SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Anti-Arabism

Anti-Arabism, Anti-Arab sentiment or Arabophobia includes opposition to, fear or hatred of, or advocacy of genocide of, Arab people. Anti-Arab prejudice has been an issue in such events as the reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula, the condemnation of Arabs in Spain by the Spanish Inquisition, the Zanzibar Revolution in 1964, the 2005 Cronulla riots in Australia. In the current era, racial prejudice against Arabs is apparent in many countries including Iran, Poland, France, Israel, the UK, the United States. Various advocacy organizations have been formed to protect the civil rights of Arab citizens in the United States, such as the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee and the Council on American-Islamic Relations. Arabs are people. People of Arabic origin, in particular native English and French speakers of Arab ancestry in Europe and the Americas identify themselves as Arabs. Due to widespread practice of Islam among Arab populations, Anti-Arabism is confused with Islamophobia. There are prominent Arab non-Muslim minorities in the Arab world.

These minorities include the Arab Christians in Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt and Kuwait, among other Arab countries. There are sizable minorities of Arab Jews and nonreligious. Most Arabs are Caucasian. Exceptions are Mauritanian, Eritrean and Comoran Arabs. Anti-Arab prejudice is suggested by many events in history. In the Iberian Peninsula, when the reconquest by the indigenous Christians from the Moorish colonists was completed with the fall of Granada, all non-Catholics were expelled. In 1492, Arab converts to Christianity, called Moriscos, were expelled from Spain to North Africa after being condemned by the Spanish Inquisition; the Spanish word "moro", meaning moor, today carries a negative meaning. Although ethnically different from the Arabs in Spain at the time, the term Moro was used pejoratively by the Spanish since the 16th century to refer to Muslim tribal groups in the Philippines. After the annexation of the Muslim-ruled state of Hyderabad by India in 1948, about 7,000 Arabs were interned and deported.

The Zanzibar Revolution of January 12, 1964, ended the local Arab dynasty. As many as 17,000 Arabs were exterminated by black African revolutionaries, according to reports, thousands of others fled the country. In The Arabic Language and National Identity: a Study in Ideology, Yasir Suleiman notes of the writing of Tawfiq al-Fikayki that he uses the term shu'ubiyya to refer to movements he perceives to be anti-Arab, such as the Turkification movement in the Ottoman Empire, extreme-nationalist and Pan-Iranist movements in Iran and communism; the economic boom in Iran which lasted until 1979 led to an overall increase of Iranian nationalism sparking thousands of anti-Arab movements. In al-Fikayki's view, the objectives of anti-Arabism are to attack Arab nationalism, pervert history, emphasize Arab regression, deny Arab culture, be hostile to all things Arab, he concludes that, "In all its various roles, anti-Arabism has adopted a policy of intellectual conquest as a means of penetrating Arab society and combatting Arab nationalism."In early 20th and late 19th century when Palestinians and Syrians migrated to Latin America Arabophobia was common in these countries.

Anti-Arabism is a major element of movements known as Berberism that are widespread amongst Algerians of Kabyle and other Berber origin. It has historic roots as Arabs are seen as invaders that occupied Algeria and destroyed its late Roman and early medieval civilization, considered an integral part of the West. Regardless, the Kabyles and other Berbers have managed to preserve their culture and achieve higher standards of living and education when compared to Algerian Arabs. Furthermore, many Berbers speak French. Many Berber Nationalists view Arabs as a hostile people intent on eradicating their own culture and nation. Berber social norms restrict marriage to someone of Arab ethnicity, although it is permitted to marry someone from other ethnic groups. According to Lawrence Rosen, ethnic background is not a crucial factor in marriage between members of each group in North Africa, when compared to social and economic backgrounds. There are regular Hate incidents between Arabs and Berbers and Anti-Arabism has been accentuated by the Algerian government's anti-Berber policies.

Contemporary relations between Berbers and Arabs are sometimes tense in Algeria, where Berbers rebelled against Arab rule and have demonstrated and rioted against their cultural marginalization in the new founded state. The Anti-Arab sentiments among Algerian Berbers were always related to the reassertion of Kabyle identity, it began as an intellectual militant movement in schools and popular culture. In addition to that, the authorities' efforts to promote development in Kabylie contributed to a boom of sorts in Tizi Ouzou, whose population doubled between 1966 and 1977, to a greater degree of economic and social integration within the region had the contrary effect of strengthening a collective Amazigh consciousness and Anti-Arab sentiments. Arabophobia can be seen at different levels of intellectual and cultural life of some Berbers. After the Berberist crisis in 1949, a new radical intellectual movement emerged under the name L'Académie Berbèr

Lev Kassil

Lev Abramovich Kassil was a Soviet writer of juvenile and young adult literature, depicting Soviet life and their world, sports, cultural life, war. Born into a Jewish family June 27, 1905 in Pokrovskaya sloboda in Saratov Governorate. Finished a local gymnasium transformed into a United labour school. In 1923 Kassil entered Moscow State University, he published his first tale in 1925, became a REF and LEF member. In 1927 Mayakovsky invited him to share in the magazine called New LEF, his most important works were two autobiographical novels for young people dealing with student life before the Revolution and Shvambraniya. In 1936 was the premiere of the film The Goalkeeper written by Lev Kassil, his books were "development novels" describing how young people could, despite their mistakes, reach a mature view of life. Modesty, unselfishness and courage were virtues that Kassil held dear. In 1950 he received the Stalin Prize for his book «Улица младшего сына», the life story of young Volodia Dubinin and his struggle during the German invasion of the Soviet Union.

Kassil taught at the Maxim Gorky Literature Institute for a long period. In 1965 he was elected member of the Academy of Pedagogical Science of the Soviet Union. A minor planet, 2149 Schwambraniya, discovered in 1977 by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Chernykh, is named after the fictional land from his novel The Black Book and Schwambrania; the Black Book and Schwambrania - «Кондуит и Швамбрания» The Great Opposition The Goalkeeper of the Republic - «Вратарь республики»

Petagas War Memorial

The Petagas War Memorial or Petagas War Memorial Garden is a memorial park dedicated to the Second World War victims in Sabah to 324 resistance movement members, who were executed on 21 January 1944 at the site by the Japanese occupying forces of North Borneo for their involvement in the Jesselton Revolt. The park memorial plate lists the names of men of various ethnic groups in North Borneo and from various islands in the Sulu Archipelago including the main resistance leader Albert Kwok and those who assisted or died in Labuan Military Prison; the park was built on the site where the massacre took place and where the victims were buried. It is located in Kg. Peringatan Petagas in the district of Putatan in Sabah, Malaysia. With the persistent harsh rule during the occupation of northern Borneo by the Imperial Japanese Army, a Kuching-born Chinese doctor named Albert Kwok founded more than 300 members to form the resistance movement, after he moved to Jesselton on 15 May 1941. Facing the limited supply of weapons, the resistance movement was forced to launch the revolt ahead of schedule on 9 October 1943 as the Japanese decree to seize any opposition towards their administration became imminent.

On the eve of the National Day of the Republic of China on 10 October, the attack was subsequently launched at Jesselton resulting in more than 50 Japanese casualties, with the majority dying from attacks by the parang and kris. Furious with the uprising by the local communities, Japanese reinforcement troops arrived in North Borneo from Kuching and began to launch a systematic retaliation on the civilian population. After threatening that more civilians were to be executed if the leaders of the uprising did not turn themselves in, Kwok with several movement leaders surrendered on 19 December 1944, they were imprisoned in Batu Tiga Prison before being executed at the Petagas War Memorial site on 21 January 1944 along with 175 others, who for the most part had nothing to do with the uprising. In the early morning of 21 January 1944, Kwok and the 175 men from Batu Tiga Prison were dispatched on a North Borneo Railway train; the train stopped at 5.30 in the morning at an open track near Petagas.

Two large pits had been dug there the day before and rain water had filled the holes. The movement leaders including Kwok, Charles Peter, Tsen Tsau Kong, Kong Tze Phui and Li Tet Phui had to stand in a row and to lean forward. Four Japanese officers and the son of a Japanese businessman were ordered to behead the five prisoners with katana; the remaining 170 prisoners had to kneel in front of the pits and were killed by either shots from two machine guns, ten small firearms or with bayonets. Eyewitnesses near the execution site reported that the screams of the men were heard throughout the day and the following night in Petagas. Before the massacre in Petagas, 96 inmates comprising guerrillas members and men suspected of supporting the guerrillas had been tortured and killed at the Batu Tiga Prison. Another 131 men were transferred to the Labuan Military Prison after the forced labour massacre. Only seven survived and the others died either from malnutrition, by torture or were executed. On 21 January 1946, the Chinese War Victims Relief Association held a memorial service at the execution site as a second anniversary of the massacre.

The park grounds and marble memorial were built in 1948 at the behest of the West Coast Memorial Fund Residential Committee. At the same time, it was decided that the site of the massacre and its burial sites should be a permanent place of remembrance for all North Borneo's victims in World War II; the inauguration of the memorial took place on the fourth anniversary of the massacre on 21 January 1948. In 1949, the remains of the men who were murdered by the Japanese military police and interred in Labuan were reburied at Petagas; the memorial continued to play an important role in North Borneo's historical consciousness until the foundation of Malaysia in 1963 through the first Chief Minister Fuad Stephens and the Head of State Mustapha Harun, whose personal histories were linked with the resistance movement. Jules Stephens as one of the members of the revolt serving under the North Borneo Volunteer Force, was the father of Donald Stephens, while Mustapha was a member of the movement itself.

In 1979, the memorial was renovated by the Kota Kinabalu City Government with the financial support of the State Government and extended with a parking space and a public toilet. The wooden monument was replaced with a marble stone. During the renovations, several stone clay jars with human remains were discovered in the burial ground; these turned out to be the ex-prisoners from the Labuan military prison, re-buried in Petagas. Since the opening of the Petagas War Memorial site, an annual memorial service has been held on 21 January with the participation of high-ranking state politicians, families of the victims and the general population. At the 1998 service, a representative of the Japanese government and the Japanese consul in Kota Kinabalu attended the ceremony for the first time. On 21 January 2018, the annual commemoration included another eight civilians who were not part of the Albert Kwok group, their names, were added onto a new plaque at the main monument. Following the discovery of the War Crime Document WO235/884 of the 1946 Trial Proceedings, the families applied for and received an o