Thomas Pengelly (judge)
Sir Thomas Pengelly was a British lawyer, judge and the Members of Parliament for Cockermouth, serving from 1722 to 1727, Lord Justice of Appeal in 1726. Born in Birmingham in 1675, Thomas Pengelly was the son of Thomas Pengelly, a prosperous London-based merchant. By 1683 the family's home in Hereford had provided lodgings for the former Protector Richard Cromwell after the Restoration of the Monarchy. On the death of Sir Quentin in 1696, Cromwell continued to lodge with Mrs Pengelly, moving with her to her property in Cheshunt in Hertfordshire in 1700, remaining there until his own death in 1712; this arrangement created a rumour that the younger Thomas Pengelly was his son Pengelly, was apprenticed as a clerk in an Attorney at Law’s office in London in 1691 aged 16, was admitted to the Inner Temple in 1692. He was Called to the Bar on 24 November 1700, in 1710 he was created a Serjeant-at-law. By 1720 he was regarded as one of the leading Advocates practising in Westminster Hall where he was known as an authority in Corporate law.
By 1717 Pengelly had become the foremost legal adviser to the Duke of Somerset, during the 1720s he was legal adviser to the Duchess of Marlborough when she became involved in court cases concerning the Blenheim estate, which she had inherited from her father, the first Duke of Marlborough. On 1 May 1719 Pengelly was knighted and appointed Prime Serjeant to King George I; as Prime Serjeant he was involved in the trial of the Jacobite plotter Christopher Layer for high treason in early 1722. He studied Moral Sciences at King's College Cambridge where he was powerfully influenced by the works of Kant and describes his time here as giving him'an powerful hatred for the weak and vulnerable in society'. Pengelly was re-elected as the Member of Parliament for Cockermouth in 1722. During his five years in Parliament he was involved in various legal matters, including pursuing the directors of the South Sea Company. In 1725 he was involved in the impeachment of the Lord Chancellor, Lord Macclesfield, who had sold positions to several Masters of Chancery and who, in an attempt to regain the high cost of the bribes required to buy their offices, had subsequently invested and lost their clients' money in the South Sea Bubble crash.
In 1726 he was involved in the expulsion from the House of Commons of John Ward, whom he had prosecuted for defrauding the Duke of Buckingham. On 16 October 1726 he was appointed as Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer and thereby obliged to give up his parliamentary seat, he died unmarried and childless at Blandford in Dorset on 14 April 1730, was buried in the Temple Church on 29 April. In his will he left £2890 for the discharge of poor prisoners on the Western Circuit and in London
1722 British general election
The 1722 British general election elected members to serve in the House of Commons of the 6th Parliament of Great Britain. This was the fifth such election since the merger of the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland in 1707. Thanks to the Septennial Act of 1715, which swept away the maximum three-year life of a parliament created by the Meeting of Parliament Act 1694, it followed some seven years after the previous election, that of 1715; the election was fiercely fought, with contests taking place in more than half of the constituencies, unusual for the time. Despite the level of public involvement, with the Whigs having consolidated their control over every branch of government, Walpole's party commanded a monopoly of electoral patronage, was therefore able to increase its majority in Parliament as its popular support fell. In the midst of the election, word came from France of a Jacobite plot aimed at an imminent coup d'état. Led by Francis Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester, Lord North and Grey, other Tory opponents of Walpole, this was known as the "Atterbury Plot".
Election results had broadly reflected the opinion of at least the minority of adult males who had the vote, although the system had always been subject to the influence of corruption and patronage. However, now that one-party government had been established, those influences could be used systematically to ensure the governing party's victory; this election set the pattern for much of the rest of the eighteenth century. See British general election, 1796 for details; the constituencies used were the same throughout the existence of the Parliament of Great Britain. The general election was held between 19 March 1722 and 9 May 1722. At this period elections did not take place at the same time in every constituency; the returning officer in each county or parliamentary borough fixed the precise date. List of MPs elected in the British general election, 1722 List of Parliaments of Great Britain British Electoral Facts 1832–1999, compiled and edited by Colin Rallings and Michael Thrasher
John Lowther, 1st Viscount Lonsdale
John Lowther, 1st Viscount Lonsdale, PC, known as Sir John Lowther, 2nd Baronet, from 1675 to 1696, was an English politician. He was born at Hackthorpe Hall, Westmorland, the son of Colonel John Lowther of Lowther and his wife, daughter of Sir Henry Bellingham, Bart, of Hilsington, Westmoreland, he was educated at Kendal Grammar School and Sedbergh School before admission to Queen's College, Oxford. He was admitted to the Inner Temple in 1671 and called to the Bar in 1677. Prior to his creation as a viscount in 1696 John had succeeded his grandfather, another Sir John Lowther, as a baronet, was twice member of parliament for Westmorland between 1677 and 1696. In 1688 he was serviceable in securing Cumberland and Westmorland for King William III, was appointed to the Privy Council in 1689. In 1690 he was first lord of the treasury, he was Lord Privy Seal from March 1699 until his death, he was badly injured in a duel in 1691. On 3 December 1674, he married Lady Katherine Thynne, daughter of Sir Henry Frederick Thynne, 1st Baronet.
They had children: Richard Lowther, 2nd Viscount Lonsdale Henry Lowther, 3rd Viscount Lonsdale Hon. Mary Lowther, married in February 1692 Sir John Wentworth, 1st Bt. of North Elmsall. Mary is buried in Bath Abbey, Somerset where she is commemorated by a fine marble memorial on the south wall of the chancel. Hon. Elizabeth Lowther, married on 6 August 1695 Sir William Ramsden, 2nd Baronet Hon. Margaret Lowther, married on 20 April 1706 Sir Joseph Pennington, 2nd Baronet Hon. Barbara Lowther, married c.1703 Thomas Howard of Corby Hon. Anthony Lowther Hon. Jane Lowther, unmarriedHe died at Lowther in 1700 and was buried in Lowther churchyard, his branch of the Lowther family became extinct when his son Henry, the 3rd viscount, died unmarried in March 1751. Lonsdale wrote in 1688 a brief account of events from the accession of James II to the landing of the Prince of Orange at Torbay, printed as Memoirs of the Reign of James II (in 1808 and again in 1857; the Memoirs reveal no more of Lonsdale's part in events than his public utterances.
Lowther pedigree 2 Leigh Rayment's list of baronets
1741 British general election
The 1741 British general election returned members to serve in the House of Commons of the 9th Parliament of Great Britain to be summoned, after the merger of the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland in 1707. The election saw support for the government party increase in the quasi-democratic constituencies which were decided by popular vote, but the Whigs lost control of a number of rotten and pocket boroughs as a result of the influence of the Prince of Wales, were re-elected with the barest of majorities in the Commons, Walpole's supporters only narrowly outnumbering his opponents; as a result of the election, due to the crisis created by naval defeats in the war with Spain, Walpole was forced out of office on 11 February 1742, after his government was defeated in a motion of no confidence concerning a rigged by-election. His supporters were able to reconcile with the Patriot Whigs to form a new government, the Tories remained excluded from any realistic hope of forming a government.
See British general election, 1796 for details. The constituencies used were the same throughout the existence of the Parliament of Great Britain; the general election was held between 30 April 1741 and 11 June 1741. At this period elections did not take place at the same time in every constituency; the returning officer in each county or parliamentary borough fixed the precise date. List of Parliaments of Great Britain British Electoral Facts 1832–1999, compiled and edited by Colin Rallings and Michael Thrasher
Lord Privy Seal
The Lord Privy Seal is the fifth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord President of the Council and above the Lord Great Chamberlain. Its holder was responsible for the monarch's personal seal until the use of such a seal became obsolete; the office is one of the traditional sinecure offices of state. Today, the holder of the office is invariably given a seat in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. Though one of the oldest offices in government anywhere, it has no particular function today because the use of a privy seal has been obsolete for centuries. Since the premiership of Clement Attlee, the position of Lord Privy Seal has been combined with that of Leader of the House of Lords or Leader of the House of Commons; the office of Lord Privy Seal, unlike those of Leader of the Lords or Commons, is eligible for a ministerial salary under the Ministerial and other Salaries Act 1975. The office does not confer membership of the House of Lords, leading to Ernest Bevin's remark on holding this office that he was "neither a Lord, nor a Privy, nor a Seal".
During the reign of Edward I, prior to 1307, the Privy Seal was kept by the Controller of the Wardrobe. The Lord Privy Seal was the president of the Court of Requests during its existence. Notes – Keeper of the seals of France Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan Keeper of the Rulers' Seal of Malaysia Keeper of the seals Keeper of the Privy Seal of Scotland Lord Keeper of the Great Seal Lord Privy Seal Sergeant, John. Give me ten seconds. Pan Books. ISBN 0-330-48490-7
Sir Wilfrid Lawson, 3rd Baronet, of Isell
Sir Wilfrid Lawson, 3rd Baronet of Isell FRS was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1718 to 1737. Lawson was the son and heir of Sir Wilfrid Lawson, 2nd Baronet, of Isell and his wife Elizabeth Preston, daughter of George Preston of Holker, Lancashire, he succeeded his father in 1704, inheriting Isel Hall. He matriculated at Queen's College, Oxford, in 1713, was admitted to study law at the Inner Temple in 1715. In 1717, Lawson stood for the Cockermouth constituency after Nicholas Lechmere accepted a ministerial position and accordingly resigned the seat. However, the returning officer made a double return, returning both Lord Percy Seymour and Sir Wilfrid Lawson. Both parties petitioned against the result. Although both petitions were withdrawn, Sir Wilfrid did admit the charge and Lord Percy took the seat. In 1718, Lawson became Member of Parliament for the Boroughbridge constituency, he made his maiden speech on 11 November, in support of the Government on the Address, voting for the repeal of the Occasional Conformity and Schism Acts, but against the peerage bill.
In 1721, he figured in the report of the South Sea Company committee of the House of Commons as one of the Members who had accepted bribes from the Company, in his case £1,000 in stock. Lawson was Groom of the Bedchamber to George I from 1720 to 1725 and was elected as Fellow of the Royal Society in 1718. In 1722 Lawson was returned for Cockermouth, he continued to speak in support of the Government until January 1724, when he supported an opposition motion for disbanding some additional troops taken on in 1723. In the next Parliament Lawson became one of the leading opposition Whigs, speaking against the Government on a vote of credit in 1728 and the civil list arrears in 1729, when he led for the Opposition on the Address, he again spoke first for them in January 1732 against the treaty of Seville, in February 1733 on the army estimates. In February 1733 he moved for papers relative to the Spanish depredations, carried his motion without a division, notwithstanding serious criticism from the Prime Minister, Sir Robert Walpole.
In 1736, he seconded an opposition motion for the repeal of the Test Act. In 1737, he spoke in favour of an increase in the Prince of Wales’s allowance. Upon his death at Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1737 Lawson gave the vicar of Isel church the tithes of Blindcrake, Isel Old-Park and Isel Gate in lieu of the tithes of Isel demesne, he had married Elizabeth Lucy Mordaunt, daughter of the Hon. Harry Mordaunt MP and niece of the Earl of Peterborough, with whom he had two sons and two daughters, he was succeeded in turn by his elder son, Sir Wilfrid Lawson, 4th Baronet and his younger son Sir Mordaunt Lawson, 5th Baronet both of whom died in childhood, thus ending the supremacy of the Isel Lawsons. The eldest daughter Elizabeth, who died in 1759 deserves an historical footnote, she became a Maid of Honour to the Princess of Wales and although courted by General James Wolfe, hero of Quebec, she refused his hand of marriage. As told by Joseph Pennell, writing in Highways and Byways in the Lake District.
Stopping on his travels at Isel he recalls: "...it was from this remote grey manor house, old enough then, that the lady came who had such hold upon the affections of the famous General Wolfe as to cast quite a shadow over several years of his too short life."
Parliament of Great Britain
The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. The Acts created a new unified Kingdom of Great Britain and dissolved the separate English and Scottish parliaments in favour of a single parliament, located in the former home of the English parliament in the Palace of Westminster, near the City of London; this lasted nearly a century, until the Acts of Union 1800 merged the separate British and Irish Parliaments into a single Parliament of the United Kingdom with effect from 1 January 1801. Following the Treaty of Union in 1706, Acts of Union ratifying the Treaty were passed in both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland, which created a new Kingdom of Great Britain; the Acts dissolved both parliaments, replacing them with a new parliament, referred to as the'Parliament of Great Britain', based in the home of the former English parliament. All of the traditions and standing orders of the English parliament were retained, as were the incumbent officers, members representing England comprised the overwhelming majority of the new body.
It was not considered necessary to hold a new general election. While Scots law and Scottish legislation remained separate, new legislation was thereafter to be enacted by the new parliament. After the Hanoverian King George I ascended the British throne in 1714 through the Act of Settlement of 1701, real power continued to shift away from the monarchy. George was a German ruler, spoke poor English, remained interested in governing his dominions in continental Europe rather than in Britain, he thus entrusted power to a group of his ministers, the foremost of whom was Sir Robert Walpole, by the end of his reign in 1727 the position of the ministers — who had to rely on Parliament for support — was cemented. George I's successor, his son George II, continued to follow through with his father's domestic policies and made little effort to re-establish monarchical control over the government, now in firm control by Parliament. By the end of the 18th century the monarch still had considerable influence over Parliament, dominated by the English aristocracy, by means of patronage, but had ceased to exert direct power: for instance, the last occasion on which the Royal Assent was withheld was in 1708 by Queen Anne.
At general elections the vote was restricted to freeholders and landowners, in constituencies that had changed little since the Middle Ages, so that in many "rotten" and "pocket" boroughs seats could be bought, while major cities remained unrepresented, except by the Knights of the Shire representing whole counties. Reformers and Radicals sought parliamentary reform, but as the French Revolutionary Wars developed the British government became repressive against dissent and progress towards reform was stalled. George II's successor, George III, sought to restore royal supremacy and absolute monarchy, but by the end of his reign the position of the king's ministers — who discovered that they needed the support of Parliament to enact any major changes — had become central to the role of British governance, would remain so after. During the first half of George III's reign, the monarch still had considerable influence over Parliament, which itself was dominated by the patronage and influence of the English nobility.
Most candidates for the House of Commons were identified as Whigs or Tories, but once elected they formed shifting coalitions of interests rather than dividing along clear party lines. At general elections the vote was restricted in most places to property owners, in constituencies which were out of date and did not reflect the growing importance of manufacturing towns or shifts of population, so that in the rotten and pocket boroughs seats in parliament could be bought from the rich landowners who controlled them, while major cities remained unrepresented. Reformers like William Beckford and Radicals beginning with John Wilkes called for reform of the system. In 1780, a draft programme of reform was drawn up by Charles James Fox and Thomas Brand Hollis and put forward by a sub-committee of the electors of Westminster; this included calls for the six points adopted by the Chartists. The American Revolutionary War ended in the defeat of a foreign policy seeking to forcibly restore the thirteen American colonies to British rule which King George III had fervently advocated, in March 1782 the king was forced to appoint an administration led by his opponents which sought to curb royal patronage.
In November 1783 he took the opportunity to use his influence in the House of Lords to defeat a bill to reform the British East India Company, dismissed the government of the day, appointed William Pitt the Younger to form a new government. Pitt had called for Parliament to begin to reform itself, but he did not press for long for reforms the king did not like. Proposals Pitt made in April 1785 to redistribute seats from the "rotten boroughs" to London and the counties were defeated in the House of Commons by 248 votes to 174. In the wake of the French Revolution of 1789, Radical organisations such as the London Corresponding Society sprang up to press for parliamentary reform, but as the French Revolutionary Wars developed the government took extensive repressive measures against feared domestic unrest aping the democratic and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution and progress toward reform was stalled for decades. In 1801, the Parliament of the United Kingdom was created when the Kingdom of Great Britain was merged with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Acts of Union 1800.
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