Anti-nuclear movement in Kazakhstan
The anti-nuclear movement in Kazakhstan, "Nevada Semipalatinsk", was formed in 1989 and was one of the first major anti-nuclear movements in the former Soviet Union. It was led by author Olzhas Suleimenov and attracted thousands of people to its protests and campaigns which led to the closure of the nuclear test site at Semipalatinsk in north-east Kazakhstan in 1991; the movement was named "Nevada Semipalatinsk" in order to show solidarity with similar movements in the United States aiming to close the Nevada Test Site. The Soviet Union conducted 456 nuclear weapons tests at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, between 1949 and 1989; the United Nations believes that one million people around Semipalatinsk were exposed to radiation, the incidence of birth defects and cancer is much higher than for the rest of the country. According to UNESCO, Nevada-Semipalatinsk played a positive role in promoting public understanding of "the necessity to fight against nuclear threats"; the movement gained global support and, became "a real historical factor in finding solutions to global ecological problems".
Astana hosted an international conference Building a Nuclear-Weapons-Free World in August 2016. The topics of the conference included nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament and the physical protection of nuclear weapons; the main outcome of the conference was the adoption of The Astana Vision Declaration “From а Radioactive Haze to a Nuclear-Weapon-Free World.” Semipalatinsk Test Site Downwinders Kazatomprom Energy policy of Kazakhstan List of anti-nuclear power groups List of books about nuclear issues List of Chernobyl-related articles List of nuclear whistleblowers List of Nuclear-Free Future Award recipients Nuclear politics and the future security of Kazakhstan
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals and non-living matter. While environmentalism focuses more on the environmental and nature-related aspects of green ideology and politics, ecology combines the ideology of social ecology and environmentalism. Ecology is more used in continental European languages while ‘environmentalism’ is more used in English but the words have different connotations. Environmentalism advocates the preservation, restoration and/or improvement of the natural environment and critical earth system elements or processes such as the climate, may be referred to as a movement to control pollution or protect plant and animal diversity. For this reason, concepts such as a land ethic, environmental ethics, biodiversity and the biophilia hypothesis figure predominantly.
At its crux, environmentalism is an attempt to balance relations between humans and the various natural systems on which they depend in such a way that all the components are accorded a proper degree of sustainability. The exact measures and outcomes of this balance is controversial and there are many different ways for environmental concerns to be expressed in practice. Environmentalism and environmental concerns are represented by the colour green, but this association has been appropriated by the marketing industries for the tactic known as greenwashing. Environmentalism is opposed by anti-environmentalism, which says that the Earth is less fragile than some environmentalists maintain, portrays environmentalism as overreacting to the human contribution to climate change or opposing human advancement. Environmentalism denotes a social movement that seeks to influence the political process by lobbying and education in order to protect natural resources and ecosystems. An environmentalist is a person who may speak out about our natural environment and the sustainable management of its resources through changes in public policy or individual behaviour.
This may include supporting practices such as informed consumption, conservation initiatives, investment in renewable resources, improved efficiencies in the materials economy, transitioning to new accounting paradigms such as Ecological economics and revitalizing our connections with non-human life or opting to have one less child to reduce consumption and pressure on resources. In various ways, environmentalists and environmental organisations seek to give the natural world a stronger voice in human affairs. In general terms, environmentalists advocate the sustainable management of resources, the protection of the natural environment through changes in public policy and individual behaviour. In its recognition of humanity as a participant in ecosystems, the movement is centered around ecology and human rights. A concern for environmental protection has recurred in diverse forms, in different parts of the world, throughout history; the earliest ideas of environment protectionism can be traced in Jainism, revived by Mahavira in 6th century BC in ancient India.
Jainism offers a view that may seem compatible with core values associated with environmental activism, i.e. protection of life by nonviolence. In Europe, King Edward I of England banned the burning of sea-coal by proclamation in London in 1272, after its smoke had become a problem; the fuel was so common in England that this earliest of names for it was acquired because it could be carted away from some shores by the wheelbarrow. Earlier in the Middle East, the Caliph Abu Bakr in the 630s commanded his army to "Bring no harm to the trees, nor burn them with fire," and "Slay not any of the enemy's flock, save for your food." Arabic medical treatises during the 9th to 13th centuries dealing with environmentalism and environmental science, including pollution, were written by Al-Kindi, Qusta ibn Luqa, Al-Razi, Ibn Al-Jazzar, al-Tamimi, al-Masihi, Ali ibn Ridwan, Ibn Jumay, Isaac Israeli ben Solomon, Abd-el-latif, Ibn al-Quff, Ibn al-Nafis. Their works covered a number of subjects related to pollution, such as air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination, municipal solid waste mishandling, environmental impact assessments of certain localities.
At the advent of steam and electricity the muse of history shuts her eyes. The origins of the environmental movement lay in the response to increasing levels of smoke pollution in the atmosphere during the Industrial Revolution; the emergence of great factories and the concomitant immense growth in coal consumption gave rise to an unprecedented level of air pollution in industrial centers. The first large-scale, modern environmental laws came in the form of Britain's Alkali Acts, passed in 1863, to regulate the deleterious air pollution given off by the Leblanc process, used to produce soda ash. An Alkali inspector and four sub-inspectors were appointed to curb this pollution; the responsibilities of the inspectorate were expanded, culminating in the Alkali Order 1958 which placed all major heavy industries that emitted smoke, grit and fumes under supervision. In industrial cities local experts and reformers after 1890, took the lead in identifying enviro
In regulatory jurisdictions that provide for it, consumer protection is a group of laws and organizations designed to ensure the rights of consumers as well as fair trade and accurate information in the marketplace. The laws are designed to prevent the businesses that engage in fraud or specified unfair practices from gaining an advantage over competitors, they may provide additional protection for those most vulnerable in society. Consumer protection laws are a form of government regulation that aim to protect the rights of consumers. For example, a government may require businesses to disclose detailed information about products—particularly in areas where safety or public health is an issue, such as food. Consumer protection is linked to the idea of consumer rights and to the formation of consumer organizations, which help consumers make better choices in the marketplace and get help with consumer complaints. Other organizations that promote consumer protection include government organizations and self-regulating business organizations such as consumer protection agencies and organizations, the Federal Trade Commission in America and Better Business Bureaus in America and Canada, etc.
A consumer is defined as someone who acquires goods or services for direct use or ownership rather than for resale or use in production and manufacturing. Consumer interests can be protected by promoting competition in the markets which directly and indirectly serve consumers, consistent with economic efficiency, but this topic is treated in competition law. Consumer protection can be asserted via non-government organizations and individuals as consumer activism. Consumer protection law or consumer law is considered as an area of law that regulates private law relationships between individual consumers and the businesses that sell those goods and services. Consumer protection covers a wide range of topics, including but not limited to product liability, privacy rights, unfair business practices, misrepresentation, other consumer/business interactions. It's a way of preventing frauds and scams from service and sales contracts, eligible fraud, bill collector regulation, utility turnoffs, personal loans that may lead to bankruptcy.
The following lists consumer legislation at the nation-state level. In the EU member states Germany and the United Kingdom there is the applicability of law at the EU level to be considered. In Australia, the corresponding agency is the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission or the individual State Consumer Affairs agencies; the Australian Securities and Investments Commission has responsibility for consumer protection regulation of financial services and products. However, in practice, it does so through run EDR schemes such as the Financial Ombudsman Service. In Brazil, consumer protection is regulated by the Consumer's Defense Code, as mandated by the 1988 Constitution of Brazil. Germany, as a member state of the European Union, is bound by the consumer protection directives of the European Union. A minister of the federal cabinet is responsible for protection. In the current cabinet of Angela Merkel, this is Katarina Barley; when issuing public warnings about products and services, the issuing authority has to take into account that this affects the supplier's constitutionally protected economic liberty, see Bundesverwaltungsgericht Case 3 C 34.84, 71 BVerwGE 183).
In India, consumer protection is specified in The Consumer Protection Act, 1986. Under this law, Separate Consumer Dispute Redress Forums have been set up throughout India in each and every district in which a consumer can file his complaint on a simple paper with nominal court fees and his complaint will be decided by the Presiding Officer of the District Level; the complaint can be filed by both the consumer of a goods as well as of the services. An appeal could be filed to the State Consumer Disputes Redress Commissions and after that to the National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission; the procedures in these tribunals are less formal and more people friendly and they take less time to decide upon a consumer dispute when compared to the years long time taken by the traditional Indian judiciary. In recent years, many effective judgment have been passed by some state and National Consumer Forums. Indian Contract Act, 1872 lays down the conditions in which promises made by parties to a contract will be binding on each other.
It lays down the remedies available to aggregate party if the other party fails to honor his promise. The Sale of Goods Act of 1930 act provides some safeguards to buyers of goods if goods purchased do not fulfill the express or implied conditions and warranties; the Agriculture Produce Act of 1937 act provides grade standards for agricultural commodities and live stock products. It specifies the conditions which govern the use of standards and lays down the procedure for grading and packaging of agricultural produce; the quality mark provided under the act is known as AGMARK-Agricultural Marketing. The Nigerian government has a duty to protect its people from any form of harm to human health through the use and purchase of items to meet daily needs. In light of this, the Nigerian Consumer Protection Council, whose aim is to protect and enhance consumers' interest through information and enforcement of the rights of consumers was established by an Act of Parliament to promote and protect the interest of consumers over all pro
Nuclear energy in Ireland
The Single Electricity Market encompassing the entire island of Ireland does not, has never, produced any electricity from nuclear power stations. The production of electricity for the Irish national grid, by nuclear fission, is prohibited in the Republic of Ireland by the Electricity Regulation Act, 1999; the enforcement of this law is only possible within the borders of Ireland, it does not prohibit consumption. Since 2001 in Northern Ireland and 2012 in the Republic, the grid has become interconnected with the neighbouring electric grid of Britain, therefore Ireland is now powered by overseas nuclear fission stations. A ‘Eurobarometer’ survey in 2007 indicated that 27 percent of the citizens of Ireland were in favour of an “increased use” of nuclear energy; as of 2014, a Generation IV nuclear station was envisaged in competition with a biomass burning facility to succeed Ireland's single largest source of greenhouse gases, the coal burning Moneypoint power station, when it retires, c. 2025.
In 2015 a National Energy Forum was founded to decide upon generation mixes to be deployed in the Republic of Ireland, out to 2030. This forum has yet to be convened. In 2014 Ireland presently sources about 70% of its electricity from fossil gas; the primary source of this gas to Ireland is via the moffat-Isle of man-Gormanstown/"Dublin" connection and to a lesser extent, the Scotland-Northern Ireland pipeline, both of these pipes are, in of themselves, connected to the wider British pipe-network and the European continent Dutch-British network. This great network of pipes is supplied with North Sea Gas and as that source is drying up, a greater dependence is expected on the disrupted European gas network for which Russia being a primary provider. A nuclear power plant was proposed in 1968, resulted in the creation of the Nuclear Energy Board, it was to be built during the 1970s at Carnsore Point in County Wexford by the Electricity Supply Board. The plan envisioned four reactors to be built at the site, but was dropped in 1981 after strong opposition from anti-nuclear lobby groups throughout the 1970s in 1978 with concerts and rallies being held at Carnsore Point attended by popular musician Christy Moore.
The intended generating capacity of the planned station was therefore required to be sourced from other energy sources, such, the construction of the coal burning Moneypoint power station began in 1979. Following the completion of the HVDC Moyle cable in 2001, connecting Northern Ireland and Scotland, the larger capacity 500 MW East-West Interconnector in 2012, a submarine cable that connects County Dublin with Wales, Ireland has been supported with electricity from the generation of the Welsh Wylfa fission-electric power station and fission electricity in Britain as a whole; the Wylfa power stations is however shuttered, the last reactor shut down in 2015. Ireland was a net exporter of electricity in 2016 and 2017. In April 2006, a government-commissioned report by Forfás pointed to the need for Ireland to reconsider nuclear power in order "to secure its long-run energy security". A small-scale, Generation IV nuclear station was envisaged. In 2007, Ireland's Electricity Supply Board made it known that it would consider a joint venture with a major European Union energy company to build nuclear capacity.
A 2012 International Energy Agency report said that Ireland is dependent on imported oil and natural/fossil gas. While the push to develop renewable energies is commendable, it will result in an increased reliance on fossil gas, as gas-fired power plants will be required to provide flexibility in electricity supply when wind power is unavailable. About 60% of Ireland's electricity comes from gas-fired generation, which adds to energy security concerns as 93% of its gas supplies come from a single transit point in Scotland. In 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency in Ireland warned that Ireland is not on track to meet its 2020 pollution reductions of greenhouse gases; as there is a need to replace the coal burning 900 MW Moneypoint power station, situated in the South West of Ireland, a station which will approach its design life in 2025 and until it will remain as Ireland's primary emitter of greenhouse gases. A dependable baseload power source with a high capacity factor will be required to keep the grid stable in its absence, a role, now being filled by Moneypoint station, this role will thus need to be filled by a low carbon power station to mitigate climate change.
As of 2014, a Generation IV nuclear station was envisaged in competition with a biomass burning facility to succeed Moneypoint. In 2015 a National Energy Forum was envisaged to decide on generation mixes to be deployed in Ireland out to 2030, as of July 2016 this forum has not been convened. In 2016 proposals for a $1 billion Irish-French subsea cable, with a capacity for 700 MW, close to the 900 MW output of Moneypoint, were discussed between both countries. With over 70% of French electricity generated from its fleet of fission-electric reactors, if connected, Ireland would further receive electricity from overseas nuclear energy suppliers, with the commencement of construction suggested for 2021, the Celtic Interconnector is expected to be completed by 2025, it would become Ireland's only connection to a EU member state, following the withdrawal of the UK, in Brexit. As with the other members of the European Atomic Energy Community, Ireland funds nuclear fusion energy research, including the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, now known as the ITER project, with the Irish contribution being managed by the National Centre for Plasma Science & Technology at Dublin City University.
In 2007, the Green party which were the
Anti-nuclear protests began on a small scale in the U. S. as early as 1946 in response to Operation Crossroads. Large scale anti-nuclear protests first emerged in the mid-1950s in Japan in the wake of the March 1954 Lucky Dragon Incident. August 1955 saw the first meeting of the World Conference against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs, which had around 3,000 participants from Japan and other nations. Protests began in Britain in early 1960s. In the United Kingdom, the first Aldermaston March, organised by the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, took place in 1958. In 1961, at the height of the Cold War, about 50,000 women brought together by Women Strike for Peace marched in 60 cities in the United States to demonstrate against nuclear weapons. In 1964, Peace Marches in several Australian capital cities featured. Nuclear power became an issue of major public protest in the 1970s and demonstrations in France and West Germany began in 1971. In France, between 1975 and 1977, some 175,000 people protested against nuclear power in ten demonstrations.
In West Germany, between February 1975 and April 1979, some 280,000 people were involved in seven demonstrations at nuclear sites. Many mass demonstrations took place in the aftermath of the 1979 Three Mile Island accident and a New York City protest in September 1979 involved two hundred thousand people; some 120,000 people demonstrated against nuclear power in Bonn, in October 1979. In May 1986, following the Chernobyl disaster, an estimated 150,000 to 200,000 people marched in Rome to protest against the Italian nuclear program, clashes between anti-nuclear protesters and police became common in West Germany. In the early 1980s, the revival of the nuclear arms race triggered large protests about nuclear weapons. In October 1981 half a million people took to the streets in several cities in Italy, more than 250,000 people protested in Bonn, 250,000 demonstrated in London, 100,000 marched in Brussels; the largest anti-nuclear protest was held on June 12, 1982, when one million people demonstrated in New York City against nuclear weapons.
In October 1983, nearly 3 million people across western Europe protested nuclear missile deployments and demanded an end to the arms race. In Britain, 400,000 people participated in what was the largest demonstration in British history. On May 1, 2005, 40,000 anti-nuclear/anti-war protesters marched past the United Nations in New York, 60 years after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; this was the largest anti-nuclear rally in the U. S. for several decades. In 2005 in Britain, there were many protests about the government's proposal to replace the aging Trident weapons system with a newer model; the largest protest had 100,000 participants. In May 2010, some 25,000 people, including members of peace organizations and 1945 atomic bomb survivors, marched from downtown New York to the United Nations headquarters, calling for the elimination of nuclear weapons; the 2011 Japanese nuclear accidents undermined the nuclear power industry's proposed renaissance and revived anti-nuclear passions worldwide, putting governments on the defensive.
There were large protests in Germany, Japan and Taiwan.. In 1964, Peace Marches which featured "Ban the bomb" placards, were held in several Australian capital cities. In 1972, the anti-nuclear weapons movement maintained a presence in the Pacific in response to French nuclear testing there. Activists, including David McTaggart from Greenpeace, defied the French government by sailing small vessels into the test zone and interrupting the testing program. In Australia, thousands joined protest marches in Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney. Scientists issued statements demanding an end to the tests. In Fiji, activists formed an Against Testing on Mururoa organization. In November and December 1976, 7,000 people marched through the streets of Australian cities, protesting against uranium mining; the Uranium Moratorium group was formed and it called for a five-year moritorium on uranium mining. In April 1977 the first national demonstration co-ordinated by the Uranium Moratorium brought around 15,000 demonstrators into the streets of Melbourne, 5,000 in Sydney, smaller numbers elsewhere.
A National signature campaign attracted over 250,000 signatures calling for a five-year moratorium. In August, another demonstration brought 50,000 people out nationally and the opposition to uranium mining looked like a potential political force. On Palm Sunday 1982, an estimated 100,000 Australians participated in anti-nuclear rallies in the nation's largest cities. Growing year by year, the rallies drew 350,000 participants in 1985; the movement focused on halting Australia's uranium mining and exports, abolishing nuclear weapons, removing foreign military bases from Australia's soil, creating a nuclear-free Pacific. On Dec 17th 2001, 46 Greenpeace activists occupied the Lucas Heights facility to protest the construction of a second research reactor. Protestors gained access to the grounds, the HIFAR reactor, the high-level radioactive waste store and the radio tower, their protest highlighted the security and environmental risks of the production of nuclear materials and the shipment of radioactive waste from the facility.
In March 2012, hundreds of anti-nuclear demonstrators converged on the Australian headquarters of global mining giants BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto to mark one year since the Fukushima nuclear disaster. The 500-strong march through southern Melbourne called for an end to uranium mining in Australia. There were events in Sydney, in Melbourne the protest included spe
Friends of the Earth
Friends of the Earth International is an international network of environmental organizations in 74 countries. Friends of the Earth was founded in 1969 in San Francisco by David Brower, Donald Aitken and Gary Soucie after Brower's split with the Sierra Club, it became an international network of organisations in 1971 with a meeting of representatives from four countries, namely U. S. Sweden, the UK and France.. FoEI has a secretariat which provides support for the network and its agreed major campaigns; the executive committee of elected representatives from national groups sets policy and oversees the work of the secretariat. In 2016, Uruguayan activist Karin Nansen was elected to serve as chair of Friends of the Earth International. Friends of the Earth is an international membership organisations, with members spread across the world, its main parent body, Friends of the Earth is an advocacy group, with most of its activities focused in UK. Its advocacy programs focus on environmental issues, highlighting their social and human rights contexts.
Their campaigns take place in the United Kingdom, with a few activities in USA and Europe through their sister agency Friends of the earth. The international wing of Friends of the Earth is headquartered in Amsterdam, Netherlands for tax reasons; as per its website, the current campaign priorities of Friends of the Earth internationally are: economic justice and resisting neoliberalism and biodiversity, food sovereignty and climate justice and energy. The campaign priorities of FOEI are set at its bi-annual general meeting. Additionally, FOEI plans campaigns in other fields like desertification, maritime and extractive industries and nuclear power.. In 2016, FOEI led a campaign on the consumption and intensive meat production FOEI claims that it has been successful as it has eliminated billions in taxpayer subsidies to corporate polluters, reformed the World Bank to address environmental and human rights concerns, pushed the debate on global warming to pressure the U. S. to attempt the best legislation possible, stopped more than 150 destructive dams and water projects worldwide and won landmark regulations of strip mines and oil tankers and banned international whaling.
Its critics claim that the organization only tries to obtain media attention, but does not stay with locals to solve complicated problems, that it prevents development in developing countries. They have been critical of its policy to accept high levels of funding from companies and charities related to oil and gas. In October 2018, it was announced that Aliko Dangote, Africa's richest man, was planning to build a $12 billion oil refinery on 6,180 acres of swampland in Nigeria; this would make it the world's largest refinery. By 2022, the refinery would process 650,000 barrels of crude oil daily. Nigeria is Africa's largest oil producer, though the refineries present are of low quality, so most of the oil used within the country is imported; because the refinery would be built so far from the Niger Delta, where most Nigerian oil is extracted, two undersea pipelines will be used to carry petroleum the 240 miles to the Lagos-based refinery. Pipelines the exist in Nigeria are under scrutiny, some have been blown up by angry citizens and members of a rebel group called the Delta Avengers, who are angry about the pollution and poverty associated with and stemming from the oil industry.
In addition, this refinery would give Dangote a monopoly on Nigerian oil. On December 11, 2018, FOE Africa began protesting outside of an event hosted by the Shell corporation. Activists found that Shell helped draft a portion of the Paris Climate Agreement in 2015. Shell, an oil drilling company, influenced the guidelines on greenhouse gas emission allowances and restrictions. At the protest, Rita Uwaka of Nigeria's branch of FOE said: "It's like hell on Earth. I represent communities in the Niger Delta who are impacted by these big polluters... Having these big polluters come in here as a saint is not only a slap on us as delegates of COP. It's a slap on Mother Earth." The Friends of the Earth in each country are themselves many-tiered networks reaching from individual activists up to the national pressure group which campaigns for environmentally progressive and sustainable policies. The groups and activists carry out educational and research activities; as per their website, Friends of the Earth groups are required to act independently of party political, religious or other influences.
These are conditions of remaining a member of FOEI. The national groups work on the main issues affecting their own country and choose to participate in the international campaigns of FoEI which are relevant to them. In turn, the local campaigners can work on national and/or international campaigns; the member organization in a particular country may name itself Friends of the Earth or an equivalent translated phrase in the national language, e.g. Friends of the Earth, Friends of the Earth, Amigos de la Tierra; however half of the member groups work under their own names, sometimes reflecting an independent origin and subsequent accession to the network, such as Pro Natura, the Korean Federation for Environmental Movement, Environmental Rights Action and WALHI. Friends of the Earth International is supported by a secretariat based in Amsterdam, an
Anti-nuclear power movement in Japan
Long one of the world's most committed promoters of civilian nuclear power, Japan's nuclear industry was not hit as hard by the effects of the 1979 Three Mile Island accident or the 1986 Chernobyl disaster as some other countries. Construction of new plants continued to be strong into the 1990s. However, starting in the mid-1990s there were several nuclear related accidents and cover-ups in Japan that eroded public perception of the industry, resulting in protests and resistance to new plants; these accidents included the Tokaimura nuclear accident, the Mihama steam explosion, cover-ups after accidents at the Monju reactor, the 21 month shut down of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant following an earthquake in 2007. Because of these events, Japan's nuclear industry has been scrutinized by the general public of the country; the negative impact of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has changed attitudes in Japan. Political and energy experts describe "nothing short of a nationwide loss of faith, not only in Japan’s once-vaunted nuclear technology but in the government, which many blame for allowing the accident to happen".
Sixty thousand people marched in central Tokyo on 19 September 2011, chanting "Sayonara nuclear power" and waving banners, to call on Japan's government to abandon nuclear power, following the Fukushima disaster. Bishop of Osaka, Michael Goro Matsuura, has called on the solidarity of Christians worldwide to support this anti-nuclear campaign. In July 2012, 75,000 people gathered near in Tokyo for the capital's largest anti-nuclear event yet. Organizers and participants said such demonstrations signal a fundamental change in attitudes in a nation where few have been willing to engage in political protests since the 1960s. Anti-nuclear groups include the Citizens' Nuclear Information Center, Stop Rokkasho, Sayonara Nuclear Power Plants, Women from Fukushima Against Nukes, the Article 9 group. People associated with the anti-nuclear movement include: Jinzaburo Takagi, Haruki Murakami, Kenzaburō Ōe, Nobuto Hosaka, Mizuho Fukushima, Ryuichi Sakamoto and Tetsunari Iida; as of September 2012, most Japanese people support the zero option on nuclear power, Prime Minister Yoshihiko and the Japanese government announced a dramatic change of direction in energy policy, promising to make the country nuclear-free by the 2030s.
There will be no new construction of nuclear power plants, a 40-year lifetime limit on existing nuclear plants, any further nuclear plant restarts will need to meet tough safety standards of the new independent regulatory authority. The new approach to meeting energy needs will involve investing $500 billion over 20 years to commercialize the use of renewable energy sources such as wind power and solar power; the current Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, elected in 2012, has put nuclear energy back on the political agenda, with plans to restart as many reactors as possible. In July 2015, the government submitted its ideas for reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the United Nations, the proposal included a target for nuclear power to meet at least 20% of Japan's electricity consumption by 2030. Renewable energy sources, such as hydropower but solar power, would contribute 22% or more. On 11 August 2015, the Sendai Nuclear Power Plant broke a four-year lull when it restarted one of its reactors; the restart is the first since Japan's nuclear power industry collapsed, following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi disaster.
The first nuclear reactor in Japan was built by the United Kingdom's GEC. In the 1970s, the first light water reactors were built in cooperation with American companies. Robert Jay Lifton has asked how Japan, after its experience with the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, could "allow itself to draw so on the same nuclear technology for the manufacture of about a third of its energy", he says: There was resistance, much of it from Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. But there was a pattern of denial, cover-up and cozy bureaucratic collusion between industry and government, the last notorious in Japan but by no means limited to that country. Pro-nuclear power forces could prevail only by managing to instill in the minds of Japanese people a dichotomy between the physics of nuclear power and that of nuclear weapons, an illusory distinction made not only in Japan but throughout the world. Japan's nuclear industry was not hit as hard by the effects of the 1979 Three Mile Island accident or the 1986 Chernobyl disaster as some other countries.
Construction of new plants continued to be strong into the 1990s. However, starting in the mid-1990s there were several nuclear related accidents and cover-ups in Japan that eroded public perception of the industry, resulting in protests and resistance to new plants; these accidents included the Tokaimura nuclear accident, the Mihama steam explosion, cover-ups after an accidents at the Monju reactor. More citizens subsequently became concerned about potential health impacts, the absence of a long-term nuclear waste storage facility, nuclear weapons proliferation; the more recent Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant was shut down for 21 months following an earthquake in 2007. While exact details may be in dispute, it is clear that the safety culture in Japan's nuclear industry came under greater scrutiny. Research results show that some 95 post-war attempts to site and build nuclear power plants resulted in only 54 completions. Many affected communities "fought back in publicized battles". Co-ordinated opposition groups, such as the Citizens' Nuclear Information Center and the anti-nuclear newspaper Hangenpatsu Shinbun have operated since the early 1980s.
Cancelled plant orders included: The Maki NPP at Maki