Loblaw Companies Limited is the largest Canadian food retailer, encompassing corporate and franchise supermarkets operating under 22 regional and market segment banners, as well as pharmacies and apparel. Loblaw operates a private label program that includes grocery and household items, baby products, cellular phones, general merchandise, financial services. Loblaw brands include President's Choice, No Name, Joe Fresh, T&T, Seaquest and Teddy's Choice. Most of Loblaw's 136,000 full-time and part-time employees are members of the United Food and Commercial Workers, with the exception of workers at The Real Canadian Wholesale Club in Alberta, who are members of the Christian Labour Association of Canada. Loblaw's regional food distribution divisions include Westfair Foods Ltd. in Western Canada and Northern Ontario, National Grocers Co. Ltd. in Ontario, Provigo Inc. in Quebec, Atlantic Wholesalers Ltd. in Atlantic Canada. In 1919, Toronto grocers Theodore Pringle Loblaw and J. Milton Cork opened the first Loblaw Groceterias store modelled on a new and radically different retail concept, namely "self serve".
The traditional grocery store provided a high level of personal service but was a labour-intensive operation. Customers had to wait while a clerk fetched items from behind a counter. Other goods, such as sugar and flour, had to be individually weighed and the order tallied by hand and added to the customer’s account. Home delivery, by wagon, was included free of charge. Loblaw and Cork, friends from the days when both worked as young clerks in the Cork family grocery store, believed they could cut costs by introducing self service combined with cash and carry. While cash stores were not new, the idea of allowing customers to select their own merchandise was a new concept; the pair had heard of the Piggly Wiggly "self serving store" in the United States and travelled to Memphis, Tennessee, to see it in operation first hand. With customers allowed to browse pick up their own goods and pay cash at a central checkout counter, with no credit or home delivery, operating costs were reduced; the two came away convinced.
But Loblaw had his sceptics: In the early days when I started the cash and carry business, I was told that it could not be done, but my contention was that the people of Toronto and Ontario would welcome the opportunity to carry their groceries home, providing I could offer them higher qualities at a much lower price than they were used to paying. The first Loblaw Groceterias Co. store opened at 2923 Dundas St. W. Toronto, in June 1919. Months a second location, at 528 College Street, followed; the ’groceterias’ name was derived from cafeteria - a popular self serve restaurant format. Along with the Loblaw name, the outlets featured big "We Sell For Less" signs across their storefronts. Inside, the stores were clean and well lit, with items neatly displayed and marked: From the entry, one passes through a turnstile which permits egress only. Just inside are piles of market baskets from which the customer helps himself and proceeds in his quest for food at lower prices. Out in front, the shelves are packed with bottled and canned goods, whose names are household words, all plainly tagged with price.
Further back, one finds teas, coffee fancy biscuits and cheese, all wrapped ready to carry home.... The customer having selected her purchases, carries her basket to one of the counters near the point of exit. Here her purchases are totaled on an adding machine and she receives her slip. While she pays the bill her groceries are neatly packed in a larger bag.." While produce was limited and fresh meats excluded from the early stores, sales proved strong. Within its first 5 months of operation, the chain's second location had expanded its sales room into that part of the store reserved for storage. In spite of the success of the new groceteria format, Cork did not feel that traditional, full-service grocery stores were in danger of going out of business since many customers still valued the extension of credit, individual serve and home delivery. A year another Toronto grocer, C. B. Shields, joined with Loblaw and Cork. In addition to being a proponent of self serve, Loblaw was a firm believer in "the fundamentally sound principle of the chain store system" and its ability to deliver better price and superior quality to through its buying power.
Three years after the opening of the first store, there were nine groceterias throughout Toronto. The company had expanded into the United States with Loblaw Groceterias Inc. outlets in Buffalo, New York. In 1928, with 69 stores throughout Ontario, the company unveiled its new state-of-the-art head office and warehouse at Fleet and Bathurst streets, along today’s Lake Shore Blvd, in Toronto. At a cost of $1.25 million, the Loblaw warehouse was likened to a "temple of commerce" and hailed as a model of efficiency. One newspaper report described it as, "the most modern warehouse building of its kind in the dominion." The warehouse, which served as a distribution centre and manufacturing depot, included an interior loading dock that could accommodate eight railway freight cars and 23 large trucks. It featured its own electric tram railway, four giant ovens for baking a ton of cake and half a ton of cookies a day, huge drums for blending tea, 22 thousand feet of ammonia-filled pipes for refrigeration, a system of pneumatic tubes for sending messages from department to department.
A "punched card" tabulating system, forerunner to today's computer, would be installed for tracking inventory as the first of its kind in the Canadian grocery industry. For Loblaw employees, the ware
Bell Mobility Inc. is a Canadian LTE and HSPA+ based wireless provider and the division of Bell Canada which sells wireless services across Canada. Bell Mobility and its affiliates combined have 9.5 million subscribers as of the end of Q3 2018, making it Canada's second largest wireless carrier. Bell-owned Virgin Mobile Canada as well as Loblaws prepaid PC Telecom, operate as MVNOs on the Bell Mobility network; some of Bell Canada's regional subsidiaries continue to operate their own wireless networks separate from Bell Mobility. In July 2006, Bell Mobility assumed responsibility for the former Aliant wireless operations in Atlantic Canada as part of a larger restructuring of both Bell and Aliant, continued to do business there as Aliant Mobility until re-branding as Bell in April 2008. Bell Mobility is a member of the British Columbia Technology Industry Association. In May 2017, Bell completed the purchase of MTS enhancing Bell's network coverage area. Prior to this purchase, Bell's network covered only the Winnipeg to Brandon corridor, whereas MTS' network was the largest in Manitoba, covering much of Manitoba.
Although both are different and independent from one another, both the CDMA and HSPA+ networks use the 850 and 1900 MHz frequencies. Bell's LTE network uses Band 4 Advanced Wireless Services and Band 2 Personal Communications Service in most coverage areas and Band 7 in a few areas. Bell CDMA service continues to operate in Manitoba and provinces to the east, except for portions of Quebec near Quebec City; as of April 30, 2019, all CDMA service from Bell will be discontinued. In October 2009, Telus Mobility and Bell announced plans to deploy HSPA technology by 2010 as part of an effort to upgrade to LTE technology; the network, using shared infrastructure, launched on November 4, 2009. According to Bell, the single-channel HSPA+ network is available to 96% of the Canadian population, it provides download speeds of up to 21 Mbit/s, with typical speeds ranging between 3 8 Mbit/s. The dual-channel network, on the other hand, began in 2010 and is available to 70% of the Canadian population, it can reach download speeds of up to 42 Mbit/s but with typical speeds of 7 to 14 Mbit/s.
Bell's HSPA+ network coverage is in portions of all Canadian provinces and territories, but it is not possible to drive in Canada between the Pacific coast to the Atlantic coast without going through areas without any cellular coverage, as there are gaps in cellular coverage in British Columbia and Ontario. Bell launched LTE by using the 1700 MHz frequency in Toronto and surrounding areas on September 14, 2011. Since Bell has expanded LTE into most areas of Canada where it has HSPA coverage, launched LTE on to the 2600 MHz frequency for additional bandwidth in March 2012 and on to the 700 MHz spectrum in 2014. Bell will use Band 12 depending on provinces; as of May 2017, LTE coverage reaches 97% of Canada's population, but there are gaps in coverage in smaller communities and between communities, where Bell's HSPA+ network is available but its LTE network is not available. Bell's LTE Advanced network, the first in North America that supports Quad Band LTE Advanced, covers 73% of the Canadian population.
As of February 2016, Bell Mobility has launched voice over LTE. Feature phones and smartphones supporting HSPA and LTE are offered by Bell, are the same as offered by the other two large carriers in Canada, Rogers Wireless and Telus Mobility. Due to the age of the technology as deployed by Bell, CDMA smartphones are no longer sold by Bell Mobility; the first cell phone conversation in Canada took place on the Bell network between Jean Drapeau and Art Eggleton, the mayors of Montreal and Toronto, on July 1, 1985. The first cell phone customer in Canada was Victor Surerus, a travelling funeral director out of Peterborough, Ontario who purchased a $2,700 CAD telephone set and took out a service subscription with Bell Canada in July 1985. Bell Mobility discontinued its Advanced Mobile Phone System analog mobile network in February 2008. BlackBerry Internet Service Telephony SMS and MMSBell offers a service to check account balances and megabytes of mobile data used, add features and answers to asked questions.
The service is called TCARE, short for text message care. It is used by sending a blank message to the phone number TCARE. Bell offers four Internet-only plans and several smartphone plans and add-ons for customers wishing to access mobile broadband. Various fixed data allowances are offered by Bell: 10, 20, 100, 300 and 500 MB, as well as 1 to 6 GB, 10 GB and 15 GB; the 20 MB add-on is a daily allowance. Flexible data plans are available; this is used for Bell Mobility's Internet-only plans and some smartphone plans, which begins with a certain usage limit at a lower tier. If this is exceeded, the customer moves to the next higher tier with a larger allowance; the flexible "Turbo Hub flex plan" from Bell differs in that customers have to pay a premium if they want to increase the maximum theoretical speeds from 7.2 Mbit/s to 21 Mbit/s. No additional usage is included. Bell's policy is to only allow the sale of Turbo Hub service with its own Turbo Hub devices. Bell's wireless Internet plan starts at the initial 2 GB tier.
If this is exceeded, the tier automatically goes up to 5 GB up to 10 GB up to 15 GB as the final tier. There are additional charges if one does g
Bell Aliant Inc. is a Canadian communications company providing services in various areas throughout Canada. Bell Canada, the largest shareholder in the company and most of its predecessors throughout their respective histories, took full ownership of Bell Aliant in late 2014. In announcing these plans, Bell Canada indicated that the Bell Aliant brand name will continue to be used in Atlantic Canada; the current firm is the successor to Aliant Telecom Inc, formed from the 1999 merger of Maritime Telephone and Telegraph Company, Island Telecom and NewTel Enterprises the four main incumbent telephone companies in Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and Newfoundland and Labrador respectively. Bell Canada was the largest shareholder of MT&T, NewTel prior to the merger, received a 53% stake in the merged company, Aliant. At the time that Aliant Inc. was being formed, the executives of the four merging companies agreed to a co-operative management strategy which would see no specific province have a Bell Aliant head office.
On April 14, 2006, Bell and Aliant announced plans to merge Aliant's operations into those of Bell. Aliant's "high growth" wireless and retail networks would be folded into Bell's wholly owned Bell Mobility and Bell World operations, respectively. Aliant, under a new income trust structure, would acquire Bell's "regional" landline operations in Ontario and Quebec; this created the significant challenges involved with merging English-speaking operations with French-speaking operations. The transaction was completed on July 10, 2006, saw the appointment of Stephen Wetmore of Bell, as President and CEO. Bell Canada retained 45% of the restructured Aliant. Fund units representing about 28.5% of Bell Aliant were distributed to shareholders of Bell's parent company, BCE. Shareholders of the former Aliant Inc. received units representing 26.5% of the firm. The purpose was to separate out the more stable parts of Bell's holdings, i.e. wireline operations in markets with little competition, to satisfy investors.
The restructuring was not expected to have any effect on end consumers in terms of existing pricing or bundling practices. Meanwhile, Bell Canada proper continues to have full control over its wireless and satellite/cable operations throughout Canada, as well as wireline operations in major centres such as Toronto, Ottawa and surrounding areas. Bell Aliant has assumed Bell's 63.4% interests in both NorthernTel and Télébec. Since January 30, 2007, both are 100%-owned by Bell Aliant. Since 2016 they have been considered subsidiaries of BCE as Bell Aliant's operations were consolidated into those of Bell Canada. Both firms continued to operate their own wireless networks until 2015. On January 1, 2013, Bell Aliant completed its purchase of Dryden Municipal Telephone Service, a municipal telephone utility in Dryden, Ontario. On July 23, 2014, BCE announced it would privatize Bell Aliant by acquiring the interest of Bell Aliant's public minority shareholders. On October 3, 2014, BCE announced the successful completion of its tender offer to purchase all outstanding Bell Aliant publicly held common shares.
On November 3, 2014, BCE announced the formal close of the transaction as BCE acquired all remaining Bell Aliant common shares not acquired under BCE's tender offer through a compulsory acquisition effective October 31, 2014. Bell Aliant common shares were de-listed from the Toronto Stock Exchange on October 31, 2014. In October 2014, Bell Aliant completed its acquisition of Ontera, the telecommunications division of the Ontario Northland Transportation Commission; the company operates as "Bell Aliant" in Atlantic Canada. The Atlantic Canada services were known as "Aliant" until summer 2008; the former Aliant wireless and retail networks operated under the "Aliant" brand in Atlantic Canada, albeit now under the direct control of Bell. Wireless services transitioned to the Bell brand in April 2008. In Atlantic Canada, Bell Aliant's services include high-speed and dial-up internet access, wireline telephone service, IPTV cable television, its main competitors are the region's incumbent cable providers, EastLink and Rogers Communications, who had eroded on Bell Aliant's market share until mid-2009, as of 2015, the unrelated Island Telecom, a fibre optic service provider in Prince Edward Island.
In 2009 Bell Aliant launched'FibreOp', now marketed under the common Bell parent product name Fibe, as of mid-2011 the service was available to 294,000 homes and businesses in Atlantic Canada. Bell Aliant's email service has been excoriated in various media outlets and by customers for service failures and an outdated webmail program. A Google News Search reveals some of the problems, which have persisted into 2019. Area codes 902 and 782 Area code 506 Area code 709 Area codes 418 and 581 Area codes 819 and 873 Area codes 705 and 249 Area code 807 Bell Canada Cybertip.ca List of internet service providers in Canada Official website
The Source (retailer)
The Source Electronics Inc. doing business as The Source, is a Canadian consumer electronics and cell phone retail chain. The chain goes back over 40 years in Canada as Radio Shack and as The Source by Circuit City; the Source is now owned by BCE Inc. which purchased the assets of InterTAN from its parent, American retailer Circuit City, in 2009. The Source is based in Barrie, Ontario; the Source began as the Canadian branch of Radio Shack. The chain was owned by Radio Shack's American parent company Tandy Corporation, but was spun off in June 1986, along with the rest of Tandy's international operations, as InterTAN. A licensing agreement with what became RadioShack Corporation allowed InterTAN to continue to use the chain's name and logo. InterTAN abandoned its non-profitable West German stores in 1987, left Belgium and France in 1993, sold its British stores to Carphone Warehouse in 1999 and sold its Australian stores to Woolworth subsidiary Dick Smith Electronics in 2002, leaving just the Canadian Radio Shack, Battery Plus and Rogers Plus stores.
In May 2004, InterTAN was acquired by Circuit City. One week after the acquisition was completed, RadioShack Corporation filed a lawsuit in the 352nd Judicial District Court in Tarrant County, Texas to end the licensing agreement. RadioShack Corporation claimed. On March 24, 2005, the district court judge ruled in favour of RadioShack and cancelled the agreement; the ruling prohibited InterTAN from using the brand name on its stores or in any of its products and advertising after June 30, 2005. On April 26, 2005, Circuit City announced that the stores would be renamed The Source by Circuit City; the rebranding process was completed in the majority of the chain's Canadian stores by July 1, 2005. The chain introduced new house brands, including Nexxtech and Centrios, in place of RadioShack store brands. In February 2007, The Source announced. On March 30, 2007, Circuit City announced to its shareholders that it was seeking options including selling off the InterTAN/The Source subsidiary to cut losses.
On November 10, 2008, InterTAN sought protection from its creditors, after Circuit City filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. Circuit City announced on January 16, 2009, that its namesake U. S. stores would be liquidated. The Source was not affected by the announcement, a process followed to sell the Canadian operations as a going concern. On March 2, 2009, Canadian telecommunications firm Bell Canada announced it would acquire The Source and continue to operate it as an independent division; the acquisition was completed July 1 for the final purchase price of $135 million US, following which the chain removed the "by Circuit City" from its name. Prior to January 2010, the stores sold mobile phone services from Bell's main competitor, Rogers Wireless: at that point, the chain began to market Bell-owned wireless and internet services; the Source continues to sell a full array of consumer electronics products. The Source stocks a wide array of products. Most of the products are consumer electronics, including: cellular phones, computer accessories, televisions, DVD players, Blu-ray players, home theatre systems, clock radios, traditional telephones, SiriusXM satellite radio, console gaming equipment, Bell devices, Virgin Mobile devices, Bell TV, MP3 players, as well as a large selection of headphones including the Monster and Skullcandy headphone line-up.
The Source carries house brand products, under brands such as Nexxtech, Kapsule and Xtreme Gaming. The Source RadioShack Catalogs
A corporation is an organization a group of people or a company, authorized to act as a single entity and recognized as such in law. Early incorporated entities were established by charter. Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration. Corporations come in many different types but are divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered into two kinds: by whether they can issue stock or not, or by whether they are formed to make a profit or not. Corporations can be divided by the number of owners: corporation corporation sole; the subject of this article is a corporation aggregate. A corporation sole is a legal entity consisting of a single incorporated office, occupied by a single natural person. Where local law distinguishes corporations by the ability to issue stock, corporations allowed to do so are referred to as "stock corporations", ownership of the corporation is through stock, owners of stock are referred to as "stockholders" or "shareholders".
Corporations not allowed to issue stock are referred to as "non-stock" corporations. Corporations chartered in regions where they are distinguished by whether they are allowed to be for profit or not are referred to as "for profit" and "not-for-profit" corporations, respectively. There is some overlap between stock/non-stock and for-profit/not-for-profit in that not-for-profit corporations are always non-stock as well. A for-profit corporation is always a stock corporation, but some for-profit corporations may choose to be non-stock. To simplify the explanation, whenever "Stockholder" or "shareholder" is used in the rest of this article to refer to a stock corporation, it is presumed to mean the same as "member" for a non-profit corporation or for a profit, non-stock corporation. Registered corporations have legal personality and their shares are owned by shareholders whose liability is limited to their investment. Shareholders do not actively manage a corporation. In most circumstances, a shareholder may serve as a director or officer of a corporation.
In American English, the word corporation is most used to describe large business corporations. In British English and in the Commonwealth countries, the term company is more used to describe the same sort of entity while the word corporation encompasses all incorporated entities. In American English, the word company can include entities such as partnerships that would not be referred to as companies in British English as they are not a separate legal entity. Late in the 19th century, a new form of company having the limited liability protections of a corporation, the more favorable tax treatment of either a sole proprietorship or partnership was developed. While not a corporation, this new type of entity became attractive as an alternative for corporations not needing to issue stock. In Germany, the organization was referred to as Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung or GmbH. In the last quarter of the 20th Century this new form of non-corporate organization became available in the United States and other countries, was known as the limited liability company or LLC.
Since the GmbH and LLC forms of organization are technically not corporations, they will not be discussed in this article. The word "corporation" derives from corpus, the Latin word for body, or a "body of people". By the time of Justinian, Roman law recognized a range of corporate entities under the names universitas, corpus or collegium; these included the state itself and such private associations as sponsors of a religious cult, burial clubs, political groups, guilds of craftsmen or traders. Such bodies had the right to own property and make contracts, to receive gifts and legacies, to sue and be sued, and, in general, to perform legal acts through representatives. Private associations were granted designated liberties by the emperor. Entities which carried on business and were the subjects of legal rights were found in ancient Rome, the Maurya Empire in ancient India. In medieval Europe, churches became incorporated, as did local governments, such as the Pope and the City of London Corporation.
The point was that the incorporation would survive longer than the lives of any particular member, existing in perpetuity. The alleged oldest commercial corporation in the world, the Stora Kopparberg mining community in Falun, obtained a charter from King Magnus Eriksson in 1347. In medieval times, traders would do business through common law constructs, such as partnerships. Whenever people acted together with a view to profit, the law deemed. Early guilds and livery companies were often involved in the regulation of competition between traders. Dutch and English chartered companies, such as the Dutch East India Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, were created to lead the colonial ventures of European nations in the 17th century. Acting under a charter sanctioned by the Dutch government, the Dutch East India Company defeated Portuguese forces and established itself in the Moluccan Islands in order to profit from the European demand for spices. Investors in the VOC were issued paper certificates as proof of share ownership, were able to trade their shares on the original Amsterdam
Virgin Mobile Canada
Virgin Mobile Canada Ltd. is a provider of postpaid and prepaid wireless voice and data communications services throughout Canada. They offer Home Internet services in select areas of Ontario and Quebec. Launched on March 1, 2005 as a joint venture between Virgin Group and BCE Inc. BCE took sole ownership on July 1, 2009 when it closed a deal to purchase the stake it did not own. Virgin Mobile calls its customers'Members' and offers a Member Benefits program, which provides its customers with special offers, VIP experiences; the VirginMobile.ca domain name was registered by Virgin Enterprises Limited on July 4, 2003 with the Canadian Internet Registration Authority. When accessed, it displayed a domain parking page until June 14, 2004, when it was replaced with an announcement. There were links to information about the company, related news articles, career opportunities. Virgin Mobile claimed: "we work like maniacs to bring you Canada’s most awesome mobile phone company." Virgin Mobile launched in Canada on March 1, 2005 as a mobile virtual network operator using the Bell Mobility network.
At the time, Virgin Mobile was operating as a prepaid service. The company's website showcased several feature phones it offered, advertised itself as a "no catch" mobile operator. Virgin Mobile Canada was the first mobile carrier in Canada to launch without a system access fee; the company’s “no catch” campaign at launch featured cheeky advertisements likening existing Canadian mobile carriers as “the catch”, Virgin Mobile Canada as the cure to unclear contracts and undesirable hidden fees. Sir Richard Branson helped create excitement at launch by zip-lining from a high-rise building into Yonge-Dundas Square in a superhero costume, drove a monster truck over three cars symbolizing “The Big Three” mobile carriers in Canada – Rogers and Bell. Since its launch, Virgin Mobile has used edgy and controversial advertising, leading to demands for an apology, requests to cease and desist the advertising, boycotts; this marketing technique is still used by Virgin Mobile Canada to this day. In February 2008, Virgin Mobile Canada launched postpaid wireless service.
To promote and encourage Canadians to consider the new postpaid service, the company released a new slogan, "It's Better to Be a Member". At launch, this was known as'myPlan', the company offered a multitude of options, including the ability to set one's own timeframe for unlimited calling, as opposed to the windows offered by competing mobile companies. Since postpaid plans have become a popular choice for new and existing Members, plans continue to evolve in the competitive telecom market. On July 1, 2009, Bell Mobility acquired 50% of Virgin Mobile Canada that it did not own for $142 million and entered into a long-term agreement to use the Virgin brand. Following this, Bell reduced its investments into Solo Mobile in order to invest in and improve its new Virgin brand. On December 21, 2009, Virgin Mobile Canada's then-president Robert Blumenthal promised "a different Virgin Mobile" with "higher-value devices and services" in 2010. Virgin Mobile launched HSPA+ services on February 2, 2010.
This was promoted with a “SIM Fashion Show” launch event featuring Victoria's Secret models. The company launched HSPA+ with several phones, including the BlackBerry Bold 9700, BlackBerry Curve 8530, the iPhone 3G, iPhone 3GS, MiFi and Samsung M330. A Broadband2Go USB mobile broadband modem was part of the launch lineup. To prepare for the back-to-school season of that year, the Virgin Mobile SuperTab was introduced on August 23 as a response to competition from other providers Koodo Mobile; the SuperTab was only available to postpaid Members, while HSPA+ products and services were unavailable to prepaid Members until around spring in 2011. To differentiate itself from other mobile providers, Virgin Mobile Canada launched its Member Benefits program in 2010; this program is available to all Postpaid and Prepaid Members and provides exclusive discounts and VIP experiences with many well-known brands in the fashion, travel and entertainment space. Since launch, the program offers exclusive offers for its Members.
In response to competition from major mobile brands and new entrants, Virgin Mobile introduced a City Unlimited plan on February 18, 2011. That year, in order to imitate Koodo Mobile's pricing, Virgin Mobile reduced Canadian long distance charges eliminating them altogether. For the same reason, a plan with unlimited Canadian long distance minutes was launched by Virgin, priced identically to Koodo's equivalent offering; the carrier is notable for being one of Canada's two carriers to carry the Galaxy Nexus smartphone for the country's Christmas and holiday season of 2011. Bell Mobility, Virgin Mobile's parent has this exclusivity during that time period; the flagship device from the Google Nexus series is the first in the world to run the Android 4 operating system. On November 29, Virgin Mobile invited its Members to join the Galaxy Nexus Tester Team; each Member in this team of five received a complimentary Galaxy Nexus, but they had to tweet about their experiences with the device. The smartphone was launched on December 8, the five Tester Team members were chosen on the following day.
Other Canadian carriers sold the Galaxy Nexus in 2012. On January 9, 2012, Virgin Mobile Canada launched a limited time promotion where postpaid customers who activated only a SIM card during that month would obtain an ongoing $5/month discount when they subscribed to any talk and text plan; those with a smartphone plan would receive an ongoing $10/month discount instead. On January 25, 2013, Virgin Mobile Canada introduced "Bring Your Own Ph
Order of Canada
The Order of Canada is a Canadian national order and the second highest honour for merit in the system of orders and medals of Canada. It comes second only to membership in the Order of Merit, the personal gift of Canada's monarch. To coincide with the centennial of Canadian Confederation, the three-tiered order was established in 1967 as a fellowship that recognizes the outstanding merit or distinguished service of Canadians who make a major difference to Canada through lifelong contributions in every field of endeavour, as well as the efforts by non-Canadians who have made the world better by their actions. Membership is accorded to those who exemplify the order's Latin motto, desiderantes meliorem patriam, meaning "they desire a better country", a phrase taken from Hebrews 11:16; the three tiers of the order are Companion and Member. The Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is Sovereign of the order and the serving governor general Julie Payette, is its Chancellor and Principal Companion and administers the order on behalf of the Sovereign.
Appointees to the order are recommended by an advisory board and formally inducted by the governor general or the sovereign. As of August 2017, 6,898 people have been appointed to the Order of Canada, including scientists, politicians, athletes, business people, film stars and others; some have resigned or have been removed from the order, while other appointments have been controversial. Appointees receive the right to armorial bearings; the process of founding the Order of Canada began in early 1966 and came to a conclusion on 17 April 1967, when the organization was instituted by Queen Elizabeth II, on the advice of the Canadian prime minister, Lester B. Pearson, assisted with the establishment of the order by John Matheson; the association was launched on 1 July 1967, the 100th anniversary of Canadian Confederation, with Governor General Roland Michener being the first inductee to the order, to the level of Companion, on 7 July of the same year, 90 more people were appointed, including Vincent Massey, Louis St. Laurent, Hugh MacLennan, David Bauer, Gabrielle Roy, Donald Creighton, Thérèse Casgrain, Wilder Penfield, Arthur Lismer, Brock Chisholm, M. J. Coldwell, Edwin Baker, Alex Colville, Maurice Richard.
During a visit to London, United Kingdom in 1970, Michener presented the Queen with her Sovereign's badge for the Order of Canada, which she first wore during a banquet in Yellowknife in July 1970. From the Order of Canada grew a Canadian honours system, thereby reducing the use of British honours. Among the civilian awards of the Canadian honours system, the Order of Canada comes third, after the Cross of Valour and membership in the Order of Merit, within the personal gift of Canada's monarch. By the 1980s, Canada's provinces decorations; the Canadian monarch, seen as the fount of honour, is at the apex of the Order of Canada as its Sovereign, followed by the governor general, who serves as the fellowship's Chancellor. Thereafter follow three grades, which are, in order of precedence: Companion and Member, each having accordant post-nominal letters that members are entitled to use; each incumbent governor general is installed as the Principal Companion for the duration of his or her time in the viceregal post and continues as an extraordinary Companion thereafter.
Additionally, any governor general, viceregal consort, former governor general, former viceregal consort, or member of the Canadian Royal Family may be appointed as an extraordinary Companion, Officer, or Member. Promotions in grade are possible, though this is ordinarily not done within five years of the initial appointment, a maximum of five honorary appointments into any of the three grades may be made by the governor general each year; as of March 2016, there have been 21 honorary appointments. There were in effect, only two ranks to the Order of Canada: Companion and the Medal of Service. There was, however a third award, the Medal of Courage, meant to recognize acts of gallantry; this latter decoration fell in rank between the other two levels, but was anomalous within the Order of Canada, being a separate award of a different nature rather than a middle grade of the order. Without having been awarded, the Medal of Courage was on 1 July 1972 replaced by the autonomous Cross of Valour and, at the same time, the levels of Officer and Member were introduced, with all existing holders of the Medal of Service created as Officers.
Lester Pearson's vision of a three-tiered structure to the order was thus fulfilled. Companions of the Order of Canada have demonstrated the highest degree of merit to Canada and humanity, on either the national or international scene. Up to 15 Companions are appointed annually, with an imposed limit of 165 living Companions at any given time, not including those appointed as extraordinary Companions or in an honorary capacity; as of August 2017, there are 146 living Companions. Since 1994, substantive members are the only regular citizens who are empowered to administer the Canadian Oath of Citizenship. Officers of the Order of Canada have demonstrated an outstanding level of talent and service to Canadians, up to 64 may be appointed each year, not including those inducted as extraordinary Officers or in an ho