford did not put its printing on a firm footing until the 1580s. In response to constraints on printing outside London imposed by the Crown and the Stationers' Company, Oxford petitioned Elizabeth I of England for the formal right to operate a press at the university; the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxford's case. Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, a decree of Star Chamber noted the legal existence of a press at "the universitie of Oxforde" in 1586. Oxford's chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the university's printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute.
Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers' Company and the King's Printer, obtained a succession of royal grants to aid it; these were brought together in Oxford's "Great Charter" in 1636, which gave the university the right to print "all manner of books". Laud obtained the "privilege" from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford; this "privilege" created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although it was held in abeyance. The Stationers' Company was alarmed by the threat to its trade and lost little time in establishing a "Covenant of Forbearance" with Oxford. Under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes.
Laud made progress with internal organization of the Press. Besides establishing the system of Delegates, he created the wide-ranging supervisory post of "Architypographus": an academic who would have responsibility for every function of the business, from print shop management to proofreading; the post was more an ideal than a workable reality, but it survived in the loosely structured Press until the 18th century. In practice, Oxford's Warehouse-Keeper dealt with sales and the hiring and firing of print shop staff. Laud's plans, hit terrible obstacles, both personal and political. Falling foul of political intrigue, he was executed in 1645, by which time the English Civil War had broken out. Oxford became a Royalist stronghold during the conflict, many printers in the city concentrated on producing political pamphlets or sermons; some outstanding mathematical and Orientalist works emerged at this time—notably, texts edited by Edward Pococke, the Regius Professor of Hebrew—but no university press on Laud's model was possible before the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660.
It was established by the vice-chancellor, John Fell, Dean of Christ Church, Bishop of Oxford, Secretary to the Delegates. Fell regarded Laud as a martyr, was determined to honour his vision of the Press. Using the provisions of the Great Charter, Fell persuaded Oxford to refuse any further payments from the Stationers and drew
Caroline Birley was an English geologist, fossil collector and children's author. As a geologist, she was noteworthy, not so much for the scientific value of her collection, but for the regard with which she was held in a predominately male profession, her interest in geology started with stones she collected as a child and her enthusiasm continued until her death. She was born at York Place, Oxford Road in the Chorlton-on-Medlock area of Manchester, the fourth and last child of Thomas Hornby Birley J. P. and Anne Leatham. Her brother, was an amateur footballer who won the FA Cup three times in the 1870s and made two appearances for England, her uncle was Hugh Birley, a Conservative Member of Parliament for Manchester from 1868 to 1883. In 1857, she moved with her family from York Place to Highfield in Heaton Mersey and in 1864, to Hart Hill Mansion and again to 4 Seedley Terrace in 1884; as a child, Birley developed an interest in geology and on her family holidays on the Isle of Man she would collect stones showing unusual peculiarities.
At the age of 12, she became a subscriber to the Geological Magazine in its first year of publication in 1864. At first, she paid for her subscription from her own pocket before her grandmother made her an allowance to cover the cost. In 1884, she moved from Hart Hill Mansion to nearby Seedley Terrace. Before long, her collection had outgrown her home so she erected an iron building in her garden, which she named the "Seedley Museum". In 1887, Birley joined the British Association for the Advancement of Science following the Association's conference in Manchester; the following year she became a life member, attending the Association's annual meetings every year until her death. In 1890, she joined the Geologists' Association and, in 1894, she joined the Malacological Society of London, founded the year before. Between 1887 and 1905, Birley travelled abroad to collect geological specimens accompanied by her friend Louisa Copland; these field trips included: January 1887 – Egypt June 1887 – Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy July 1888 – Faxe, Denmark May 1889 – Faeroe Islands May 1890 – Faeroe Islands July 1891 – Faxe, Denmark November 1891 – Malta November 1892 – Algiers, Algeria November 1893 – Corsica and Italy August 1897 – Canada and Colorado April 1899 – The Azores April 1902 – Boulogne, France July 1905 – Cape Town, South AfricaOn her trips to Faxe in Denmark in 1888 and 1891, she collected a large amount of Late Cretaceous fossils.
In the November 1901 edition of The Geological Magazine, Dr. Henry Woodward described Birley's finds and named two new species of the genus Dromiopsis after Birley and her friend, Louisa Copland. In naming Dromiopsis birleyae, Woodward wrote: I dedicate this species to my friend Miss Caroline Birley, who has given so much time and attention to the study of geology and palaeontology both at home and abroad, whose private collection bears testimony to her devotion to science. During her 1889 visit to the Faeroes, she collected six hundredweight of rocks containing zeolites from the islands of Streymoy, Nólsoy and Eysturoy. In 1891, she and Louisa Copland contributed an article on the flora of the Faeroe Islands to The Journal of Botany. In September 1899, she discovered a new genus and species of crab in the gault clays at Folkestone, Kent, she visited Ormara in Baluchistan. She wrote several books for children, many of which were published by the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge.
Her books include: We are Seven A Heap of Stones Undine. What Can the Matter Be? A Tale of Churchill Wakes Eyes to the Blind: A tale Gerald's Rescue Jessamine and her Lesson Books, How She Missed the Gipsey Tea The Linen Room Window, or "What snow conceals, the sun reveals" She contributed to two volumes of short stories: My Birthday Present: A Series of Original Birthday Stories for Boys and Girls from Six to Twelve Years of Age Contributors:Sabine Baring-Gould, Caroline Birley, Helen Wilmot-Buxton, Ethel M. Wilmot-Buxton, Frances Charlton and Frances Clare. Jack Frost's Little Prisoners: A collection of stories for children from four to twelve years of age Contributors: Stella Austin, Sabine Baring-Gould, Caroline Birley, Lord Brabourne, Lucy Fletcher-Massey, Mrs. Molesworth, Anne Thackeray Ritchie, Ethel M. Wilmot-Buxton and Charlotte Mary Yonge. Caroline Birley's contribution was A Christmas Wheatsheaf. My Lady Bountiful: A true tale of Harriet, Duchess of St. Albans In 1896, she moved to Brunswick Gardens in Kensington, to where she relocated her collection.
Towards the end of her life, she returned to Pendleton. She spent most of her days in the British Museum and arranging her specimens. Despite suffering from ill-health, she attended the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in York in August 1906, her health continued to deteriorate in the autumn, but she still continued to label her latest finds, which included a large slab of New Red Sandstone from the Stourton Quarries near Birkenhead with Labyrinthodont footprints on its surface. In February 1907, she died of a heart attack on 15 February, she was buried at Lingfield Church, near the ho
Hadrian's Wall called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian. It ran from the banks of the River Tyne near the North Sea to the Solway Firth on the Irish Sea, was the northern limit of the Roman Empire north of which were the lands of the northern Ancient Britons, including the Picts, it had a stone wall. There were milecastles with two turrets in between. There was a fort about every five Roman miles. From north to south, the wall comprised a ditch, military way and vallum, another ditch with adjoining mounds, it is thought the milecastles were staffed with static garrisons, whereas the forts had fighting garrisons of infantry and cavalry. In addition to the wall's defensive military role, its gates may have been customs posts. A significant portion of the wall still stands and can be followed on foot along the adjoining Hadrian's Wall Path; the largest Roman archaeological feature anywhere, it runs a total of 73 miles in northern England.
Regarded as a British cultural icon, Hadrian's Wall is one of Britain's major ancient tourist attractions. It was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987. In comparison, the Antonine wall, thought by some to be based on Hadrian's wall, was not declared a World Heritage site until 2008, it is a common misconception that Hadrian's Wall marks the boundary between Scotland. In fact Hadrian's Wall lies within England and has never formed the Anglo-Scottish border. While it is less than 0.6 mi south of the border with Scotland in the west at Bowness-on-Solway, in the east at Wallsend it is as much as 68 miles away. Hadrian's Wall was 117.5 km long. East of the River Irthing, the wall was made from squared stone and measured 3 metres wide and 5 to 6 metres high, while west of the river the wall was made from turf and measured 6 metres wide and 3.5 metres high. These dimensions do not include the wall's ditches and forts; the central section measured eight Roman feet wide on a 3 m base. Some parts of this section of the wall survive to a height of 3 m.
South of the wall, a large ditch was dug, with adjoining parallel mounds, one on either side. This is known today as the Vallum though the word vallum in Latin is the origin of the English word wall, does not refer to a ditch. In many places – for example Limestone Corner – the Vallum is better preserved than the wall, robbed of much of its stone. Hadrian's Wall extended west from Segedunum at Wallsend on the River Tyne, via Carlisle and Kirkandrews-on-Eden, to the shore of the Solway Firth, ending a short but unknown distance west of the village of Bowness-on-Solway; the A69 and B6318 roads follow the course of the wall from Newcastle upon Tyne to Carlisle along the northern coast of Cumbria. Although the curtain wall ends near Bowness-on-Solway, this does not mark the end of the line of defensive structures; the system of milecastles and turrets is known to have continued along the Cumbria coast as far as Risehow, south of Maryport. For classification purposes, the milecastles west of Bowness-on-Solway are referred to as Milefortlets.
Hadrian's Wall was planned before Hadrian's visit to Britain in 122. According to restored sandstone fragments found in Jarrow which date from 118 or 119, it was Hadrian's wish to keep "intact the empire", imposed on him via "divine instruction". Although Hadrian's biographer wrote " was the first to build a wall 80 miles long to separate the Romans from the barbarians", reasons for the construction of the wall vary, no recording of an exact explanation survives. Theories have been presented by historians of an expression of Roman power and Hadrian's policy of defence before expansion. On his accession to the throne in 117, there was unrest and rebellion in Roman Britain and from the peoples of various conquered lands across the Empire, including Egypt, Judea and Mauritania; these troubles may have influenced Hadrian's plan to construct the wall as well as his construction of limites in other areas of the Empire, but to what extent is unknown. Scholars disagree over how much of a threat the inhabitants of northern Britain presented and whether there was any economic advantage in defending and garrisoning a fixed line of defences like the Wall, rather than conquering and annexing what has become the Scottish Lowlands and defending the territory with a loose arrangement of forts.
The limites of Rome were never expected to stop tribes from migrating or armies from invading, while a frontier protected by a palisade or stone wall would help curb cattle-raiders and the incursions of other small groups, the economic viability of constructing and keeping guarded a wall 72 miles long along a sparsely populated border to stop small-scale raiding is dubious. Another possible explanation for the wall is the degree of control it would have provided over immigration and customs. Limites did not mark the boundaries of the empire: Roman power and influence extended beyond the walls. People within and beyond the limites travelled through it each day when conducting business, organised check-points like those offered by Hadrian's Wall provided good opportunities for taxation. With watch towers only a short distance from gateways in the limites, patrolling legionaries could have kept track of
Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus near Santiponce, Spain into a Hispano-Roman family, his father was a first cousin of Emperor Trajan. He married Trajan's grand-niece Vibia Sabina early in his career, before Trajan became emperor and at the behest of Trajan's wife Pompeia Plotina. Plotina and Trajan's close friend and adviser Lucius Licinius Sura were well disposed towards Hadrian; when Trajan died, his widow claimed that he had nominated Hadrian as emperor before his death. Rome's military and Senate approved Hadrian's succession, but four leading senators were unlawfully put to death soon after, they had opposed Hadrian or seemed to threaten his succession, the senate held him responsible for it and never forgave him. He earned further disapproval among the elite by abandoning Trajan's expansionist policies and territorial gains in Mesopotamia, Assyria and parts of Dacia. Hadrian preferred to invest in the development of stable, defensible borders and the unification of the empire's disparate peoples.
He is known for building Hadrian's Wall. Hadrian energetically pursued personal interests, he visited every province of the Empire, accompanied by an Imperial retinue of specialists and administrators. He encouraged military preparedness and discipline, he fostered, designed, or subsidised various civil and religious institutions and building projects. In Rome itself, he constructed the vast Temple of Venus and Roma. In Egypt, he may have rebuilt the Serapeum of Alexandria, he was an ardent admirer of Greece and sought to make Athens the cultural capital of the Empire, so he ordered the construction of many opulent temples there. His intense relationship with Greek youth Antinous and Antinous' untimely death led Hadrian to establish a widespread cult late in his reign, he suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea. Hadrian's last years were marred by chronic illness, he saw the Bar Kokhba revolt as the failure of his panhellenic ideal. He executed two more senators for their alleged plots against him, this provoked further resentment.
His marriage to Vibia Sabina had been childless. Hadrian died the same year at Baiae, Antoninus had him deified, despite opposition from the Senate. Edward Gibbon includes him among the Empire's "Five good emperors", a "benevolent dictator", he has been described as enigmatic and contradictory, with a capacity for both great personal generosity and extreme cruelty and driven by insatiable curiosity, self-conceit, ambition. Modern interest was revived thanks to Marguerite Yourcenar's novel Mémoires d'Hadrien. Hadrian was born on 24 January 76 in Italica in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica, he was named Publius Aelius Hadrianus. His father was Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer, a senator of praetorian rank and raised in Italica but paternally linked, through many generations over several centuries, to a family from Hadria, an ancient town in Picenum; the family had settled in Italica soon after its founding by Scipio Africanus. Hadrian's mother was Domitia Paulina, daughter of a distinguished Hispano-Roman senatorial family from Gades.
His only sibling was Aelia Domitia Paulina. Hadrian's great-nephew, Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator, from Barcino would become Hadrian's colleague as co-consul in 118; as a senator, Hadrian's father would have spent much of his time in Rome. In terms of his career, Hadrian's most significant family connection was to Trajan, his father's first cousin, of senatorial stock, had been born and raised in Italica. Hadrian and Trajan were both considered to be – in the words of Aurelius Victor – "aliens", people "from the outside". Hadrian's parents died in 86, he and his sister became wards of Publius Acilius Attianus. Hadrian was physically active, enjoyed hunting. Hadrian's enthusiasm for Greek literature and culture earned him the nickname Graeculus. Trajan married Paulina off to the three-times consul Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus. Hadrian's first official post in Rome was as a judge at the Inheritance court, one among many vigintivirate offices at the lowest level of the cursus honorum that could lead to higher office and a senatorial career.
He served as a military tribune, first with the Legio II Adiutrix in 95 with the Legio V Macedonica. During Hadrian's second stint as tribune, the frail and aged reigning emperor Nerva adopted Trajan as his heir, he was transferred to Legio XXII Primigenia and a third tribunate. Hadrian's three tribunates gave him some career advantage. Most scions of the older senatorial families might serve one, or at most two military tribunates as a prerequisite to higher office; when Nerva died in 98, Hadrian is said to have hastened to Trajan, to inform him ahead of the official envoy sent by the go
Vindolanda was a Roman auxiliary fort just south of Hadrian's Wall in northern England, which it pre-dated. Archaeological excavations of the site show it was under Roman occupation from 85 AD to 370 AD. Located near the modern village of Bardon Mill in Northumberland, it guarded the Stanegate, the Roman road from the River Tyne to the Solway Firth, it is noted for the Vindolanda tablets, a set of wooden leaf-tablets that were, at the time of their discovery, the oldest surviving handwritten documents in Britain. The first post-Roman record of the ruins at Vindolanda was made by the antiquarian William Camden, in his Britannia. Occasional travellers reached the site over the next two hundred years, the accounts they left predate much of the stone-stealing that has damaged the site; the military bath-house was still roofed when Christopher Hunter visited the site in 1702. In about 1715 an excise officer named John Warburton found an altar there. In 1814 the first real archaeological work was begun, by the Rev. Anthony Hedley.
Hedley died before writing up his discoveries. Little more was done for a long time, although in 1914 a workman found another altar at the site, set up by the civilians living at the fort in honour of the Divine House and Vulcan. Several names for the site are used in the early records, including "Chesters on Caudley", "Little Chesters", "The Bower", "Chesterholm"; the garrison consisted of cavalry auxilia, not components of Roman legions. From the early third century onwards, this was the Cohors IV Gallorum equitata known as the Fourth Cohort of Gauls, it had been presumed that this title was, by this time, purely nominal, with auxiliary troops being recruited locally, but an inscription found in a recent season of excavations suggests that native Gauls were still to be found in the regiment and that they liked to distinguish themselves from British soldiers. The inscription reads: CIVES GALLI DE GALLIAE CONCORDES QUE BRITANNI A translation of this is "The troops from Gaul dedicate this statue to the goddess Gallia with the full support of the British-born troops".
The earliest Roman forts at Vindolanda were built of turf. The remains are now buried as much as 4 metres deep in the anoxic waterlogged soil. There are five timber forts, built one after the other; the first, a small fort, was built by the 1st Cohort of Tungrians about 85 AD. By about 95 AD this was replaced by a larger wooden fort built by the 9th Cohort of Batavians, a mixed infantry-cavalry unit of about 1000 men; that fort was repaired in about 100 AD under the command of the Roman prefect Flavius Cerialis. When the 9th Cohort of Batavians left in 105 AD, their fort was demolished; the 1st Cohort of Tungrians returned to Vindolanda, built a larger wooden fort, remained here until Hadrian's Wall was built around 122 AD, when they moved, most to Vercovicium. Soon after Hadrian's Wall was built, most of its men were moved north to the Antonine Wall. A stone fort was built at Vindolanda for the 2nd Cohort of Nervians. From 208 to 211 AD, there was a major rebellion against Rome in Britain, the Emperor Septimius Severus led an army to Britain to cope with it personally.
The old stone fort was demolished, replaced by an unconventional set of army buildings on the west, an unusual array of many round stone huts where the old fort had been. Some of these circular huts are visible by the north and the southwest walls of the final stone fort; the Roman army may have built these to accommodate families of British farmers in this unsettled period. Septimius Severus died at York in 211 AD; the stone buildings were demolished, a large new stone fort was built where the huts had been, for the 4th Cohort of Gauls. A vicus, a self-governing village, developed to the west of the fort; the vicus contains several rows of each containing several one-room chambers. Most are not connected to the existing drainage system; the one that does was a butchery where, for health reasons, an efficient drain would have been important. A stone altar found in 1914 proves that the settlement was a vicus, that it was named Vindolanda. To the south of the fort is a thermae, that would have been used by many of the individuals on the site.
The stone fort, the adjoining village, remained in use until about 285 AD, when it was abandoned for unknown reasons. About 300, the fort was again rebuilt, but the vicus was not reoccupied, so most the area remained too unsafe for life outside the defended walls of the fort. In about 370, the fort was repaired by irregular soldiers. There is no evidence for the traditional view that Roman occupation ended in 410. In the 1930s, the house at Chesterholm where the museum is now located was purchased by archaeologist Eric Birley, interested in excavating the site; the excavations have been continued by his sons and Anthony, his grandson, Andrew Birley, into the present day. They are undertaken each summer, some of the archaeological deposits reach depths of six metres; the anoxic conditions at these depths have preserved thousands of artefacts, such as wooden writing tablets and over 160 boxwood combs, that disintegrate in the ground, thus providing an opportunity to gain a fuller understanding of Roman life – military and otherwise – on the northern frontier.
A study of spindle whorls from t