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An antibiotic is a type of antimicrobial substance active against bacteria and is the most important type of antibacterial agent for fighting bacterial infections. Antibiotic medications are used in the treatment and prevention of such infections, they may either inhibit the growth of bacteria. A limited number of antibiotics possess antiprotozoal activity. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses such as influenza. Sometimes, the term antibiotic which means "opposing life", based on Greek roots, anti: "against" and biotic: "life", is broadly used to refer to any substance used against microbes, but in the usual medical usage, antibiotics are those produced whereas nonantibiotic antibacterials are synthetic. However, both classes have the same goal of killing or preventing the growth of microorganisms, both are included in antimicrobial chemotherapy. "Antibacterials" include antiseptic drugs, antibacterial soaps, chemical disinfectants, whereas antibiotics are an important class of antibacterials used more in medicine and sometimes in livestock feed.

Antibiotics have been used since ancient times. Many civilizations used topical application of mouldy bread, with many references to its beneficial effects arising from ancient Egypt, Serbia and Rome; the first person to directly document the use of moulds to treat infections was John Parkinson. Antibiotics revolutionized medicine in the 20th century. Alexander Fleming discovered modern day penicillin in 1928. After realizing the great potential there was in penicillin, Fleming pursued the challenge of how to market it and translate it to commercial use. With help from other biochemists, penicillin was available for widespread use; this was beneficial during wartime. It didn't take long for resistance to begin. Effectiveness and easy access have led to their overuse and some bacteria have developed resistance; this has led to widespread problems, the World Health Organization has classified antimicrobial resistance as a "serious threat is no longer a prediction for the future, it is happening right now in every region of the world and has the potential to affect anyone, of any age, in any country".

Antibiotics are used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, sometimes protozoan infections.. When an infection is suspected of being responsible for an illness but the responsible pathogen has not been identified, an empiric therapy is adopted; this involves the administration of a broad-spectrum antibiotic based on the signs and symptoms presented and is initiated pending laboratory results that can take several days. When the responsible pathogenic microorganism is known or has been identified, definitive therapy can be started; this will involve the use of a narrow-spectrum antibiotic. The choice of antibiotic given will be based on its cost. Identification is critically important as it can reduce the cost and toxicity of the antibiotic therapy and reduce the possibility of the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. To avoid surgery, antibiotics may be given for non-complicated acute appendicitis. Antibiotics may be given as a preventive measure and this is limited to at-risk populations such as those with a weakened immune system, those taking immunosuppressive drugs, cancer patients, those having surgery.

Their use in surgical procedures is to help prevent infection of incisions. They have an important role in dental antibiotic prophylaxis where their use may prevent bacteremia and consequent infective endocarditis. Antibiotics are used to prevent infection in cases of neutropenia cancer-related. There are many different routes of administration for antibiotic treatment. Antibiotics are taken by mouth. In more severe cases deep-seated systemic infections, antibiotics can be given intravenously or by injection. Where the site of infection is accessed, antibiotics may be given topically in the form of eye drops onto the conjunctiva for conjunctivitis or ear drops for ear infections and acute cases of swimmer's ear. Topical use is one of the treatment options for some skin conditions including acne and cellulitis. Advantages of topical application include achieving high and sustained concentration of antibiotic at the site of infection. Topical antibiotics applied over certain types of surgical wounds have been reported to reduce the risk of surgical site infections.

However, there are certain general causes for concern with topical administration of antibiotics. Some systemic absorption of the antibiotic may occur, it is recommended to administer antibiotics as soon as possible in life-threatening infections. Many emergency departments stock antibiotics for this purpose. Antibiotic consumption varies between countries; the ‘WHO report on surveillance of antibiotic consumption’ published in 2018 analysed 2015 data from 65 countries. As measured in defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day. Mongolia had the highest consumption with a rate of 64.4. Burundi had the lowest at 4.4. Amoxicillin and Amo

Operation Black Lion

Operation Black Lion was a Royal Lao Government counter-offensive against a People's Army of Vietnam thrust that cut the Kingdom of Laos in two at Khong Sedone during May 1972. Two regiments of Royalist military irregulars retaliated on 15 June 1972, attacking the Communist 39th Regiment in an air assault while Royal Lao Air Force tactical air strikes hammered the 39th. During the next month, the 39th Regiment would suffer an estimated 360 casualties and be rendered ineffective for attacks. On 18 July, they retreated. Throughout the following months, the Royalists pushed eastward along Route 23 towards Vietnam to capture Laongam. On the nights of 14/15 and 18/19 October 1972, Communist PT-76 tanks struck four Royalist Thai mercenary battalions holding Laongam. All the Thais except the regimental staff abandoned the town on 19 October. Two Thai battalions returned to form a weak defense; the Ho Chi Minh Trail was central to the People's Army of Vietnam strategy for the conquest of South Vietnam during the Second Indochina War.

North Vietnamese victory depended on the supplies and reinforcements delivered by the Trail, located in the Kingdom of Laos. An ongoing air campaign by the United States striking the Trail had little perceptible effect on the Communist logistics effort. A series of Central Intelligence Agency-backed intrusions from Military Region 3 and Military Region 4 of Laos during 1969 and 1970 failed to interdict the Trail; the massive Operation Lam Son 719 assault staged in February 1971 failed to cut it. Central Intelligence Agency backed Laotian guerrillas and Royal Lao Army military irregulars made further attempts at severing the Communist logistical lines of communication. By the end of April 1972, the Royal Lao Government had lost control of the Bolovens Plateau and its overwatch of the Trail to the invading People's Army of Vietnam. A renewed PAVN 9th Regiment captured the village of Laongam and advanced nine kilometers along Route 23 into Royalist territory. During the third week in May, the PAVN 39th Regiment unexpectedly made a rainy season advance to occupy the town of Khong Sedone on the banks of the Mekong River.

This move cut Route 13, between Savannakhet and Pakxe, thus severing the only highway between the two Lao Military Region headquarters. It essentially divided Laos in two, menaced Thai sovereignty. Loss of the Mekong River town was too great an affront to Lao nationhood to be borne. Deputy Minister Sisouk na Champassak was forwarded to Pakxe by Prime Minister Souvanna Phouma. Champassak was to remain in Pakxe—barring cabinet meetings in Vientiane—overseeing Royalist efforts to regain Khong Sedone and block attacks on Pakxe. King Savang Vatthana believed the operation should retake Paksong in the Communists' rear, cutting their supply lines into Khong Sedone; the RLG's immediate reaction was the dispatch of trained Bataillon Voluntaire 44 from Military Region 4, backed by four 105mm howitzers to retake Khong Sedone. When the volunteer battalion was unsuccessful, the undertrained regimental-sized Groupement Mobile 41 tried and failed; these two failures precipitated Operation Black Lion. The Royalists had an artillery fire base sited at the road junction where east-west Route 23 from Vietnam intersected the Laotian north-south Route 13 near Khong Sedone.

In early June, the Royalists began reinforcing the position with Thai mercenary troops returning from a loan to Military Region 2. Four battalions left the Plain of Jars on 13 June. In late June, they were joined by a fifth Thai battalion. In early July, a 4.2 inch mortar was added to the garrison. However, the Royalist forces had secured no foothold on the Bolovens Plateau. In early June, Savannakhet Unit of the CIA planned Operation Black Lion to retake Khong Sedone. On 15 June 1972, Groupement Mobile 32 was helilifted into Pakxe Site 47, unloading on the fly and without their heavy weapons company; this placed GM 32 11 kilometers north of Khong Sedone. Only two hours after re-forming their ranks, GM 32 moved south toward their objective. Less than two kilometers out, they ran headon into the 3rd Battalion of the PAVN 39th Regiment. After intense fighting, the arrival of tactical air support for the Royalists drove the Vietnamese out of the way. On 16 June, Groupement Mobile 33 was landed seven kilometers west of Pakxe Site 47.

It divided in two to assault differing objectives. Group Alpha was directed at the mountaintop of Phou Khong. Group Bravo was targeted at Route 13; the Communist defensive positions were laid out with a basic weakness. On 17 June, GM 32 was six kilometers north of Khong Sedone. On 18 June, Alpha Group of GM 33 was repulsed in its attack on Phou Khong, being struck by artillery and mortar fire. Bravo Group of GM 33 unsuccessfully assaulted Ban Napheng, three kilometers north of Khong Sedone. On 19 June, two battalions of GM 32 took Ban Napheng quickly moved into a vacated Khong Sedone; the PAVN forces had withdrawn westward to a deserted RLA bivouac. GM 32 remained static in Khong Sedone into the first week of July. Communist artillery fire began to fall on GM 32. Meanwhile, troops from the 39th Regiment conquered Ban Napheng; the attacking Royalists took advantage of the poor Communist dispositions to inflict an estimated 300 PAVN casualties. However, during the second week in July, intercepted Communist signals traffic disclosed that the PAVN 39th Regiment had orders to hold the old RLA c

Trump Ocean Resort Baja Mexico

Trump Ocean Resort Baja Mexico was a failed luxury condominium-hotel resort to be located at Punta Bandera in the Playas de Tijuana borough of Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico 16 kilometres from the San Ysidro border crossing. It was announced in 2006 as a joint venture between the Trump Organization and Los Angeles-based real estate development company Irongate. Investors were led to believe that Trump CEO Donald Trump was supervising the project, however he was just licensing his name for the development, so the investors sued the company; this was the second Trump-Irongate joint venture, followed the more successful Trump International Hotel and Tower venture. The project was to be a 25 story, 526 unit condo-hotel. In late 2008, with the project experiencing delays and cost overruns, Trump removed his name from the development. In early 2009, The Associated Press reported. After its collapse, Trump claimed that he had been little more than a spokesperson for the entire venture, disavowed any financial responsibility for the debacle.

In the litigation that ensued in a California court, Donald Trump, his son Donald Trump Jr. his daughter Ivanka Trump and the Trump Organization were named as defendants citing violation of Federal and State law. Trump's attorneys sought to question a San Diego Union-Tribune reporter about a 2006 story with the headline "Trump puts'brand' on Baja with condo-hotel," which quoted Trump as being a "significant," equity investor in the development. Citing California's Shield Law, a California court rejected Trump's effort, siding with attorneys for the newspaper reporter. After ​4 1⁄2 years of litigation, Trump settled the lawsuit against him in November 2013, for an undisclosed amount. Trump's developer partners, Jason Grosfeld, Adam Fisher and Irongate Developers had earlier settled with the buyers for $7.25 million. The attorneys representing 200 buyers in the litigation venued in Los Angeles County were Bart I. Ring and Daniel J. King. On October 29, 2016, Jaime Martínez Veloz filed a criminal complaint against Trump for fraud involved in this development as well as tax evasion on Trump's mercantile business in Mexico.

List of things named after Donald Trump June 2009 Google Street View of abandoned development

Maya Bash

Maya Bash is an Israeli fashion designer. She immigrated to Israel from Russia, established the Maya Bash brand in 2005. Bash was born in 1979. In 1991 her family emigrated to Israel, she studied at Shenkar College of Engineering and Design, after her graduation, she opened a shop in the Gan HaHashmal district in Tel Aviv. The Maya Bash brand offers unisex urban clothing, inspired by the designer’s childhood in the former Soviet Union as well as her urban lifestyle in Tel Aviv. All the brand’s collections are produced locally. Bash has worked with film director Max Lomberg, painter Anna Lukashevsky, photographer David Meskhi. In a collaboration with Israeli visual artist Zoya Cherkassky, she has designed clothing using fabric with patterns showing people wearing her clothes. Following the designer’s presentation at Paris Fashion Week, her clothing is sold in a few shops in Japan, Russia, the Netherlands and the United States. Official website


Unity08 was an American political reform movement that sought to offer all voters an opportunity to directly engage in politics by ranking the most crucial issues facing the country, discussing them with the candidates and engaging in an online, secure vote to nominate a bipartisan alternative to the Democratic Party and Republican Party presidential tickets for the 2008 U. S. presidential election. Founded in 2006, the group gained attention from various media outlets, with Newsweek's Jonathan Alter dubbing the group's efforts a kind of open source politics. In January 2008, Unity08 organizers announced that the group had suspended operations due to funding problems. Americans Elect 2012 is an organization, formed by many of the individuals that were responsible for Unity 08, had identical goals for the 2012 presidential election cycle. Americans Elect failed to nominate a candidate; the political reform movement was founded as a non-profit organization by several political figures: Democrats Hamilton Jordan, Gerald Rafshoon, Republican consultants Doug Bailey and Jim Jonas and the former two-term independent Maine Governor Angus King.

Unity08 is attempting to leverage online technology, such as secure voting, to allow American voters to determine the most crucial issues facing the country, discuss them with potential nominees, participate in an online convention to nominate a bipartisan presidential ticket. In an interview that aired on The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer in May 2006, Unity08's founders said that the group was formed in response to the polarization between the Republican and Democratic political parties; the group cited a poll it commissioned from Princeton Survey Research and claimed that 82 percent of Americans think that the two major political parties are unable to address the country's problems and that 73 percent of Americans are in favor of alternatives to the two parties. The group's status as a non-profit organization came into question when they asked the Federal Election Commission whether the group could defer registering as a political action committee until after its candidates for the 2008 presidential election are named.

A draft released by the commission in July 2006 concluded that "Unity08 must register as a policy committee and therefore is subject to the reporting requirements and limitations and prohibitions." In October 2006, the commission voted on the matter and declared that the group must register as a political action committee. However, the decision was appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. On March 2, 2010, the appeals court reversed the lower court and allowed Unity08 to operate without having to register with the FEC. Unity08’s spokesperson was actor Sam Waterston. Waterston discussed the organization on programs such as The O'Reilly Factor and Hardball with Chris Matthews. On June 28, 2007, Doug Bailey, the co-founder of Unity08, appeared on Stephen Colbert's The Colbert Report and spoke about the organization. Shortly after announcing a poll to the "Colbert Nation" about whether Colbert should run for president, the web site servers crashed due to the overwhelming traffic.

In January 2008, Bailey and Rafshoon announced that they were leaving the organization and were planning to launch a national effort to draft New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg to run for president. Shortly thereafter, representatives for Unity08 announced that the organization was scaling back operations and suspending activities, citing lack of adequate funding and disputes with the Federal Election Commission. Unity08 was unable to resume operations prior to the 2008 presidential election. Prior to the organization's suspension of activities, Unity08's web site was a community for members to communicate and participate via blogs and polls; the movement had a presence on Facebook, MySpace and YouTube. Unity08 had leveraged the online event tools of and Eventful for members to organize local gatherings. However, Unity08 was characterized, by critics, as an example of astroturfing. Unity08 had four major goals: Enable Americans to rank America’s most crucial issues. Empower Americans to draft or evaluate Unity08 candidates and engage them in debate about the crucial issues.

Empower Americans to nominate a bipartisan Unity ticket via an online convention and secure voting process. Elect the Unity08 presidential ticket to national office; the Unity08 presidential ticket was to consist of two candidates that come from different political parties. This bipartisan team was to propose a bipartisan cabinet in an effort to end paralysis in government. Co-founder Doug Bailey explained "What we are trying to do is to create a forum for people who are in the middle who have been left out of politics." Actor and spokesperson Sam Waterston acknowledged in an April 25, 2007, interview on's "PostTalk" show that Unity08 would need an appealing candidate at its center to succeed. This was in response to speculation that Unity08 was pursuing New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg, or Nebraska Senator Chuck Hagel. Neither Bloomberg nor Hagel chose to run for president. Former Senator Sam Nunn of Georgia, a one-time prospective Unity08 nominee chose not to run and instead endorsed Democratic candidate Barack Obama.

Campaign watchdog groups such as The Campaign Legal Center and Democracy 21 criticized the group's initial classification as a non-profit organization, "because Unity08 makes clear that its principal purpose is to influence the 2008 presidential election". The group came under criticism by political commentators such as David Harsanyi of The Denver Post, who contends that the Unity08 ticket would have served as a "spoiler" for one party's ticket, siphoning off enough votes from one candidate and deliveri

Advanced Squad Leader

Advanced Squad Leader is a tactical-level board wargame marketed by Avalon Hill Games, that simulates actions of squad sized units in World War II. It is a detailed game system for two or more players. Components include various games called modules. ASL modules provide the standard equipment for playing ASL, including geomorphic mapboards and counters; the mapboards are divided into hexagons to regulate fire and movement, depict generic terrain that can represent different historical locations. The counters are cardboard pieces that depict squads of soldiers, individual leaders, support weapons, heavy weapons, vehicles. Combined with the sales of the original Squad Leader, Advanced Squad Leader sold over 1 million copies by 1997. Fifteen core modules provide representations of nearly every troop type and weapon to see combat action from any nationality involved in World War II; each module comes with 6 to 20 researched situations depicting historical battles. These scenarios are printed on card stock with specifications of game length, map board configuration, counters involved, special rules for the conditions of the particular battle such as weather, victory conditions.

In addition to the scenarios published in the modules, there are numerous other sources for scenarios, both official and unofficial. There is a detailed set of instructions in the ASL Rulebook for Design Your Own scenarios based on a point-purchase system. Additional variations on ASL include Deluxe ASL, a short-lived experiment in fusing miniature wargaming with ASL; the game was first published by Avalon Hill in 1985 as a successor to the award-winning Squad Leader series, on which the game is based and from which the rules and components were directly developed. By the time the fourth and final installment of Squad Leader debuted, there were four separate rulebooks in existence with poorly integrated and sometimes contradictory rules. For example, U. S. forces had lower morale and were disadvantaged by the use of morale ratings to determine the ability to push ordnance through snow or mud, but there is no real reason for morale to affect such an attempt. It was clear that the system had grown in ways never dreamed of in 1977.

Avalon Hill had promised a new rulebook streamlining procedures, eliminating redundancies, revising the "To Hit/To Kill" system used to simulate armor protection and penetration in tank combat. Instead, by the time it debuted, Advanced Squad Leader had become a complete replacement of the games of the original SL series; as an example, the original SL has only twelve different tank and assault gun types, only five different armor ratings, from -2 to +2. By contrast, ASL has separate counters for 56 different types of tanks and assault guns for the Germans alone, with armor values from 0 to 26, based on actual thickness and degree of slope. Beyond Valor includes 99 separate German vehicles simulated in the game, including halftracks, armored cars, anti-aircraft vehicles, soft skins. Many fans of the original Squad Leader game who had looked forward to improvements to the system with the release of Advanced Squad Leader were taken aback by the need to replace the four modules they had bought.

The new game requires at least two products, the Advanced Squad Leader Rulebook and an initial module, either Beyond Valor, which contains a brand new counter mix for the German and Finnish armies, as well as all necessary system counters, or else Paratrooper, which contains a limited counter mix for system markers, US paratrooper units and their German opponents in Normandy. Either initial module requires ownership of boards from SL in order to play the included scenarios; the new game does not feature programmed instruction, instead of requiring a thorough reading of at least four chapters of the ASL Rulebook to play a game with ordnance and/or vehicles in it. The most basic ASL components were no longer introductory in nature, although Paratrooper masqueraded as such.. Avalon Hill suggested that anyone wishing to play ASL purchase the original Squad Leader and gain experience with that system first, kept the original SL and three gamettes in print; the necessity of owning boards from these modules in order to play printed scenarios in the core modules of ASL may have been a factor in this decision.

So while ASL was intended to replace SL, there was a certain ambiguity for many years about the status of SL's replacement. ASL was the first of Avalon Hill's'advanced' games. In 1998 Monarch Avalon, Inc. sold its entire line of games to Hasbro. On January 15, 1999, Multi-Man Publishing, LLC announced an exclusive association with Hasbro, Inc. "to develop and distribute games and other products for Avalon Hill's Advanced Squad Leader game system." MMP is a gaming company founded in 1994 by Perry Cocke and Brian Youse, co-partner Curt Schilling, to preserve ASL and other Avalon Hill games. Multi-Man Publish