Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
The Holocaust known as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by local collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews—around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe—between 1941 and 1945. Jews were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event during the Holocaust era, in which Germany and its collaborators persecuted and murdered other groups, including Slavs, the Roma, the "incurably sick", political and religious dissenters such as communists and Jehovah's Witnesses, gay men. Taking into account all the victims of Nazi persecution, the death toll rises to over 17 million. Germany implemented the persecution of the Jews in stages. Following Adolf Hitler's appointment as German Chancellor in January 1933, the regime built a network of concentration camps in Germany for political opponents and those deemed "undesirable", starting with Dachau on 22 March 1933. After the passing of the Enabling Act on 24 March, which gave Hitler plenary powers, the government began isolating Jews from civil society, which included a boycott of Jewish businesses in April 1933 and enacting the Nuremberg Laws in September 1935.
On 9–10 November 1938, during Kristallnacht, Jewish businesses and other buildings were ransacked, smashed or set on fire throughout Germany and Austria, which Germany had annexed in March that year. After Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, triggering World War II, the regime set up ghettos to segregate Jews. Thousands of camps and other detention sites were established across German-occupied Europe; the deportation of Jews to the ghettos culminated in the policy of extermination the Nazis called the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question", discussed by senior Nazi officials at the Wannsee Conference in Berlin in January 1942. As German forces captured territories in the East, all anti-Jewish measures were radicalized. Under the coordination of the SS, with directions from the highest leadership of the Nazi Party, killings were committed within Germany itself, throughout occupied Europe, across all territories controlled by the Axis powers. Paramilitary death squads called Einsatzgruppen, in cooperation with Wehrmacht police battalions and local collaborators, murdered around 1.3 million Jews in mass shootings between 1941 and 1945.
By mid-1942, victims were being deported from the ghettos in sealed freight trains to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, they were killed in gas chambers. The killing continued until the end of World War II in Europe in May 1945; the term holocaust, first used in 1895 to describe the massacre of Armenians, comes from the Greek: ὁλόκαυστος, translit. Holókaustos; the Century Dictionary defined it in 1904 as "a sacrifice or offering consumed by fire, in use among the Jews and some pagan nations". The biblical term shoah, meaning "destruction", became the standard Hebrew term for the murder of the European Jews, first used in a pamphlet in 1940, Sho'at Yehudei Polin, published by the United Aid Committee for the Jews in Poland. On 3 October 1941 the cover of the magazine The American Hebrew used the phrase "before the Holocaust" to refer to the situation in France, in May 1943 The New York Times, discussing the Bermuda Conference, referred to the "hundreds of thousands of European Jews still surviving the Nazi Holocaust".
In 1968 the Library of Congress created a new category, "Holocaust, Jewish". The term was popularized in the United States by the NBC mini-series Holocaust, about a fictional family of German Jews, in November 1978 the President's Commission on the Holocaust was established; as non-Jewish groups began to include themselves as Holocaust victims too, many Jews chose to use the terms Shoah or Churban instead. The Nazis used the phrase "Final Solution to the Jewish Question". Most Holocaust historians define the Holocaust as the enactment, between 1941 and 1945, of the German state policy to exterminate the European Jews. In Teaching the Holocaust, Michael Gray, a specialist in Holocaust education, offers three definitions: "the persecution and murder of Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators between 1933 and 1945", which views the events of Kristallnacht in Germany in 1938 as an early phase of the Holocaust; the third definition fails, Gray writes, to acknowledge that only the Jewish people were singled out for annihilation.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum defines the Holocaust as the "systematic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators", distinguishing between the Holocaust and the targeting of other groups during "the era of the Holocaust". According to Yad Vashem, Israel's Holocaust memorial, most historians regard the start of the "Holocaust era" as January 1933, when Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany. Other victims of the Holocaust era include. Hitler came to see the Jews as "uniquely dangerous to Germany", according to Peter Hayes, "and therefore uniquely destined t
Book of Judith
The Book of Judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the Septuagint and the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christian Old Testament of the Bible, but excluded from Jewish texts and assigned by Protestants to the Apocrypha. The book contains numerous historical anachronisms, why some scholars now accept it as non-historical; the name Judith is the feminine form of Judah. It is not clear whether the Book of Judith was written in Hebrew or in Greek; the oldest existing version is the Septuagint and might either be a translation from Hebrew or composed in Greek. Details of vocabulary and phrasing point to a Greek text written in a language modeled on the Greek developed through translating the other books in the Septuagint; the extant Hebrew language versions, whether identical to the Greek, or in the shorter Hebrew version, date to the Middle Ages. The Hebrew versions name important figures directly such as the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes, thus placing the events in the Hellenistic period when the Maccabees battled the Seleucid monarchs.
The Greek version uses deliberately cryptic and anachronistic references such as "Nebuchadnezzar", a "King of Assyria", who "reigns in Nineveh", for the same king. The adoption of that name, though unhistorical, has been sometimes explained either as a copyist's addition, or an arbitrary name assigned to the ruler of Babylon. Although it was written by a Jew during the Second Temple period, there is no evidence that the Book of Judith was considered authoritative or a candidate for canonicity by any Jewish group; the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible does not contain it, nor was it found among the Dead Sea Scrolls or referred to in any early Rabbinic literature. Reasons for its exclusion include the lateness of its composition, possible Greek origin, open support of the Hasmonean dynasty, the brash and seductive character of Judith herself. However, after disappearing from circulation among Jews for over a millennium, references to the Book of Judith, the figure of Judith herself, resurfaced in the religious literature of crypto-Jews who escaped capitulation by the Caliphate of Córdoba.
The renewed interest took the form of "tales of the heroine, liturgical poems, commentaries on the Talmud, passages in Jewish legal codes."Although the text itself does not mention Hanukkah, it became customary for a Hebrew midrashic variant of the Judith story to be read on the Shabbat of Hanukkah. That midrash, whose heroine is portrayed as gorging the enemy on cheese before cutting off his head, may have formed the basis of the Jewish tradition to eat dairy products during Hanukkah. In that respect, Medieval Jewry appears to have viewed Judith as the Hasmonean counterpart to Queen Esther, the heroine of the holiday of Purim; the textual reliability of the Book of Judith was taken for granted, to the extent that Biblical commentator Nachmanides quoted several passages from a Peshitta of Judith in support of his rendering of Deuteronomy 21:14. Although early Christians, such as Clement of Rome and Clement of Alexandria and used the Book of Judith, some of the oldest Christian canons, including the Bryennios List, that of Melito of Sardis and Origen, do not include it.
Jerome, when he produced his Latin translation, counted it among the apocrypha, as did Athanasius, Cyril of Jerusalem and Epiphanius of Salamis. However, such influential fathers of the Church, including Augustine and Hilary of Poitiers, considered Judith sacred scripture, Pope Innocent I declared it part of the canon. In Jerome's Prologue to Judith he claims that the Book of Judith was "found by the Nicene Council to have been counted among the number of the Sacred Scriptures", it was accepted by the councils of Rome, Carthage and dogmatically defined as canonical by the Roman Catholic Church in 1546 in the Council of Trent. The Eastern Orthodox Church accepts Judith as inspired scripture, as was confirmed in the Synod of Jerusalem in 1672; the Episcopal Church calls for a reading of Judith 9:1,11-14 at Mass on the Feast of St Mary Magdalen, July 22. Most Christian Churches recognize this Book as canonical but only the Coptic Church celebrates the title character's memory in its Calendar of Saints on 17 September.
The canonicity of Judith is rejected by Protestants, who accept as the Old Testament only those books that are found in the Jewish canon. Martin Luther viewed the book as an allegory, but listed it as the first of the eight writings in his Apocrypha; the story revolves around Judith, a daring and beautiful widow, upset with her Jewish countrymen for not trusting God to deliver them from their foreign conquerors. She goes with her loyal maid to the camp of the enemy general, with whom she ingratiates herself, promising him information on the Israelites. Gaining his trust, she is allowed access to his tent one night, she decapitates him takes his head back to her fearful countrymen. The Assyrians, having lost their leader and Israel is saved. Though she is courted by many, Judith remains unmarried for the rest of her life; the Book of Judith can be split into two parts or "acts" of equal length. Chapters 1–7 describe the rise of the threat to Israel, led by the evil king Nebuchadnezzar and his syco
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
William Herndon (lawyer)
William Henry Herndon was a law partner and biographer of President Abraham Lincoln. He was elected mayor of Springfield, Illinois. Herndon was born the first child of Archer G. Herndon and his wife, on December 25, 1818, in Greensburg, Kentucky; the family moved to Illinois in 1820. Another child was born to his wife in Macon County, Illinois. By the spring of 1821 the family was living in Sangamon County; when William was five, the family settled in the German Prairie settlement located five miles northeast of Springfield. Two more children were born to the family there. Herndon's father built the first tavern in Springfield and was engaged in other forms of mercantile business from 1825 to 1836, he was involved in politics as state senator, was one of the men instrumental in having the state capital moved to Springfield. William, known as "Billy" at the time, worked for his father at the Indian Queen hotel before he attended college, it was one of the first hotels in Springfield. On March 26, 1840 Herndon married Mary J. Maxcy in Sangamon County.
Mary's family were early Illinois settlers. Mary was born in Kentucky on July 27, 1822 to Maria Cook Maxcy and James Maxcy, a veteran of the War of 1812. James' father, Revolutionary War veteran Joel Maxcy, arrived in Sangamon County in 1827 with his second wife and died the following month. Mary and William had six children: James, Beverly, Elizabeth and Mary. Mary Herndon died on August 18, 1860; the following summer, on July 31, 1861, Herndon married Anna Miles with whom he had three more children: Nina Belle and Minnie. The family moved to a farm in Fancy Creek Township located six miles north of Springfield. Herndon attended Illinois College from 1836 to 1837 in Jacksonville, but he had "an unsuccessful year". Following this, he returned to Springfield and clerked at the Joshua Speed store, where he engaged in debates and poetry readings with Abraham Lincoln, their conversations and readings were sometimes practice sessions before presenting material to the Young Men's Lyceum, where both Herndon and Lincoln were members.
It was an organization of aspiring young men. In 1840 Herndon began studying law at Lincoln law practice. Although employed at Joshua Speed's store, he studied up to 14 hours per day after work. In November 1844, Herndon passed the bar examination. In 1854, ten years after beginning his partnership with Lincoln, he was elected mayor of Springfield, Illinois. Both men were members of the Whig Party. In 1856 Herndon was one of the organizers of the fledgling Republican Party after the dissolution of the Whigs. Lincoln joined the Republican Party, hoping to "fuse" people of disparate political affiliations who wanted to end slavery. Herndon loved to learn and developed "one of the best private libraries in Springfield" including works by historians, humanists, free-thinkers and philosophers. Herndon enjoyed a comfortable lifestyle well into middle age due to the successful law firm and his various elected and appointed offices. After the Civil War he suffered severe financial reversals due to bad investments, bank failures, excessive generosity to relatives and friends, his inability to economize when his income declined sharply.
By 1869, he was destitute and facing foreclosure on his home. In the fall of 1844, Lincoln was tired of being a junior partner, he had worked for senior partners with political ambitions, Lincoln wanted a younger partner to whom he could relate. Surprising both his wife and Herndon, in October Lincoln invited his friend to form a partnership. Lincoln appreciated Herndon's friendship, shared political beliefs and conscientious study. Lincoln said that Herndon "was my man always above all other men on the globe." Herndon did not disappoint his friend. He contributed to the practice by performing research for his older and more experienced partner, building the firm's law library, overseeing young men who came to study law at their office. Herndon was a much stauncher opponent of slavery than Lincoln and claimed that he helped change Lincoln's views on the subject, he felt that President Lincoln acted too to bring an end to slavery. Herndon felt that the only way to rid the country of slavery was "through bloody revolution."
During political campaigns Herndon made strong points that tended to alienate members of the Republican party – as well as swing voters, so for the 1860 presidential campaign, Herndon was not involved in direct political activities. He did execute an important task during that campaign, Herndon conducted opposition research in the Illinois State Library to be used against Stephen A. Douglas in the 1860 presidential race; when Lincoln balked against voting for himself Herndon ensured that he voted on election day. Through the whole of his partnership and friendship with Lincoln he was never invited to Lincoln's home for dinner due to his contentious relationship with Mary Todd Lincoln, he admitted that his frustration with Lincoln's overly permissive parenting of his two younger sons and Tad, whom he recalled as undisciplined and disruptive brats in the law offices, caused some harsh words during their partnership. His final meeting with Lincoln occurred in 1862 when he visited Washington, D.
C. Lincoln received him amicably, but he was not invited into the family's private quarters in the White House due to the enmity of Mary Lincoln. Following Lincoln's assassination, Herndon began to collect stories of Lincoln's life from those who knew him. Herndon aspired to write a faithful portrait of his friend and law part
Margaret O'Neill Eaton, better known as Peggy Eaton, was the wife of John Henry Eaton, a United States Senator from Tennessee and United States Secretary of War, a confidant of Andrew Jackson. Their marriage was the cause of a national controversy known as the Petticoat affair. Margaret "Peggy" O'Neill was the daughter of Rhoda Howell and William O'Neill, the owner of Franklin House, a popular Washington, D. C. hotel. As a girl, she was noted for her beauty and vivacity. Well-educated for her time and sex, she studied French and was known for her ability to play the piano. William T. Barry, who served as Postmaster General, wrote "of a charming little girl... who frequently plays the piano, entertains us with agreeable songs." As a young girl, her reputation was under scrutiny because she worked in a bar frequented by men and casually bantered with the boardinghouse clientele. An elderly Peggy reminisced that, "While I was still in pantalets and rolling hoops with other girls I had the attention of men and old, enough to turn a girl's head."
About 1816, at age 17, Margaret O'Neale married John B. Timberlake, a 39-year-old purser in the Navy, her parents gave them a house across from the hotel, they met many politicians who stayed there. In 1818 they met and befriended John Henry Eaton, a 28-year-old widower and newly elected senator from Tennessee. Margaret and John Timberlake had two children. A third had died in infancy. John Timberlake died in 1828 while at sea in service on a four-year voyage; when the widow Margaret Timberlake married Senator Eaton shortly after the turn of the year, rumors circulated that Timberlake had committed suicide because of despair at an alleged affair between the two. An autopsy concluded. After Eaton was appointed as Secretary of War, rumors continued and Peggy Eaton was snubbed by other cabinet wives, her honor was defended by President Andrew Jackson and she became the subject of the Petticoat affair, in which the wives of cabinet members and other prominent Washingtonians refused to pay social calls on the Eatons and refused them invitations to parties and other events.
Jackson tried unsuccessfully to coerce the cabinet wives into ending their snubbing of the Eatons. The effect of the incident on the political fortunes of the vice president, John C. Calhoun, whose wife, Floride Calhoun, was the ringleader caused Jackson to transfer his favor to widower Martin Van Buren, the Secretary of State, who had taken the Eatons' side and shown positive social attention to Mrs. Eaton. Van Buren helped end the Petticoat Affair by resigning, which gave Jackson the ability to remove his anti-Eaton cabinet members. Calhoun was not renominated for vice president and resigned shortly before the end of his term to accept election to the U. S. Senate. Van Buren became vice president in 1833, was well-placed to become Jackson's successor in 1837. Historian John F. Marszalek explained his view of the real reasons Washington society found Peggy unacceptable: She did not know her place, she thrust herself into the world in a manner inappropriate for a woman.... Accept her, society was in danger of disruption.
Accept this uncouth, forward, worldly woman, the wall of virtue and morality would be breached and society would have no further defenses against the forces of frightening change. Margaret Eaton was not that important in herself. Proper women had no choice. Meacham points out, she was, according to Meacham "by her own account... an outgoing flirt" - her tongue was "ungoverned, ungovernable." He points out that she craved attention: "At various points in her life she was courted by an adjutant general, a major and a captain – which delighted her." In a memoir published long after her death, she admitted to the accuracy of some of the characterizations of her: "The fact is, I never had a lover, not a gentleman and was not in a good position in society." "I must have said a great many foolish things" wrote Margaret, "I am sure I did few wise ones. I was foolish, but not vicious." Refusing to defend herself directly, Peggy Eaton expressed her opinion of her critics this way: "I was quite as independent as they, had more powerful friends...
None of them had beauty, accomplishments or graces in society of any kind, for these reasons... they were jealous of me." Author Jon Meacham observes that, "it's impossible... to assess the truth of the charges" lodged by her enemies, but "she offers this "interesting defense": "Just let a little commonsense be exercised. While I do not pretend to be a saint, do not think I was very much stocked with sense, lay no claim to be a model woman in any way, I put it to the candor of the world whether the slanders which have been uttered against me are to be believed." Three years after the death of her second husband, Margaret Eaton married Antonio Gabriele Buchignani, an Italian music teacher and dancing master, on June 7, 1859. She was 59 and he was in his mid 20s; the marriage reignited much of the social stigma. In 1866, their seventh year of marriage, Buchignani ran off to Europe with the bulk of his wife's fortune as well as her 17-year-old granddaughter Emily E. Randolph, he married Randolph after he and Margaret divorced in 1869.
Although Margaret Eaton obtained a divorce from Buchignani, she was not able to recover he
Rehoboth Beach, Delaware
Rehoboth Beach is a city on the Atlantic Ocean along the Delaware Beaches in eastern Sussex County, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 1,327, reflecting a decline of 161 from the 1,488 counted in the 2000 Census. Along with the neighboring coastal city of Lewes, Rehoboth Beach is one of the principal cities of Delaware's growing Cape Region. Rehoboth Beach lies within Maryland-Delaware Metropolitan Statistical Area. A popular regional vacation destination, Rehoboth Beach's seasonal population expands to over 25,000 within the city limits and thousands more in the surrounding area in the summer. In 2011, the NRDC awarded Rehoboth Beach with a 5-Star rating in water quality; this award was given only to one being neighboring Dewey Beach. Out of the 30 states with coastline, the Delaware Beaches ranked number one in water quality in 2011. Many centuries ago, sea levels were lower, the Atlantic Coast lay about 30 miles farther east than it does today. At the time, the area would have resembled inland portions of southern Delaware today.
By the time the first Europeans arrived in the area in the 17th century, the coastline was at its present location and several Native American Indian tribes lived in the area, including the Lenape, the Sikkonese, the Assateagues, the Nanticoke. The site was the location of what may have been the most important Native American fishing village on the Middle Atlantic coast. Pressure from English and Dutch settlers radiating outward from Cape Henolopen near Lewes, Delaware at the entrance to Delaware Bay forced the Lenape to migrate to upper New York state, eastern Canada, to the west in Indian Territory while the Sikkonese and Assateagues were extirpated; the land came under the control of the Duke of York, younger brother of King Charles II who seized and occupied in 1664 the Dutch colony further north at the mouth of the Hudson River on Manhattan Island and adjacent Long Island as New Netherland with Fort Amsterdam and the village of New Amsterdam. Followed by the previous Swedish colony on the upper Delaware River at Fort Christina and New Sweden.
These became part of the English and British America colonies/provinces of New York state and New York town along with renamed Wilmington and New Castle along the Delaware River as part of the colonial Province of Pennsylvania and in the future state of Delaware. The Duke himself granted holdings to various landholders who endured into the 18th century; the duke acceeded to the English throne himself as King James II of England and James VI of Scotland. By the mid-19th century, the descendants of these landholders were farmers attempting to make a living off the poor sandy infertile land; the town was founded in 1873 as the Rehoboth Beach Camp Meeting Association by the Rev. Robert W. Todd, of St. Paul's Methodist Episcopal Church of Wilmington, Delaware, as a site for Methodist camp meetings in the spirit of similar resorts further north on the New Jersey shore, such as Ocean Grove; the Camp Meeting Association disbanded in 1881, in 1891, the location was incorporated by the General Assembly of Delaware as "Cape Henlopen City".
In 1893, it was renamed to Rehoboth Beach. Rehoboth means "broad spaces." It appears three times in the Old Testament as a place name: a well dug by Isaac, a city on the Euphrates River, one of the cities of Asshur in Mesopotamia. Hence the name may have had a special appeal for the religious founders of the city, although the adjacent bay had borne the name "Rehoboth" for at least a century before the town was founded; the first boardwalk in Rehoboth Beach was constructed in 1873 and has seen changes in configuration from weather and storms over the years. The Junction and Breakwater Railroad constructed a line from Lewes south to Rehoboth Beach in 1878, running down the center of today's Rehoboth Avenue; the arrival of the railroad allowed visitors to come in from northern Delaware and Pennsylvania and its cities and towns, leading to the beginning of Rehoboth Beach as a tourist destination. After the railroad came to Rehoboth Beach, the center of camp meetings and city life moved to nearby Baltimore Avenue.
The original Henlopen Hotel opened in 1879, being replaced with another hotel of the same name on the current site. A paved highway was built by the state between Georgetown and Rehoboth Beach in 1925, which helped bring in travelers from the west in the metropolitan areas of Washington, D. C. Baltimore and other parts of Maryland and northern Virginia; the Avery's Rest Site, Dodd Homestead, Peter Marsh House, Thompson's Loss and Gain Site, Thompsons Island Site, Warrington Site, Woman's Christian Temperance Union Fountain are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, maintained by the National Park Service of the United States Department of the Interior. The town bills itself as "The Nation's Summer Capital" due to the fact that it is a frequent summer vacation destination for Washington, D. C. residents as well as visitors from Maryland and Pennsylvania. Vacationers are drawn for many reasons, including the town's charm and the lack of sales tax in Delaware; the Rehoboth Beach Boardwalk is a 1-mile long wooden boardwalk adjacent to the beach with restaurants, shops and attractions.
Several restaurants and shops are loc