Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor
Otto III was Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until his early death in 1002. A member of the Ottonian dynasty, Otto III was the only son of the Emperor Otto II and his wife Theophanu. Otto III was crowned as King of Germany in 983 at the age of three, shortly after his father's death in Southern Italy while campaigning against the Byzantine Empire and the Emirate of Sicily. Though the nominal ruler of Germany, Otto III's minor status ensured his various regents held power over the Empire, his cousin Henry II, Duke of Bavaria claimed regency over the young king and attempted to seize the throne for himself in 984. When his rebellion failed to gain the support of Germany's aristocracy, Henry II was forced to abandon his claims to the throne and to allow Otto III's mother Theophanu to serve as regent until her death in 991. Otto III was still a child, so his grandmother, the Dowager Empress Adelaide of Italy, served as regent until 994. In 996, Otto III marched to Italy to claim the titles King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor, left unclaimed since the death of Otto II in 983.
Otto III sought to reestablish Imperial control over the city of Rome, which had revolted under the leadership of Crescentius II, through it the papacy. Crowned as Emperor, Otto III put down the Roman rebellion and installed his cousin as Pope Gregory V, the first Pope of German descent. After the Emperor had pardoned him and left the city, Crescentius II again rebelled, deposing Gregory V and installing John XVI as Pope. Otto III returned to the city in 998, reinstalled Gregory V, executed both Crescentius II and John XVI; when Gregory V died in 999, Otto III installed Sylvester II as the new Pope. Otto III's actions throughout his life further strengthened imperial control over the Catholic Church. From the beginning of his reign, Otto III faced opposition from the Slavs along the eastern frontier. Following the death of his father in 983, the Slavs rebelled against imperial control, forcing the Empire to abandon its territories east of the Elbe river. Otto III fought to regain the Empire's lost territories throughout his reign with only limited success.
While in the east, Otto III strengthened the Empire's relations with Poland and Hungary. Through his affairs in Eastern Europe in 1000, he was able to extend the influence of Christianity by supporting mission work in Poland and through the crowning of Stephen I as the first Christian king of Hungary. Returning to Rome in 1001, Otto faced a rebellion by the Roman aristocracy, which forced him to flee the city. While marching to reclaim the city in 1002, Otto suffered a sudden fever and died in a castle near Civita Castellana at the age of 21. With no clear heir to succeed him, his early death threw the Empire into political crisis. Otto III was born in July 980 somewhere between Aachen and Nijmegen; the only son of Emperor Otto II and his wife Theophanu, Otto III was the youngest of the couple's four children. Prior to Otto III's birth, his father had completed military campaigns in France against King Lothar. On 14 July 982, Otto II's army suffered a crushing defeat against the Muslim Emirate of Sicily at the Battle of Stilo.
Otto II had been campaigning in southern Italy with hopes of annexing the whole of Italy into the Holy Roman Empire. Otto II himself escaped the battle unharmed but many important imperial officials were among the battle's casualties. Following the defeat and at the insistence of the Empire's nobles, Otto II called an assembly of the Imperial Diet in Verona at Pentecost, 983, where he proposed to the assembly to have the three-year-old Otto III elected as King of Germany, becoming Otto II's undoubted heir apparent; this was the first time. After the assembly was concluded, Otto III and his mother Theophanu traveled across the Alps in order for Otto to be crowned at Aix, the traditional location of the coronation of the German kings. Otto II stayed behind to address military action against the Muslims. While still in central Italy, Otto II died on 7 November 983, was buried in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. Otto III was crowned as king on Christmas Day 983, three weeks after his father's death, by Willigis, the Archbishop of Mainz, by John, the Archbishop of Ravenna.
News of Otto II's death first reached Germany shortly after his son's coronation. The unresolved problems in southern Italy and the Slavic uprising on the Empire's eastern border made the Empire's political situation unstable. With a minor on the throne, the Empire was thrown into confusion and Otto III's mother Theophanu assumed the role of regent for her young son. Otto III's cousin Henry II had been deposed as Duke of Bavaria by Otto II in 976 following his failed rebellion and imprisoned under the Bishopric of Utrecht. Following Otto II's death, Henry was released from prison; as Otto III's nearest male Ottonian relative, Henry II claimed the regency over his infant cousin. Archbishop of Cologne Warin granted Henry II the regency without substantial opposition. Only Otto III's mother Theophanu objected, along with his grandmother, the Dowager Empress Adelaide of Italy, his aunt, Abbess Matilda of Quedlinburg. Adelaide and Matilda, were both in Italy and unable to press their objections; as regent, Henry II took actions aimed less at guardianship of his infant cousin and more at claiming the throne for himself.
According to Gerbert of Aurillac, Henry II adopted a Byzantine-style joint-kingship. Towards the end of 984, Henry II sought to form alliances between himself and other important figure in the Ottonian world, chief among them his cousin King Lothar of France. In exchange for agreeing to make Henry II king of Germany, Henry II agreed to rel
Günther von Schwarzburg
Günther XXI von Schwarzburg, King of Germany, was a descendant of the counts of Schwarzburg and the younger son of Henry VII, Count of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg. He distinguished himself as a soldier, rendered good service to the Emperor Louis IV on whose death in 1347 he was offered the German throne, after it had been refused by Edward III of England, he was elected German king at Frankfurt on 30 January 1349 by four of the electors, who were partisans of the house of Wittelsbach and opponents of Charles of Luxemburg, afterwards the Emperor Charles IV. Charles, won over many of Gunther's adherents and defeated him at Eltville, Günther, now ill, renounced his claims for the sum of 20,001 marks of silver, he died three weeks afterwards at Frankfurt and was buried in the cathedral of that city, where the headstone was erected to his memory in 1352. Günther von Schwarzburg is the subject of a Singspiel in three acts by Ignaz Holzbauer, first performed in 1777. Graf L. Utterodt zu Scharffenberg, Günther, Graf von Schwarzburg, erwählter deutscher König K. Janson, Das Königtum Günthers von Schwarzburg.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Günther of Schwarzburg". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. Cambridge University Press
Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor
Lothair II or Lothair III, known as Lothair of Supplinburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1133 until his death. He was appointed Duke of Saxony in 1106 and elected King of Germany in 1125 before being crowned emperor in Rome; the son of the Saxon count Gebhard of Supplinburg, his reign was troubled by the constant intriguing of the Hohenstaufens, Duke Frederick II of Swabia and Duke Conrad of Franconia. He died. Little is known of Lothair's youth, his father joined the Saxon Rebellion against the ruling Salian dynasty and died on 9 June 1075 in the Battle of Langensalza, fighting troops loyal to Emperor Henry IV. Shortly thereafter, Lothair was born posthumously at Unterlüß. In 1100 he married Richenza, daughter of Count Henry of Northeim and Gertrude of Brunswick, heiress of the Brunonids. After years of purchasing lands or gaining them via inheritance or marriage alliances throughout Saxony, Lothair gained the domains of the House of Billung, the Counts of Northeim and the Brunonids, became one of the dominant landowners in the North German duchy.
He backed the emperor's son Henry V during the disempowerment of his father Henry IV and in turn was made Duke of Saxony upon the death of Magnus of Billung in 1106. Emboldened by the promotion and incensed over the imposition of a new tax on ducal lords, Duke Lothair subsequently revolted against Emperor Henry's rule and denied his ability to rule Saxony during the Investiture Controversy, he acted autonomously, vesting Count Adolf of Schauenburg with Holstein in 1110, was temporarily deposed in 1112 but reinstated after he tactically submitted himself to the rule of Henry V. In 1115 however, he joined the rebellious Saxon forces which defeated those of the Emperor in the Battle of Welfesholz; when in 1123 Henry V vested Count Wiprecht of Groitzsch with the Margraviate of Meissen, Lothair enforced the appointment of Conrad of Wettin and ceded the March of Lusatia to Count Albert the Bear. After the death of Emperor Henry V in 1125, Lothair was viewed by the Imperial chancellor, the Archbishop of Mainz, as a perfect candidate.
As an extensive landowner all over Saxony, he brought power to the table, but he was old and had no male issue making him malleable for the nobility. He was therefore elected King of the Romans after a contentious power struggle with Duke Frederick II, Duke of Swabia, head of the rising House of Hohenstaufen, his election was notable in. Somewhat naive concerning the complex power struggle between the papacy and the empire, Lothair consented to several symbolic acts that were subsequently interpreted by Rome as signaling acceptance of papal confirmation of his position. A campaign undertaken in the same year against Bohemia ended in a weak start by Lothair. Among those captured by the Bohemians was Albert of Ascania, future Margrave of Brandenburg. Duke Frederick II and Conrad were the two contemporary male Hohenstaufen, by their mother Agnes were grandsons of late Emperor Henry IV and nephews of Henry V. Frederick attempted to succeed to the throne of the Holy Roman Emperor through a customary election, but lost to the Saxon duke Lothair of Supplinburg.
A civil war between Frederick's dynasty and Lothair's ended with Frederick's submission in 1134. With both Saxon and Bavarian origins, the Süpplingenburg dynasty was a political opponent of the Salian dynasty and the Swabian House of Hohenstaufen. During his reign, a succession dispute broke out between the House of Welf and the Hohenstaufens; the Staufens, in addition to claiming the private Salian lands which fell to them claimed all of the crown lands they had gained under Henry IV and Henry V. Lothair attempted to seize the crown lands following approval from a group of nobles meeting in Regensburg, which provoked Staufen reaction. Lothair moved further. Frederick II was placed under the Imperial ban, Conrad was deprived of Franconia, Lothair appointed his ally Conrad I, Duke of Zähringen as rector of Burgundy; the Staufens, with the support of their own lands, many Imperial Free Cities, the Duchy of Austria, the Duchy of Swabia, got Duke Conrad elected as "anti-king" Conrad III. In 1128 Conrad went to Italy, to be crowned King of Italy by Archbishop of Milan.
Lothair took advantage of Conrad's absence and weak position by attacking the Staufens in Germany. In 1129 he took two strong Staufen cities and Speyer. Conrad failed to make anything of his visit to Italy, returned in 1130 with nothing to show for it, which assured at least a partial victory for Lothair. In the double papal election of 1130, both sides campaigned for Lothair's support; the king had an opportunity to take advantage of the situation and reassert imperial control over the papacy, but choosing instead to deal with the Staufen resistance, he let his inferiors make the decision. Anacletus II offered Lothair the Imperial crown, but in the end Innocent II gained his support, he promised to escort the new pope back to Rome. In 1131 the two met at Liège, where the king demonstrated subservience to the pope, his request that investiture be restored to him was ignored, he did, maintain the rights secured by the Concordat of Worms. He agreed to assist Innocent against King Roger II of Sicily, an ally of Anacletus.
In exchange, Innocent II again crowned Lothair as King of the Romans on 29 March 1131. The force Lothair took with him into Italy in 1132 was not strong, due to his leaving troops in Germany to prevent the Hohenstaufen from revolting. W
Philip of Swabia
Philip of Swabia was a prince of the House of Hohenstaufen and King of Germany from 1198 to 1208. In the long-time struggle for the German throne upon the death of Emperor Henry VI between the Hohenstaufen and Welf dynasties, he was the first German king to be assassinated. Philip was born in or near Pavia in the Imperial Kingdom of Italy, the fifth and youngest son of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick Barbarossa and his second wife Beatrice, daughter of Count Renaud III of Burgundy, thereby younger brother of Emperor Henry VI. Philip's great uncle Conrad III was the first scion of the Swabian Hohenstaufen dynasty to be elected King of the Romans in 1138 against the fierce resistance by the rivalling House of Welf. During the time of Philip's birth, his father Emperor Frederick was able to settle the longstanding conflict with Pope Alexander III and the Italian cities of the Lombard League by concluding the Treaty of Venice; the newborn was named after Frederick's valued ally and confidant Archbishop Philip of Cologne.
Young Philip prepared for an ecclesiastical career, he entered the clergy of Adelberg Abbey and in April 1189 was made provost at the collegiate church of Aachen Cathedral, while his father left Germany for the Third Crusade and drowned in the Göksu River in Anatolia the next year, succeeded by Henry VI. In 1190 or 1191 Philip was elected Prince-bishop of Würzburg, though without being consecrated, his brother Henry had expanded the Hohenstaufen domains on behalf of his wife Queen Constance of Sicily whom he married in 1186, suspiciously eyed by the Roman Curia. Having accompanied his brother Henry to Italy in 1191, Philip forsook his ecclesiastical calling, travelling again to Italy, was appointed Margrave of Tuscany in 1195 and received an extensive grant of lands. In his retinue in Italy was the Minnesinger Bernger von Horheim. On 26 December 1194, Queen Constance gave birth to a son, the Emperor Frederick II. To secure his succession, his father Henry had the two-year-old elected King of the Romans before he prepared for the Crusade of 1197.
To improve relationships with the Byzantine Empire, Henry betrothed Philip to Irene Angelina, a daughter of Emperor Isaac II and the widow of Roger III of Sicily, a lady, described by Walther von der Vogelweide as "the rose without a thorn, the dove without guile". In early 1195, Philip received the disputed Matildine lands, his rule there earned him the enmity of Pope Celestine III. In 1196 his brother Conrad was assassinated and he succeeded him as Duke of Swabia, his marriage to Irene took place in 1197 near Augsburg. Philip enjoyed his brother's confidence to a great extent, appears to have been designated as guardian of Henry's minor son Frederick II, in case of his father's early death. In September 1197 he had set out to fetch Frederick from Apulia for his coronation as German king. While staying in Montefiascone, he heard of the emperor's sudden death in Messina and returned at once to Germany, he appears to have desired to protect the interests of his nephew and to quell the disorder which arose on Henry's death, but was overtaken by events.
Meanwhile, a number of Princes of the Holy Roman Empire hostile to the ruling Hohentaufen dynasty under the leadership of Prince-Archbishop Adolph of Cologne took the occasion to elect a German anti-king in the person of the Welf Otto of Brunswick, the second surviving son of the former Saxon duke Henry the Lion and a nephew of King Richard I of England. The hostility to the kingship of a child was growing, after Philip had been chosen as defender of the empire during Frederick's minority he consented to his own election, he was elected German king at Mühlhausen in Thuringia on 8 March 1198, backed by Duke Leopold VI of Austria, Duke Ottokar I of Bohemia, Duke Berthold V of Zähringen, Landgrave Hermann I of Thuringia, however, in the absence of the Archbishops of Cologne and Trier. His rival Otto was not elected king until June 9 by the Cologne archbishop, the Bishop of Paderborn, Bishop Thietmar of Minden, three Prince-Provosts. Philip hesitated to assert himself, but at least he received the support of further German princes, forged an alliance with King Philip II of France and was crowned by Archbishop Aymon of Tarentaise at Mainz on 8 September of the same year.
He knew that he had to settle the conflict with Otto and his supporters. A first attempt to mediate by the Mainz archbishop Conrad of Wittelsbach in 1199 was rejected by the Welf. Both sides strived for the coronation as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Innocent III; the pope himself acted tactically, trying to wrest the affirmation of the sovereignty of his Papal States and the Kingdom of Sicily from the candidates. Several ecclesiastical and secular princes loyal to Philip reacted with a protestation in 1199, whereby they rejected any papal exertion of influence on the Imperial line of succession In the war that followed, who drew his principal support from his Swabian home territories, met with considerable success. In 1199 he received further accessions to his party and carried the war into his opponent's Saxon territory, although unable to obtain the support of the papacy, only feebly assisted by his ally King Philip II of France; the following year was less favourable to his arms. The pope began
King, or king regnant is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, while the title of queen on its own refers to the consort of a king. In the context of prehistory and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to tribal kingship. Germanic kingship is cognate with Indo-European traditions of tribal rulership. In the context of classical antiquity, king may translate in Latin as rex and in Greek as archon or basileus. In classical European feudalism, the title of king as the ruler of a kingdom is understood to be the highest rank in the feudal order subject, at least nominally, only to an emperor. In a modern context, the title may refer to the ruler of one of a number of modern monarchies; the title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs: in the West, emperor, duke or grand duke, in the Middle East, sultan or emir, etc. The term king may refer to a king consort, a title, sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen, but the title of prince consort is sometimes granted instead.
A king dowager is the male equivalent of the queen dowager. A king father is a king dowager, the father of the reigning sovereign; the English term king is derived from the Anglo-Saxon cyning, which in turn is derived from the Common Germanic *kuningaz. The Common Germanic term was borrowed into Estonian and Finnish at an early time, surviving in these languages as kuningas; the English term "King" translates, is considered equivalent to, Latin rēx and its equivalents in the various European languages. The Germanic term is notably different from the word for "King" in other Indo-European languages, it is a derivation from the term *kunjom "kin" by the -inga- suffix. The literal meaning is that of a "scion of the kin", or "son or descendant of one of noble birth"; the English word is of Germanic origin, refers to Germanic kingship, in the pre-Christian period a type of tribal kingship. The monarchies of Europe in the Christian Middle Ages derived their claim from Christianisation and the divine right of kings influenced by the notion of sacral kingship inherited from Germanic antiquity.
The Early Middle Ages begin with a fragmentation of the former Western Roman Empire into barbarian kingdoms. In Western Europe, the kingdom of the Franks developed into the Carolingian Empire by the 8th century, the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England were unified into the kingdom of England by the 10th century. With the breakup of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, the system of feudalism places kings at the head of a pyramid of relationships between liege lords and vassals, dependent on the regional rule of barons, the intermediate positions of counts and dukes; the core of European feudal manorialism in the High Middle Ages were the territories of the former Carolingian Empire, i.e. the kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire. In the course of the European Middle Ages, the European kingdoms underwent a general trend of centralisation of power, so that by the Late Middle Ages there were a number of large and powerful kingdoms in Europe, which would develop into the great powers of Europe in the Early Modern period.
In the Iberian Peninsula, the remnants of the Visigothic Kingdom, the petty kingdoms of Asturias and Pamplona, expanded into the kingdom of Portugal, the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon with the ongoing Reconquista. In southern Europe, the kingdom of Sicily was established following the Norman conquest of southern Italy; the Kingdom of Sardinia was claimed as a separate title held by the Crown of Aragon in 1324. In the Balkans, the Kingdom of Serbia was established in 1217. In eastern-central Europe, the Kingdom of Hungary was established in AD 1000 following the Christianisation of the Magyars; the kingdoms of Poland and Bohemia were established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1025 and 1198, respectively. In Eastern Europe, the Kievan Rus' consolidated into the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which did not technically claim the status of kingdom until the early modern Tsardom of Russia. In northern Europe, the tribal kingdoms of the Viking Age by the 11th century expanded into the North Sea Empire under Cnut the Great, king of Denmark and Norway.
The Christianization of Scandinavia resulted in "consolidated" kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, by the end of the medieval period the pan-Scandinavian Kalmar Union. Fifteen kings are recognized as the heads of state of sovereign states. Most of these are heads of state of constitutional monarchies. Thomas J. Craughwell, 5,000 Years of Royalty: Kings, Princes, Emperors & Tsars. David Cannadine, Simon Price, Rituals of Royalty: Power and Ceremonial in Traditional Societies. Jean Hani, Sacred Royalty: From the Pharaoh to the Most Christian King. Media related to Kings at Walter Alison. "King". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. Pp. 805–806
Jobst of Moravia
Jobst of Moravia, a member of the House of Luxembourg, was Margrave of Moravia from 1375, Duke of Luxembourg and Elector of Brandenburg from 1388 as well as elected King of Germany from 1410 until his death. Jobst was an ambitious and versatile ruler, who in the early 15th century dominated the ongoing struggles within the Luxembourg dynasty and around the German throne. Jobst was born in 1354 in the Moravian residence of Brno, the eldest son of Margrave John Henry, younger brother of Emperor Charles IV, first cousin of King Charles V of France and cousin-in-law of both King Richard II of England and King Louis I of Hungary. Designated heir upon his father's death in 1375, he ruled the Margraviate of Moravia quarreling with his younger brother Prokop and the Bishops of Olomouc. In 1388 Jobst received the Duchy of Luxembourg, given in pawn by his cousin King Wenceslaus, son of late Emperor Charles IV; the same year, Jobst became Prince-elector of Brandenburg, pawned by Wenceslaus' younger brother Sigismund, who focused on his rule over the Kingdom of Hungary.
In 1394 Jobst joined a rebellion of Bohemian nobles around Boček II of Poděbrady against Wenceslaus, whom he had arrested at Prague Castle and taken into custody by the Austrian Starhemberg dynasty at Wildberg. Peace was made at John of Görlitz. Sigismund and Jobst signed a mutual inheritance treaty in 1401, but again fell out with each other. After the death of King Rupert of Germany in 1410, Jobst was elected successor by four of the seven prince-electors on 1 October, opposing his cousin Sigismund, elected by three electors on 10 September; the deciding vote came from his cousin Wenceslaus in his capacity as King of Bohemia, though Jobst had the greater support among the electors he died on 18 January 1411–possibly poisoned–, clearing the way for Sigismund's election as King of the Romans and his coronation as Holy Roman Emperor. Jobst married twice, without issue: Elisabeth of Opole, daughter of Duke Władysław Opolczyk, in 1372. Agnes of Opole, daughter of Duke Bolesław II of Opole and sister of Duke Władysław, in 1374.
King of the Romans, Margrave of Moravia and Brandenburg, Elector of Brandenburg, Duke of Luxembourg,Vicarius of Italy, Vicarius of the Holy Roman Empire. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Jobst". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. Cambridge University Press. P. 427. Štěpán, Václav. Moravsky markrabě Jošt. Matice moravská p. 823. ISBN 80-86488-05-5 Štěpán, Václav. Margrave Jobst - his personality and relationship with the other members of the Luxembourg family, in:Moravští Lucemburkové 1315-1411. Brno municipal museum pp. 73–145. ISBN 80-901969-7-7 Media related to Jobst von Mähren at Wikimedia Commons
Vladislaus II of Hungary
Vladislaus II known as Vladislav II, Władysław II or Wladislas II, was King of Bohemia from 1471 to 1516, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1490 to 1516. As the eldest son of Casimir IV Jagiellon, he was expected to inherit Lithuania. George of Poděbrady, the Hussite ruler of Bohemia, offered to make Vladislaus his heir in 1468. Poděbrady needed Casimir IV's support against the rebellious Catholic noblemen and their ally, Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary; the Diet of Bohemia elected Vladislaus king after Poděbrady's death, but he could only rule Bohemia proper, because Matthias occupied Moravia and Lusatia. Vladislaus tried to reconquer the three provinces with his father's assistance, but Matthias repelled them. Vladislaus and Matthias divided the Lands of the Bohemian Crown in the Peace of Olomouc in 1479; the Estates of the realm had strengthened their position during the war between the two kings. Vladislaus's attempts to promote the Catholics caused a rebellion in Prague and other towns in 1483, forcing him to acknowledge the dominance of the Hussites in the municipal assemblies.
The Diet confirmed the right of the Bohemian noblemen and commoners to adhere either to Hussitism or Catholicism in 1485. After Matthias Corvinus seized Silesian duchies to grant them to his illegitimate son, John Corvinus, Vladislaus made new alliances against him in the late 1480s. Vladislaus laid claim to Hungary after Matthias's death; the Diet of Hungary elected. The other two claimants, Maximilian of Habsburg and Vladislaus's brother, John Albert, invaded Hungary, but they could not assert their claim and made peace with Vladislaus in 1491, he settled in Buda, enabling the Estates of Bohemia, Moravia and Lusatia to take full charge of state administration. In Hungary, Vladislaus always approved the decisions of the Royal Council, hence his nickname Dobzse László. Due to the concessions he had made before his election, the royal treasury could not finance a standing army and Matthias Corvinus's Black Army was dissolved after a rebellion, although the Ottomans made regular raids against the southern border.
They annexed territories in Croatia after annihilating the united army of the Croatian barons in the Battle of Krbava Field in 1493. Vladislaus was the eldest son of Casimir IV, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, Elizabeth of Habsburg, she was the daughter of Albert, King of the Romans and Bohemia. Vladislaus was born in Kraków on 1 March 1456, his mother and father laid claim to Hungary and Bohemia after her childless brother, Ladislaus the Posthumous, died on 23 November 1457. However, their claims were ignored in both Bohemia; the Diet of Hungary elected Matthias Corvinus king on 24 January 1458. The Bohemian Estates of the realm proclaimed the Hussite George of Poděbrady king on 2 March. Vladislaus was his father's heir in Lithuania. Casimir IV wanted to prepare all his sons for ruling a realm and tasked renowned scholars with their education; the historian Jan Długosz was Vladislaus's tutor. Pope Paul II proclaimed a crusade against him; the Czech Catholic noblemen rose up against the "heretic" George of Poděbrady and sought assistance from Matthias Corvinus.
Matthias invaded Moravia. On 16 May 1468, George of Poděbrady offered Casimir IV to make Vladislaus his heir if Casimir mediated a peace treaty between Bohemia and Hungary. Matthias refused Casimir's offer, but George of Poděbrady forced him to sign a truce in early 1469. Fearing of losing Matthias's support, the Catholic nobles proclaimed him king of Bohemia in Olomouc on 3 May. After George of Poděbrady repeated his offer of bequeathing Bohemia to Vladislaus, Casimir IV entered into negotiations with the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick III on George of Poděbrady's behalf. George of Poděbrady died on 22 March 1471. After the fifteen-year-old Vladislaus pledged to respect the liberties of the Estates of the realm, the Bohemian Diet elected him king at Kutná Hora on 27 May 1471, he was required to acknowledge the existence of two "nations" in his realm in accordance with the Compacts of Basel, although the Holy See had condemned the Compacts in 1462. The Holy See regarded Vladislaus's election invalid and the papal legate, Lorenzo Roverella, confirmed Matthias Corvinus's claim to Bohemia on 28 May.
However, Emperor Frederick III refused to acknowledge Matthias as the lawful king of Bohemia. Vladislaus was crowned king in Prague on 22 August 1471, he could only secure his position with the noblemen's support, because no army had accompanied him to Bohemia. The Diet developed into the most influential body of state administration during his reign; the Diet started to work as a legislative assembly and passed decrees that were recorded in specific registers. Casimir IV supported Vladislaus, he allowed his second son, Vladislaus's brother Casimir, to invade Upper Hungary from Poland after a group of Hungarian barons and prelates offered Casimir the Hungarian throne in late 1471. Matthias forced him to withdraw from Hungary before the end of the year. On 1 March 1472, Pope Sixtus IV authorized his legate, Marco Barbo, to excommunicate Vladislaus and his father if they continued to wage war against Matthias; the first truce