Anari is a fresh mild whey cheese produced in Cyprus. Although much less known than other Cypriot cheeses, it gained popularity following publicity. One of the main industrial producers on the island won a silver medal award for anari in the 2005 World Cheese Awards in the UK, it has since become available in UK national supermarkets. The whey used is a by-product in the production process of other harder cheeses that of halloumi or kefalotyri cheese; the whey is heated to 65 °C in a large cooking bowl. A small amount of goat or sheep milk can be added at this temperature to improve the end product quality; the temperature is increased to boiling point, whilst mixing. At 80–85 °C small crumbly curds of anari start forming and are skimmed off the surface using a slotted spoon or a colander, they are placed in a container that allows further drainage and cut into cubes of 10 cm sides. Excluding the drainage, the above process takes 1 hour. In its simple form, anari has a chalk-white appearance with a soft consistency, similar in many ways to the likes of mizithra cheese, cottage cheese and ricotta.
Salt is added and the product dried through gentle heating and further maturation to create an hard variant. If not intended for hardening, anari must be consumed soon after its production as it is perishable. Most locals will consume it for breakfast mixed with syrups or honey. Bourekia is a traditional Cypriot dish of pastries packed with various anari-based fillings. Cheesecakes are similar with a filo pastry cover instead. Dry anari is too hard to cut and is hence invariably grated and used to garnish pasta dishes or thicken sauces, it is used to make Flaounes, a traditional pastry with dry anari prepared in Orthodox Easter. 100 g of commercially produced fresh anari has a typical composition of: Anari is known in Cyprus as analati anari meaning Anari without salt, since the regular anari is salted. Anari has a prominent place in Cypriot culture as it is mentioned in the traditional fairy tale Spanos and the forty dragons. Cheese
Macedonia is a geographic and former administrative region of Greece, in the southern Balkans. Macedonia is the largest and second-most-populous Greek region, with a population of 2.38 million in 2017. The region is mountainous, with most major urban centres such as Thessaloniki and Kavala being concentrated on its southern coastline. Together with Thrace, sometimes Thessaly and Epirus, it is part of Northern Greece. Greek Macedonia encompasses the southern part of the region of Macedonia, making up 51% of the total area of the region, it contains Mount Athos, an autonomous monastic region of Greece. Macedonia forms part of Greece's national frontier with three countries: Bulgaria to the north-east, the Republic of North Macedonia to the north, Albania to the north-west. Macedonia incorporates most of the territories of ancient Macedon, a kingdom ruled by the Argeads and whose most celebrated members were Alexander the Great and his father Philip II; the name Macedonia was applied to a number of widely-differing administrative areas in the Roman and Byzantine empires, resulting in modern geographical Macedonia.
Prior to the establishment of the modern Greek state in 1830 Macedonia was identified as a Greek province, albeit without defined geographical borders. Modern Macedonia was established in 1913, in the aftermath of the Treaty of Bucharest which ended the Balkan Wars, it continued as an administrative subdivision of Greece until the administrative reform of 1987, when it was divided into the regions of West Macedonia, Central Macedonia, part of the region of East Macedonia and Thrace, the latter containing the whole Greek part of the region of Thrace. The region remains an important economic centre for Greece. Macedonia accounts for the majority of Greece's agricultural production and is a major contributor to the country's industrial and tourism sectors. Central Macedonia is Greece's fourth-most-popular tourist region and the most popular region, not an island, it is home to four UNESCO World Heritage sites, including Aigai, one of the ancient Macedonian capital cities. Pella, which replaced Aigai as the capital of Macedon in the fourth century BC, is located in Greek Macedonia.
The name Macedonia derives from the Greek Μακεδονία, a kingdom named after the ancient Macedonians, who were the descendants of a Bronze-age Greek tribe. Their name, Μακεδόνες, is cognate to the Ancient Greek adjective μακεδνός, meaning "tall, slim", it was traditionally derived from the Indo-European root *mak-, meaning'long' or'slender'. Linguist Robert S. P. Beekes supports the idea that both terms are of Pre-Greek substrate origin and cannot be explained in terms of Indo-European morphology. However, Beekes' views are not mainstream; the region has also been known as Македония in Bulgarian and the local South Slavic dialects, Makedonya in Turkish, Machedonia in Aromanian or Vlach. Macedonia lies at the crossroads of human development between the Aegean and the Balkans; the earliest signs of human habitation date back to the palaeolithic period, notably with the Petralona cave in, found the oldest yet known European humanoid, Archanthropus europaeus petraloniensis. In the Late Neolithic period, trade took place with quite distant regions, indicating rapid socio-economic changes.
One of the most important innovations was the start of copper working. According to Herodotus, the history of Macedonia began with the Makednoi tribe, among the first to use the name, migrating to the region from Histiaeotis in the south. There they lived near Thracian tribes such as the Bryges who would leave Macedonia for Asia Minor and become known as Phrygians. Macedonia was named after the Makednoi. Accounts of other toponyms such as Emathia are attested to have been in use before that. Herodotus claims that a branch of the Macedonians invaded Southern Greece towards the end of the second millennium B. C. Upon reaching the Peloponnese the invaders were renamed Dorians, triggering the accounts of the Dorian invasion. For centuries the Macedonian tribes were organized in independent kingdoms, in what is now Central Macedonia, their role in internal Hellenic politics was minimal before the rise of Athens; the Macedonians claimed to be Dorian Greeks and there were many Ionians in the coastal regions.
The rest of the region was inhabited by various Thracian and Illyrian tribes as well as coastal colonies of other Greek states such as Amphipolis, Potidea and many others, to the north another tribe dwelt, called the Paeonians. During the late 6th and early 5th century BC, the region came under Persian rule until the destruction of Xerxes at Plataea. During the Peloponnesian War, Macedonia became the theatre of many military actions by the Peloponnesian League and the Athenians, saw incursions of Thracians and Illyrians, as attested by Thucidydes. Many Macedonian cities were allied to the Spartans, but Athens maintained the colony of Amphipolis under her control for many years; the kingdom of Macedon, was reorganised by Philip II and achieved the union of Greek states by forming the League of Corinth. After his assassination, his son Alexander succeeded to the throne of Macedon and carrying the title of Hegemon of League of Corinth started his long campaign towards the east. Macedonia remained an important and powerful kingdom until the Battle of Pydna, in which the Roman general Aemilius Paulus defeated King Perseus of Macedon, ending the reign of the Antigonid dynasty over Macedonia.
For a brief period a Macedonian republic
Ricotta is an Italian whey cheese made from sheep, goat, or Italian water buffalo milk whey left over from the production of other cheeses. Like other whey cheeses, it is made by coagulating the proteins that remain after the casein has been used to make cheese, notably albumin and globulin. Ricotta protein can be harvested if the whey is first allowed to become more acidic by additional fermentation; the acidified whey is heated to near boiling. The combination of low pH and high temperature denatures the protein and causes it to precipitate, forming a fine curd. Once cooled, it is separated by passing the liquid through a fine cloth. Ricotta curds are creamy white in appearance, sweet in taste; the fat content changes depending on the type of milk used. In this form, it is somewhat similar in texture to some cottage cheese variants, though lighter, it is perishable. However, ricotta is made in aged varieties which are preservable for much longer; the production of ricotta in the Italian peninsula dates back to the Bronze Age.
In the second millennium BC, ceramic vessels called milk boilers started to appear and were unique to the peninsula. These were designed to prevent the milk from boiling over; the fresh acid-coagulated cheeses produced with these boilers were made with whole milk. However, the production of rennet-coagulated cheese overtook the production of fresh whole-milk cheeses during the first millennium BC. Bronze cheese graters found in the graves of the Etruscan elite prove that hard-grating cheeses were popular with the aristocracy. Cheese graters were commonly used in ancient Roman kitchens. Unlike the fresh acid-coagulated cheese, aged rennet-coagulated cheese could be preserved for much longer; the increased production of rennet-coagulated cheese led to a large supply of sweet whey as a byproduct. Cheesemakers started using a new recipe, which used a mixture of whey and milk to make the traditional ricotta as it is known today; the ancient Romans made ricotta, but writers on agriculture such as Cato the Elder, Marcus Terentius Varro, Columella do not mention it.
They described the production of rennet-coagulated cheese but did not write about milk boilers or acid-coagulated cheese. A reason is that ricotta was not profitable because its short shelf life did not allow distribution to urban markets. Ricotta was most consumed by the shepherds who made it. So, evidence from paintings and literature indicates that ricotta was known and eaten by Roman aristocrats as well. Ceramic milk boilers were still used by Apennine shepherds to make ricotta in the 19th century AD. Today, metal milk boilers are used. Whey protein is a kind of milk protein but there are numerous other milk proteins. Whey itself is less than 1% protein by weight; this means ricotta production is a low-yield process, considering the amount of whey required to produce it. The whey is heated, sometimes with additional acid such as vinegar or lemon juice to catalyze the coagulation through heat of albumin and globulin in the whey; the whey is heated to a near-boiling temperature, much hotter than during the production of the original cheese, of which the whey is a remnant.
The original ricotta is made of whey with the addition of a small amount of milk, but more ricotta has been made of whole milk as well. Whole-milk ricotta is popular in the USA, where whey ricotta is known by the name ricottone. Ricotta di Bufala Campana and Ricotta Romana are notable varieties produced in Italy and protected by the European Union's Protected Designation of Origin regulation. Ricotta di Bufala Campana is made from the whey left over after the production of Mozzarella di Bufala Campana, a protected variety of buffalo mozzarella. Ricotta Romana is made from the whey of sheep milk. Fresh ricotta can be subject to extra processing to produce variants which have a much longer shelf life; these production methods include salting, baking and further fermentation. Ricotta salata is a pressed, salted and aged variety of the cheese, it is firm and used for grating or shaving. Ricotta salata is sold in wheels, decorated by a delicate basket-weave pattern. Ricotta infornata is produced by placing a large lump of soft ricotta in the oven until it develops a brown charred crust, sometimes until it becomes sandy brown all the way through.
Ricotta infornata is popular in Sardinia and Sicily, is sometimes called ricotta al forno. Ricotta affumicata is similar to ricotta infornata and is produced by placing a lump of soft ricotta in a smoker until it develops a grey crust and acquires a charred wood scent of oak or chestnut wood, although, in Friuli, beech wood is used, with the addition of juniper and herbs. Ricotta forte known as ricotta scanta, is produced from leftovers of any combination of cow, goat, or sheep milk ricotta; these are allowed to age for about a year, during which the cheese is mixed every two or three days to prevent the growth of mold. Salt is added as well; the end result is a soft and creamy brown paste which has a pungent and piquant taste. It is sold in glass jars, it is mixed with tomato sauces for pasta, or added to vegetable dishes. Like mascarpone in northern Italian cuisine, ricotta is a favorite component of many Italian desserts, such as cheesecakes and cannoli. A variety of different cookies include ricotta as
Manouri is a Greek semi-soft, fresh white whey cheese made from goat or sheep milk as a by-product following the production of feta. It is produced in Thessalia and Macedonia in central and northern Greece. Manouri is creamier than feta to the whey, it has about 36-38 % fat, but only 0.8 % salt content. It is used as a dessert cheese, it can be substituted for cream cheese in dishes such as cheesecake. Manouri was featured in the Washington Post: "Manouri’s light aroma is sour, similar to that of fresh yogurt, but it lacks yogurt’s acidity. Instead, it has a subtle nutty flavor with a bit of sheepiness and the barest hint of tang. What elevates the cheese, though, is its texture."Manouri has PDO status. List of cheeses
Brunost is a common, Norwegian name for mysost, a family of cheese-related foods made with whey, and/or cream. It is used to just refer to the Gudbrandsdalsost type, the most popular variety. Brunost is produced and consumed in Norway, it is regarded as one of the country's most iconic foodstuffs, is considered an important part of Norwegian gastronomical and cultural identity and heritage. Boiling down whey to create a soft, brown spread has been common in the Scandinavian countries since time immemorial. An archeological find from September 2016 in central Jutland has determined that a cheese residue on pottery from circa 650 B. C. is a type of cheese brunost. However, the creation of the modern, fatty brunost is attributed to the milkmaid Anne Hov from the rural valley of Gudbrandsdalen. In the second half of the 1800s, Gudbrandsdalen was suffering economically due to falling profits from grain and butter sales. While working at the Valseter mountain farm near Gålå in 1863, Anne Hov came up with the idea of adding cream to the whey when boiling, to boil it down in an iron pot until the fluid content was reduced to less than 80 percent, creating a firmer, more cheese-like product.
She called it feitost. The name changed into fløtemysost; the product caught on, was soon produced and consumed in the area. This variety is the second most popular type in Norway; when Hov married and moved to Rusthågå farm in Nord-Fron, she started larger-scale production and invented a variety where she added goat's milk to the mix for a more pronounced taste. The local trader Ole Kongsli liked it so much he thought there might be a market for the product in the capital, Oslo, he started exporting it to his business contacts in Oslo under the name Gudbrandsdalsost, it became so successful that it contributed to the economy of the region, thus helping Gudbrandsdalen out of recession. In 1933, aged 87, Hov received the King's Medal of Merit for her contributions to Norwegian cuisine and economy. In modern times, the world's largest producer of brunost is the Norwegian dairy co-operative Tine, who market a total of 13 varieties, as well as three types of prim and three types of pultost; the second-largest is Norwegian dairy company Synnøve Finden, which market two varieties of brunost, as well as two varieties of prim.
There are a number of smaller, artisanal producers in Norway and in the US. Mysost are a family of cheese-related foods made with milk and/or cream; the main ingredient, whey, is a byproduct of the cheese making process, it is what is left when the cheese is removed from the milk. Therefore, brunost is not technically cheese, it does not taste like cheese. However, it is produced by cheese makers, is sold and consumed in the same way as cheese; therefore it is regarded as a cheese, despite factually being the exact opposite. The texture is firm, but softer than Gouda cheese, for example, lends itself well to cutting and shaping, it does not crumble like hard cheeses. The taste is sweet, best described as caramel-like, but with a tang, more noticeable in the variants that contain goat's milk; the variant Ekte Geitost contains only whey and goat's milk, has an intense, Chèvre-like taste that cuts the sweetness. Brunost is made by boiling a mixture of milk and whey for several hours so that the water evaporates.
The heat turns the milk sugars into caramel, which gives the cheese its characteristic brown colour and sweetness. It is ready for consumption as soon as it is refrigerated. Low-fat varieties are made by increasing the proportion of whey to cream. In Norway, Brunost is divided into two types: those that contain only cow's cream and/or milk, the ones that contain some proportion of goat's milk; the latter type is called Geitost or Gjetost. Varieties that do not contain any cow's milk are called Ekte Geitost. Technically, the name "true goat's cheese" is misleading, since goat cheese is uncommon in Norway, is called Hvit geitost to avoid confusion. By far the most popular variety is the Gudbrandsdalsost, which contains a mixture of cow and goat milk and whey. Heidal cheese is a type of Gudbrandsdalsost. In Norway it is so common that people just refer to it as "Brunost" or "Geitost", assuming that unless otherwise specified, Gudbrandsdalsost will be provided; this variety is the most popular internationally, in the US it is referred to just as "Gjetost".
The second most popular variety is the Fløtemysost, which has a milder taste due to the lack of goat's milk. The third most popular type is the Ekte geitost. Related to brunost are prim or messmör, a soft, sweet spread sold in tubes all across the Nordic countries; this is the original, ancient product made by boiling whey for a shorter period of time than brunost, not adding milk or cream. In Norway, pultost is traditionally made from byproducts of the brunost-making process, has a distinctive flavour. Brunost is used as a topping for sandwiches and biscuits, it is common in the traditional Norwegian matpakke, a common Norwegian lunch—sandwiches are packed in a lunch box in the morning, a
Greek cuisine is a Mediterranean cuisine. Contemporary Greek cookery makes wide use of vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat. Other important ingredients include olives, cheese, lemon juice, herbs and yoghurt; the most used grain is wheat. Common dessert ingredients include nuts, honey and filo pastries, it is influenced by Ottoman cuisine and thus cuisine of anatolian Greeks shares foods such as baklava, gyro, dolmades and keftethes with the neighboring countries. To an greater extent it is influenced by Italian cuisine and cuisines from other neighboring south European countries, thus in southern regions and the islands it includes several kinds of pasta, like hyllopites and tziolia. Greek cuisine has a culinary tradition of some 4,000 years and is a part of the history and the culture of Greece, its flavors change with its geography. Greek cookery a forerunner of Western cuisine, spread its culinary influence, via ancient Rome, throughout Europe and beyond, it has influences from the different people's cuisine the Greeks have interacted with over the centuries, as evidenced by several types of sweets and cooked foods.
Ancient Greek cuisine was characterized by its frugality and was founded on the "Mediterranean triad": wheat, olive oil, wine, with meat being eaten and fish being more common. This trend in Greek diet continued in Roman and Ottoman times and changed only recently when technological progress has made meat more available. Wine and olive oil have always been a central part of it and the spread of grapes and olive trees in the Mediterranean and further afield is correlated with Greek colonization. Byzantine cuisine was similar to the classical cuisine, with the addition of new ingredients, such as caviar and basil. Lemons, prominent in Greek cuisine and introduced in the second century, were used medicinally before being incorporated into the diet. Fish continued to be an integral part of the diet for coastal dwellers. Culinary advice was influenced by the theory of humors, first put forth by the ancient Greek doctor Claudius Aelius Galenus. Byzantine cuisine benefited from Constantinople’s position as a global hub of the spice trade.
The most characteristic and ancient element of Greek cuisine is olive oil, used in most dishes. It is produced from the olive trees prominent throughout the region, adds to the distinctive taste of Greek food; the olives themselves are widely eaten. The basic grain in Greece is wheat, though barley is grown. Important vegetables include tomato, potato, green beans, green peppers, onions. Honey in Greece is honey from the nectar of fruit trees and citrus trees: lemon, bigarade trees, thyme honey, pine honey. Mastic is grown on the Aegean island of Chios. Greek cuisine uses some flavorings more than other Mediterranean cuisines do, namely oregano, garlic, onion and bay laurel leaves. Other common herbs and spices include basil and fennel seed. Parsley is used as a garnish on some dishes. Many Greek recipes in the northern parts of the country, use "sweet" spices in combination with meat, for example cinnamon and cloves in stews; the climate and terrain has tended to favour the breeding of goats and sheep over cattle, thus beef dishes are uncommon.
Fish dishes are common on the islands. A great variety of cheese types are used in Greek cuisine, including Feta, Kefalotyri, Anthotyros, Metsovone, Kalathaki, Katiki-Tsalafouti and Mizithra. Too much refinement is considered to be against the hearty spirit of the Greek cuisine, though recent trends among Greek culinary circles tend to favour a somewhat more refined approach. Dining out is common in Greece, has been for quite some time; the Taverna and Estiatorio are widespread, serving home cooking at affordable prices to both locals and tourists. Fast food has become more widespread, with local chains such as Goody's springing up, though most McDonald's have closed. Locals still eat Greek cuisine. In addition, some traditional Greek foods souvlaki, pita such as tyropita and spanakopita are served in fast food style. Greece has an ancient culinary tradition dating back several millennia, over the centuries Greek cuisine has evolved and absorbed numerous influences and influenced many cuisines itself.
Some dishes can be traced back to ancient Greece: lentil soup, fasolada and pasteli. There are many ancient and Byzantine dishes which are no longer consumed: porridge as the main staple, fish sauce, salt water mixed into wine. Many dishes entered Greek cuisine from Ottoman cuisine: moussaka, yuvarlakia, boureki, so on. Distinct from the mainstream regional cuisines are: Cuisine of the Aegean islands Arcadian cuisine Cuisine of the Ionian islands Ipirotiki Kritiki Kypriaki (C
Domestic sheep are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals kept as livestock. Like most ruminants, sheep are members of the even-toed ungulates. Although the name sheep applies to many species in the genus Ovis, in everyday usage it always refers to Ovis aries. Numbering a little over one billion, domestic sheep are the most numerous species of sheep. An adult female sheep is referred to as a ewe, an intact male as a ram or a tup, a castrated male as a wether, a younger sheep as a lamb. Sheep are most descended from the wild mouflon of Europe and Asia. One of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes, sheep are raised for fleeces and milk. A sheep's wool is the most used animal fiber, is harvested by shearing. Ovine meat is called lamb when from younger animals and mutton when from older ones in Commonwealth countries, lamb in the United States. Sheep continue to be important for wool and meat today, are occasionally raised for pelts, as dairy animals, or as model organisms for science.
Sheep husbandry is practised throughout the majority of the inhabited world, has been fundamental to many civilizations. In the modern era, New Zealand, the southern and central South American nations, the British Isles are most associated with sheep production. Sheepraising has a large lexicon of unique terms which vary by region and dialect. Use of the word sheep began in Middle English as a derivation of the Old English word scēap. A group of sheep is called a herd or mob. Many other specific terms for the various life stages of sheep exist related to lambing and age. Being a key animal in the history of farming, sheep have a entrenched place in human culture, find representation in much modern language and symbology; as livestock, sheep are most associated with pastoral, Arcadian imagery. Sheep figure in many mythologies—such as the Golden Fleece—and major religions the Abrahamic traditions. In both ancient and modern religious ritual, sheep are used as sacrificial animals; the exact line of descent between domestic sheep and their wild ancestors is unclear.
The most common hypothesis states. Sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated by humankind. C in Mesopotamia; the rearing of sheep for secondary products, the resulting breed development, began in either southwest Asia or western Europe. Sheep were kept for meat and skins. Archaeological evidence from statuary found at sites in Iran suggests that selection for woolly sheep may have begun around 6000 BC, the earliest woven wool garments have been dated to two to three thousand years later. Sheep husbandry spread in Europe. Excavations show that in about 6000 BC, during the Neolithic period of prehistory, the Castelnovien people, living around Châteauneuf-les-Martigues near present-day Marseille in the south of France, were among the first in Europe to keep domestic sheep. From its inception, ancient Greek civilization relied on sheep as primary livestock, were said to name individual animals. Ancient Romans kept sheep on a wide scale, were an important agent in the spread of sheep raising.
Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History, speaks at length about wool. European colonists spread the practice to the New World from 1493 onwards. Domestic sheep are small ruminants with a crimped hair called wool and with horns forming a lateral spiral. Domestic sheep differ from their wild relatives and ancestors in several respects, having become uniquely neotenic as a result of selective breeding by humans. A few primitive breeds of sheep retain some of the characteristics of their wild cousins, such as short tails. Depending on breed, domestic sheep may have no horns at all, or horns in both sexes, or in males only. Most horned breeds have a single pair. Another trait unique to domestic sheep as compared to wild ovines is their wide variation in color. Wild sheep are variations of brown hues, variation within species is limited. Colors of domestic sheep range from pure white to dark chocolate brown, spotted or piebald. Selection for dyeable white fleeces began early in sheep domestication, as white wool is a dominant trait it spread quickly.
However, colored sheep do appear in many modern breeds, may appear as a recessive trait in white flocks. While white wool is desirable for large commercial markets, there is a niche market for colored fleeces for handspinning; the nature of the fleece varies among the breeds, from dense and crimped, to long and hairlike. There is variation of wool type and quality among members of the same flock, so wool classing is a step in the commercial processing of the fibre. Depending on breed, sheep show a range of weights, their rate of growth and mature weight is a heritable trait, selected for in breeding. Ewes weigh between 45 and 100 kilograms, rams between 45 and 160 kilograms; when all deciduous teeth have erupted, the sheep has 20 teeth. Mature sheep have 32 teeth; as with other ruminants, the front teeth in the lower jaw bite against a hard, toothless pad in the upper jaw. These are used to pick off vegetation the rear