Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Order of the British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire and the Viceroy of India. Nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most Commonwealth countries ceased recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire when they created their own honours; the five classes of appointment to the Order are, in descending order of precedence: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Knight Commander or Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire The senior two ranks of Knight or Dame Grand Cross, Knight or Dame Commander, entitle their members to use the title of Sir for men and Dame for women before their forename.
Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, may permit use of post-nominal letters but not the title of Sir or Dame. Honorary appointees are, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bob Geldof, for example. Honorary appointees who become a citizen of a Commonwealth realm can convert their appointment from honorary to substantive enjoy all privileges of membership of the order, including use of the title of Sir and Dame for the senior two ranks of the Order. An example is Irish broadcaster Terry Wogan, appointed an honorary Knight Commander of the Order in 2005, on successful application for British citizenship, held alongside his Irish citizenship, was made a substantive member and subsequently styled as Sir Terry Wogan. King George V founded the Order to fill gaps in the British honours system: The Orders of the Garter, of St Patrick honoured royals, peers and eminent military commanders.
In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War. When first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was formally divided into Military and Civil Divisions; the Order's motto is For the Empire. At the foundation of the Order, the'Medal of the Order of the British Empire' was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership. In 1922, this was renamed the'British Empire Medal', it stopped being awarded by the United Kingdom as part of the 1993 reforms to the honours system, but was again awarded beginning in 2012, starting with 293 BEMs awarded for Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. In addition, the BEM is awarded by some other Commonwealth nations. In 2004, a report entitled "A Matter of Honour: Reforming Our Honours System" by a Commons committee recommended to phase out the Order of the British Empire, as its title was "now considered to be unacceptable, being thought to embody values that are no longer shared by many of the country's population".
The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, appoints all other members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three: Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales; the Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commander, 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the total number of members of the fourth and fifth classes, but no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year. Foreign appointees, as honorary members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Although the Order of the British Empire has by far the highest number of members of the British Orders of Chivalry, with over 100,000 living members worldwide, there are fewer appointments to knighthoods than in other orders. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, second-lowest of knighthood.
Because of this, an appointment as Dame Commander is made in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor. For example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Royal Philharmonic Society
The Royal Philharmonic Society is a British music society, formed in 1813. It was formed in London to promote performances of instrumental music there. Many distinguished composers and performers have taken part in its concerts, it is now a membership society, while it no longer has its own orchestra, it continues a wide-ranging programme of activities which focus on composers and young musicians and aim to engage audiences so that future generations will enjoy a rich and vibrant musical life. Since 1989 it has promoted the annual Royal Philharmonic Society Music Awards for live music-making in the United Kingdom; the RPS is a registered UK charity No. 213693. It is located at 48 Great Marlborough Street in London; the society's Gold Medal for outstanding musicianship is awarded only occasionally. In London, at a time when there were no permanent London orchestras, nor organised series of chamber music concerts, a group of thirty music professionals formed the Philharmonic Society of London on 6 February 1813.
The idea was that by cooperating, they could build a stronger orchestra than by competing against one another. However, given the organization's choice to hold its concerts at the Argyll Rooms, it is that the society was initiated because of John Nash's bold urban redesign of Regent Street. In this way, the society would gain an impressive performing space once the old Argyll Rooms had to be rebuilt due to the Regent Street plan, Prince regent George IV could promote classical music as a British institution and thereby improve his reputation. Concerts were held in the Argyll Rooms until it burned down in 1830; the Society's aim was "to promote the performance, in the most perfect manner possible of the best and most approved instrumental music". The first concert, on 8 March 1813, was presided over by Johann Peter Salomon, with Muzio Clementi at the piano and the violin prodigy Nicolas Mori as lead violinist, performing symphonies by Joseph Haydn and Ludwig van Beethoven. Among the founders were the pianist and violinist William Dance, composer Henry Bishop, Charles Neate, a pianist and friend of Beethoven, who publicised Beethoven's music at the Society.
The Society asked Beethoven to come to London, but the composer's health prevented his accepting the invitation. However the society's request for a new symphony from him resulted in the Choral Symphony. In 1827 Beethoven wrote to the society outlining his straitened circumstances. Other works written for the Society include the Italian Symphony by Felix Mendelssohn. Distinguished conductors included Ludwig Spohr, one of the first conductors to use a baton, Hector Berlioz, who conducted a concert of his works in 1853, Richard Wagner, who conducted the whole 1855 season of orchestral concerts, William Sterndale Bennett for the following ten years, Arthur Sullivan, Tchaikovsky, who conducted his own works in 1888 and 1893. From 1830 to 1869, the Society gave its concerts in the concert-hall of Hanover Square Rooms, which had seating for only about 800; the Society decided to move permanently to St James's Hall, a complimentary additional concert, held at the hall, was given to its subscribers at the end of the 1868–69 season.
Charles Santley, Charles Hallé, Thérèse Tietjens and Christina Nilsson were the soloists. When the move was made, the Society remodelled its charges to obtain a wider audience and compete with the Crystal Palace and other large venues, introduced annotated programmes; the Society remained at the hall until 28 February 1894. The society became the Royal Philharmonic Society during its 100th concert season in 1912, continued organising concerts through the two world wars, it is now a membership society which "seeks to create a future for music through the encouragement of creativity, the recognition of excellence and the promotion of understanding." See Works commissioned by the RPS for a list of works commissioned by or dedicated to the Royal Philharmonic Society. The Gold Medal was first awarded in 1871; the medal depicts the profile of a bust of Beethoven by Johann Nepomuk Schaller, presented to the society in 1870, Beethoven's centenary. It is awarded for "outstanding musicianship", is given — in 2015 the medal was awarded for the hundredth time.
Through awarding honorary membership the society recognises "services to music". Like the Gold Medal, honorary membership is awarded rarely; the Royal Philharmonic Society Royal Philharmonic Society Music Awards British Library: Royal Philharmonic Society Archive British Library: Beethoven and the Royal Philharmonic Society
Guildhall School of Music and Drama
The Guildhall School of Music and Drama is an independent music and dramatic arts school, founded in 1880 in London, England. Students can pursue courses in music, opera and technical theatre arts; the modern Guildhall School is a major European conservatoire, both a music school and a drama school, one, involved in technical theatre, professional development and music therapy. The school numbers 900 students 700 of whom are undergraduate and postgraduate music students and 175 on the acting and technical theatre programmes. In any given year, about 40% of the students are from outside the UK representing over 50 nationalities; the chairman of Guildhall is David Andrew Graves, elected a governor in 2009 he became deputy of the board and chairman in 2012. Guildhall’s principal is Lynne Williams. A previous principal, Barry Ife, made the Guildhall School the UK's largest provider of music education to under 18s by incorporating the Centre for Young Musicians and creating new music "hubs" in Norfolk and Somerset.
Ife led the Guildhall School’s application for taught-degree awarding powers, which were granted by the Privy Council in April 2014. The Guildhall School of Music first opened its doors on 27 September 1880, housed in a disused warehouse in the City of London. With 62 part-time students, it was the first municipal music college in Great Britain; the school outgrew its first home, in 1887 it moved to new premises in John Carpenter Street in a complex of educational buildings built by the Corporation of London to house it and the City's two state schools. The new building was completed by 9 December 1886 and the Lord Mayor of London, Sir Reginald Hanson, attended the opening ceremony. Teaching continued under the first principal of the school, Thomas Henry Weist Hill, who had some ninety teaching staff; the new site, designed by the architect Sir Horace Jones, comprised a common room for professors and 45 studios, each surrounded by a one-foot thick layer of concrete to "deaden the sound". Each room contained both an upright piano.
Additionally, there was an organ room and a "practice" room, in reality a small concert hall, used for orchestral and choir rehearsals. The practice room was the venue for the fortnightly school concerts Initially, all tuition was on a part-time basis, but full-time courses were introduced to meet demand in 1920. Departments of speech and acting were added, by 1935 the school had added "and Drama" to its title; the school moved to its present premises in the heart of the City of London's Barbican Centre in 1977 and continues to be owned and administered by the City of London. In 1993 the Corporation of London leased a nearby courtyard of buildings that in the 18th century had been the centre of Samuel Whitbread's first brewery, renovated and converted this to provide the school with its hall of residence, Sundial Court. About three minutes' walk from the school, Sundial Court offers self-catering single-room accommodation for 178 students. In 2001 the Secretary of State, Baroness Blackstone, announced that the Barbican Centre, including the Guildhall School, was to be Grade II listed.
The school numbers over 800 students 700 of whom are undergraduate and postgraduate music students. As of 2017, about 135 are studying in the technical theatre programmes. In any given year, about 40% of the students are from outside the UK represent over 40 nationalities; the school is of the European Association of Conservatoires. It formed a creative alliance with its neighbours, the Barbican Centre and the London Symphony Orchestra, to create a centre for performance and education in the performing and visual arts. In 2005 the school was awarded the Queen's Anniversary Prize for its development and outreach programme, Guildhall Connect, in 2007 it won a further Queen's Anniversary Prize in recognition of the work of the opera programme over the last two decades; the school was rated No. 1 specialist institution in the UK in the Guardian University Guide 2013 and 2014. The most significant investment in the Guildhall School's future came to fruition via the £90 million redevelopment of the neighbouring Milton Court site.
The new building, which opened in 2013, houses three new performance spaces: a concert hall, a theatre and a studio theatre in addition to drama teaching and administration spaces. The school offers both undergraduate and graduate degree programs as well as the Junior Guildhall, a Saturday school serving students from 4 to 18 years of age; the school was awarded a further Queen's Anniversary Prize in 2007 in recognition of the outstanding achievements and work of the Opera Programme. In August 2014, the Guildhall had a logo change to a more minimalist modern style, it was changed due to the school thinking that it needed something to reflect its types of teachings. The Guildhall offers undergraduate and postgraduate degree programs in music and production arts as well as summer and holiday courses and the Junior Guildhall, a Saturday school serving students from 4 to 18 years of age; the school's performance facilities include, in Milton Court, a concert hall, a theatre and a studio theatre plus, in the Silk Street building, a 308-seat drama and opera the
Samuel Adams (composer)
Samuel Adams is an American composer. He was born in California. Adams grew up in the San Francisco Bay Area, where he performed double bass and studied composition and electroacoustics at Stanford University, his music draws on his experiences in a diverse array of disciplines including classical forms, noise, improvised music and field recording. Adams has received commissions from New World Symphony, San Francisco Symphony, Carnegie Hall, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and has collaborated with performers such as Emanuel Ax, Sarah Cahill, Karen Gomyo, Jennifer Koh, Anthony Marwood, Joyce Yang and conductors such as David Robertson, Esa-Pekka Salonen, Michael Tilson Thomas, he is one of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra's two composers-in-residence, having been jointly named to the post with Elizabeth Ogonek in 2015. He is the son of photographer Deborah O'Grady. Tension Studies for electric guitar and electronics Drift and Providence for orchestra and live sound design String Quartet in Five Movements Violin Concerto Radial Play Shade Studies Quartet Movement many words of love Chamber Concerto Movements Quintet with Pillars Second Quartet 21st-century classical music Electroacoustic music Composers jazz bassists Official website
Royal Academy of Music
The Royal Academy of Music in London, England, is the oldest conservatoire in the UK, founded in 1822 by John Fane and Nicolas-Charles Bochsa. It received its Royal Charter in 1830 from King George IV with the support of the first Duke of Wellington, it is one of the leading conservatoires in the UK, rated fourth in the Complete University Guide and third in the Guardian University Guide for 2018. Famous Academy alumni include Sir Simon Rattle, Sir Harrison Birtwistle, Sir Elton John and Annie Lennox; the Academy provides undergraduate and postgraduate training across instrumental performance, jazz, musical theatre and opera, recruits musicians from around the world, with a student community representing more than 50 nationalities. It is committed to lifelong learning, from Junior Academy, which trains musicians up to the age of 18, through Open Academy community music projects, to performances and educational events for all ages; the Academy’s museum is home to one of the world’s most significant collections of musical instruments and artefacts, including stringed instruments by Stradivari and members of the Amati family.
It is a constituent college of a registered charity under English law. The Academy was founded by John Fane, 11th Earl of Westmorland in 1822 with the help and ideas of the French harpist and composer Nicolas Bochsa; the Academy was granted a Royal Charter by King George IV in 1830. The founding of the Academy was supported by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, he was determined to make the Academy a success. The Academy faced closure in 1866; the Academy's history took a turn for the better when its appointed Principal William Sterndale Bennett took on the chairmanship of the Academy's Board of directors and established its finances and reputation on a new footing. The Academy's first building was in Tenterden Street, Hanover Square and in 1911 the institution moved to the current premises, designed by Sir Ernest George, built at a cost of £51,000 on the site of an orphanage. In 1976 the Academy acquired the houses situated on the north side and built between them a new opera theatre donated by the philanthropist Sir Jack Lyons and named after him and two new recital spaces, a recording studio, an electronic music studio, several practice rooms and office space.
The Academy again expanded its facilities in the late 1990s, with the addition of 1-5 York Gate, designed by John Nash in 1822, to house the new museum, a musical theatre studio and several teaching and practice rooms. To link the main building and 1-5 York Gate a new underground passage and the underground barrel-vaulted 150-seat David Josefowitz recital hall were built on the courtyard between the mentioned structures; the Academy's current facilities are situated on Marylebone Road in central London adjacent to Regent's Park. The Royal Academy of Music offers training from infant level, with the senior Academy awarding the LRAM diploma, B. Mus. and higher degrees to Ph. D; the former degree GRSM, equivalent to a university honours degree and taken by some students, was phased out in the 1990s. All undergraduates now take the University of London degree of BMus. Most Academy students are classical performers: strings, vocal studies including opera, woodwind and choral conducting, percussion, organ, guitar.
There are departments for musical theatre performance and jazz. The Academy collaborates with other conservatoires worldwide, including participating in the SOCRATES student and staff exchange programme. In 1991, the Academy introduced a accredited degree in Performance Studies, in September 1999, it became a full constituent college of the University of London, in both cases becoming the first UK conservatoire to do so; the Academy has students from over 50 countries, following diverse programmes including instrumental performance, composition, musical theatre and opera. The Academy has an established relationship with King's College London the Department of Music, whose students receive instrumental tuition at the Academy. In return, many students at the Academy take a range of Humanities choices at King's, its extended academic musicological curriculum; the Junior Academy, for pupils under the age of 18, takes place every Saturday. The Academy's library contains over 160,000 items, including significant collections of early printed and manuscript materials and audio facilities.
The library houses archives dedicated to Sir Arthur Sullivan and Sir Henry Wood. Among the Library's most valuable possessions are the manuscripts of Purcell's The Fairy-Queen, Sullivan's The Mikado, Vaughan Williams' Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis and Serenade to Music, the newly discovered Handel Gloria. A grant from the National Heritage Memorial Fund has assisted in the purchase of the Robert Spencer Collection—a set of Early English Song and Lute music, as well as a fine collection of lutes and guitars; the Academy's museum displays many of these items. The Orchestral Library has 4,500 sets of orchestral parts. Other collections include the libraries of Sir Henry Otto Klemperer. Soon after violinist Yehudi Menuhin's death, the Royal Academy of Music acquired his personal archive, which includes sheet music marked up for performance, news articles and photographs relating to Menuhin, autograph musical manuscripts, several portraits of Paganini