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Anthropology of religion

Anthropology of religion is the study of religion in relation to other social institutions, the comparison of religious beliefs and practices across cultures. In the early 12th century Abū Rayhān Bīrūnī, wrote detailed comparative studies on the anthropology of religions and cultures across the Mediterranean Basin and the Indian subcontinent, he discussed the peoples and religions of the Indian subcontinent. In the 19th century cultural anthropology was dominated by an interest in cultural evolution. In the 20th century most anthropologists rejected this approach. Today the anthropology of religion reflects the influence of, or an engagement with, such theorists as Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Émile Durkheim, Max Weber. Anthropologists of religion are concerned with how religious beliefs and practices may reflect political or economic forces. In 1912 Émile Durkheim, building on the work of Feuerbach, considered religion "a projection of the social values of society", "a means of making symbolic statements about society", "a symbolic language that makes statements about the social order".

Anthropologists circa 1940 assumed that religion was in complete continuity with magical thinking, that it is a cultural product. The complete continuity between magic and religion has been a postulate of modern anthropology at least since early 1930s; the perspective of modern anthropology towards religion is the projection idea, a methodological approach which assumes that every religion is created by the human community that worships it, that "creative activity ascribed to God is projected from man". In 1841, Ludwig Feuerbach was the first to employ this concept as the basis for a systematic critique of religion. A prominent precursor in the formulation of this projection principle was Giambattista Vico, an early formulation of it appears in the ancient Greek writer Xenophanes c. 570 – c. 475 BCE)[, who observed that "the gods of Ethiopians were black with flat noses while those of the Thracians were blond with blue eyes." One major problem in the anthropology of religion is the definition of religion itself.

At one time anthropologists believed that certain religious practices and beliefs were more or less universal to all cultures at some point in their development, such as a belief in spirits or ghosts, the use of magic as a means of controlling the supernatural, the use of divination as a means of discovering occult knowledge, the performance of rituals such as prayer and sacrifice as a means of influencing the outcome of various events through a supernatural agency, sometimes taking the form of shamanism or ancestor worship. According to Clifford Geertz, religion is a system of symbols which acts to establish powerful and long-lasting moods and motivations in men by formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that the moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic." Today, religious anthropologists debate, reject, the cross-cultural validity of these categories. Anthropologists have considered various criteria for defining religion – such as a belief in the supernatural or the reliance on ritual – but few claim that these criteria are universally valid.

Anthony F. C. Wallace proposes four categories of religion, each subsequent category subsuming the previous; these are, synthetic categories and do not encompass all religions. Individualistic: most basic. Example: vision quest. Shamanistic: part-time religious practitioner, uses religion to heal, to divine on the behalf of a client; the Tillamook have four categories of shaman. Examples of shamans: spiritualists, faith healers, palm readers. Religious authority acquired through one's own means. Communal: elaborate set of beliefs and practices. Ecclesiastical: dominant in agricultural societies and states. Deprecates competing individualistic and shamanistic cults. Homepage of The Society for the Anthropology of Religion within American Anthropological Association Anthropology of Religion Page M. D. Murphy, University of Alabama Andrew Lang and Religion, The Making of Religion, Green, C°, New York and Bombay, 1900, pp. 39–64

Cannabis in Yukon

Cannabis in Yukon became legal when the national Cannabis Act went into force on October 17, 2018. Cannabis in Canada has been legal for medicinal purposes since 2001 under conditions outlined in the Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations superseded by the Access to Cannabis for Medical Purposes Regulations, issued by Health Canada and seed and fibre production was permitted under licence by Health Canada; the federal Cannabis Act, legalizing cannabis for recreational use, came into effect on October 17, 2018. Each province and territory set its own laws for various aspects, such as the legal age, whether householders can grow cannabis and the method of retail sales. For Yukon's proposed framework, the territory planned to have one government-owned physical store in the main city of Whitehorse, online sales to reach more distant communities; the minimum age for cannabis use would be 19. By 17 October 2018, the Cannabis Yukon store in Whitehorse and the territory’s ecommerce retail site were operating.

They stocked "over 30 strains and 120 unique products including dried flower, milled flower, pre-rolled and capsules". Product ordered; the Yukon Liquor Corporation planned to set up a cannabis licensing board by spring 2019 to accept applications from private companies to operate retail stores. Yukon's proposed framework for legalized cannabis, Government of Yukon

Farz (1967 film)

Farz is a 1967 Hindi spy thriller film, produced by Sunderlal Nahata Dundi under the Vijaya Lakhshmi Pictures banner and directed by Ravikant Nagaich. Starring Jeetendra, Babita in the lead roles and music composed by Laxmikant Pyarelal; the film is a remake of the Telugu movie Gudachari 116. and is hugely inspired by James Bond Movies. The movie had Keemat starring Dharmendra and Raksha starring Jeetendra again. Secret Agent 116 named Gopal has been assigned the case of homicide of a fellow secret agent by the head of CID, who found evidence that can help identify the perpetrators. During this investigation, Gopal meets lovely Sunita, both end up falling in love with each other; the traitor responsible for the killing of Agent 303 has gone to meet 303's sister Kamla and tells her that he is a CID inspector and investigating his brother's case, warning that her brother's killer may attempt on her pretending as his colleague and friend. He elsewhere unsuccessfully continued on the life of agent 116.

116 goes to meet Kamla and sees 303's portrait and notes down the studio photographer's name, but Kamla is convinced that 116 is the killer of her brother. Kamla is approached by another mafia don, for her help in eliminating 116, to which she agrees. Damodar turns out to be Sunita's father when Sunita introduces him, Gopal gets suspicious about him and commences a background check, which reveals that her father is a gangster; as he sets out his case against Damodar, he continues his romance with Sunita. During Sunita's birthday party, Damodar directs his henchman to kill 116, which 116 escapes after some car chase. 116 hesitantly reveals to Sunita. Heartbroken Sunita confronts her father, who tells her that he was forced into his life of crime and terrorism, some other person controls them all, overheard by 116 and his assistant who are hiding outside. 116 goes out for his search for the real culprit to a skyscraper apartment. Kamla seductively dances and mix some intoxicant pill in his drink which overlooked by 116, acted as drunk and senseless.

Goons take him to their secret den in city outskirts, along with Sunita, who mistakes them as Hospital Ward boys. In the den, 116 forced him to reveal some information. 116 escapes in a vehicle. In the meantime, CID agents trace a letter leading to clues regarding the Chinese conspiracy to destabilize the nation and accommodated by traitors inside, led by a person wearing a Mao uniform named Supremo, who only speaks a few broken English sentences; the rest of the movie follows the 116's efforts to thwart a foreign conspiracy against India. Jeetendra as Gopal Kishan Pandey/Agent 116 Babita as Sunita Sajjan as Damodar Agha as Shantaram Rajanala as Supreme Nagesh Mohan Choti as Nikku Manohar Deepak as Raju Mukri as Raju Kanchana as Kamala Aruna Irani as Basanti Lyrics by: Anand Bakshi Farz on IMDb