Family Computing was a U. S. computer magazine published during the 1980s by Scholastic, Inc. It covered all the home computer platforms of the day including the Apple II series, Commodore Vic 20 and 64, Atari 8-bit family as well as the IBM PC. It printed a mixture of reviews, how-to articles and type-in programs. The magazine featured an insert called K-Power, written by Stuyvesant High School students called the Special-Ks. The section was named after a sister magazine which folded after a short run. This section was discontinued after the July 1987 issue as part of the shift toward home-office computing. The first issue of the magazine appeared in September 1983, there was a spinoff TV show on Lifetime hosted by Larry Sturholm, of which at least 26 episodes were produced. Another section of the magazine was contributed by Joey Latimer and dealt with related themes. This mostly amounted to BASIC program listings that would play some sort of tune on the computer platforms covered by the magazine, article topics began to include ideas for starting a home-based business and time management tips.
The title was changed, first to Family & Home Office Computing, in January 1998 Scholastic sold the title to Freedom Technology Media Group, which published the magazine until the April,2001 issue. Family Computing Magazine on the Internet Archive
Sierra Entertainment is an American publisher founded in 1979 as On-Line Systems by Ken and Roberta Williams. Based in Oakhurst, California and in Fresno, the division is now owned by Activision, Sierra is known for its multiple lines of seminal graphic adventure games started in the 1980s, many of which proved influential in the history of video games. The Sierra label was absorbed by its parent company in 2008, some franchises that were published by Sierra were published by Activision. Sierra was revived in 2014 by Activision Blizzard and it now focuses on re-releasing their old games, reviving their franchises and collaborating with independent developers for smaller projects. Sierra Entertainment was founded in 1979 as On-Line Systems in Simi Valley, California, by Ken, Ken Williams, a programmer for IBM, bought an Apple II microcomputer which he planned to use to develop a Fortran compiler for the Apple II. At the time, his wife Roberta Williams was playing text adventure games on the Apple II, dissatisfied with the text-only format, she realized that the graphics display capability of the Apple II could enhance the adventure gaming experience.
After initial success, On-Line Systems was renamed Sierra On-Line in 1982, by early 1984 InfoWorld estimated that Sierra was the worlds 12th-largest microcomputer-software company, with $12.5 million in 1983 sales. In 1980, On-Line Systems released their first game in the Hi-Res Adventure series, Roberta wrote the script for the adventure game in three weeks, presented it to Ken. At this point, Roberta convinced Ken to help her develop the game in the evenings after work and she worked on the text and the graphics, and told Ken how to put it all together to make it the game she wanted. They worked on it for three months and, on May 5,1980, Mystery House was ready for shipment. Mystery House was an instant hit and it was the first computer adventure game to have graphics, although they were crude, static line drawings. It sold about 15,000 copies and earned $167,000, the Hi-Res Adventure series continued with Mission Asteroid, which was released as Hi-Res Adventure #0, despite being the second release.
The next release and the Princess, known as Adventure in Serenia, is considered a prelude to the Kings Quest series in both story and concept. Through 1981 and 1982, more games were released in the series including Cranston Manor and the Golden Fleece, Time Zone, a simplified version of The Dark Crystal, intended for a younger audience, was written by Al Lowe and released as Gelfling Adventure. Many of Sierras most well known series began in the 1980s, in 1983, Sierra On-Line was contacted by IBM to create a game for its new PCjr. IBM would fund the development of the game, pay royalties for it. Ken and Roberta accepted and started on the project, Roberta created a story featuring classic fairy-tale elements. For the game, a development system called Adventure Game Interpreter was developed
BASIC is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use. In 1964, John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz designed the original BASIC language at Dartmouth College in the U. S. state of New Hampshire and they wanted to enable students in fields other than science and mathematics to use computers. At the time, nearly all use of computers required writing custom software, versions of BASIC became widespread on microcomputers in the mid-1970s and 1980s. Microcomputers usually shipped with BASIC, often in the machines firmware, having an easy-to-learn language on these early personal computers allowed small business owners, professionals and consultants to develop custom software on computers they could afford. In the 2010s, BASIC remains popular in many computing dialects and in new languages influenced by BASIC, before the mid-1960s, the only computers were huge mainframe computers. Users submitted jobs on punched cards or similar media to specialist computer operators, the computer stored these, used a batch processing system to run this queue of jobs one after another, allowing very high levels of utilization of these expensive machines.
As the performance of computing hardware rose through the 1960s, multi-processing was developed and this allowed a mix of batch jobs to be run together, but the real revolution was the development of time-sharing. The original BASIC language was released on May 1,1964 by John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz, the acronym BASIC comes from the name of an unpublished paper by Thomas Kurtz. BASIC was designed to allow students to write computer programs for the Dartmouth Time-Sharing System. It was intended specifically for technical users who did not have or want the mathematical background previously expected. Being able to use a computer to support teaching and research was quite novel at the time, the language was based on FORTRAN II, with some influences from ALGOL60 and with additions to make it suitable for timesharing. Wanting use of the language to become widespread, its designers made the available free of charge. They made it available to schools in the Hanover area. In the following years, as dialects of BASIC appeared, Kemeny.
A version was a part of the Pick operating system from 1973 onward. During this period a number of computer games were written in BASIC. A number of these were collected by DEC employee David H. Ahl and he collected a number of these into book form,101 BASIC Computer Games, published in 1973. During the same period, Ahl was involved in the creation of a computer for education use
Atari BASIC is a BASIC interpreter that shipped with the Atari 8-bit family of 6502-based home computers. The language was originally on an 8 KB ROM cartridge, on the XL/XE computers it is built-in and can be disabled by holding down the OPTION key while booting. The XEGS disables BASIC if powered without the keyboard attached, the complete commented source code and design specifications of Atari BASIC were published as a book in 1983. The machines that would become the Atari 8-bit family had originally developed as second-generation video game consoles intended to replace the Atari 2600. Ray Kassar, the new president of Atari, decided to challenge Apple Computer by building a computer instead. This meant Atari needed the BASIC programming language, the language for home computers. Atari purchased the code to the MOS6502 version of Microsoft 8K BASIC. The original 8K BASIC referred to its memory footprint when compiled on the Intel 8080s instruction set, the lower code density of the 6502 expanded the code to about 9 kB.
This was slightly larger than the natural 8 kB size of the Ataris ROM cartridges, Atari felt that they needed to expand the language to add better support for the specific hardware features of their computers, similar to what Apple had done with their Applesoft BASIC. This increased the size from 9 kB to around 11 kB, Atari had designed their ROM layout in 8 kB blocks, and paring down the code from 11 to 8 kB turned out to be a significant problem. Adding to the problem was the fact that the 6502 code supplied by Microsoft was undocumented, six months they were almost ready with a shippable version of the interpreter. However, Atari was facing a deadline with the Consumer Electronics Show approaching, in September 1978 Atari asked Shepardson Microsystems to bid on completing BASIC. Shepardson had written a number of programs for the Apple II family, which used the same 6502 processor, and were in the middle of finishing a new BASIC for the Cromemco S-100 bus machines. Shepardson examined the work and decided it was too difficult to continue paring it down.
Atari accepted the proposal, and when the specifications were finalized in October 1978, Paul Laughton, the result was a different version of BASIC, known as Atari BASIC. In particular, the new BASIC dealt with character strings more like Data Generals BASIC than Microsofts, the contract specified a delivery date on or before 6 April 1979 and this included a File Manager System. Ataris plans were to take an early 8K version of Microsoft BASIC to the 1979 CES, development proceeded quickly, helped by a bonus clause in the contract, and an 8K cartridge was available just before the release of the machines. Atari took it with them to the CES, shepardsons programmers found problems during the first review and managed to fix some of them, but Atari had already committed the cartridge to manufacturing
Page 6 was an independent British publication aimed at users of Atari home computers. It was published between 1982 and 1998, the computer magazine supported both the Atari 8-bit family of computers and the Atari ST range. The magazine had its origins in the newsletter of the Birmingham Users Group, Les Ellingham was appointed to be the editor of the newsletter, but decided to produce a magazine with broader appeal instead. He remained editor of Page 6 throughout its run of 85 issues. Although subscription-only for most of its life, it was available through newsagents during the late 1980s, the latter was simply Page 6 under a different name, and had next to no continuity with the original Atari User. The editor Les Ellingham had declined the offer to edit the original Atari User when approached by Database Publications in 1985, the magazines name derives from the area of memory in 8-bit Atari computers covering locations 1536–1791. As memory was divided into pages of 256 bytes, locations 1536 to 1791 were known as page 6.
Page 6 memory was used by the operating system nor by Atari BASIC programs. In a similar manner, the publishers of Page 6 magazine wanted readers to contribute useful type-in programs, officially authorised Page 6/New Atari User website The Page 6 Magazine Library at the Centre for Computing History
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of universal access to all knowledge. As of October 2016, its collection topped 15 petabytes, in addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains over 150 billion web captures, the Archive oversees one of the worlds largest book digitization projects. Founded by Brewster Kahle in May 1996, the Archive is a 501 nonprofit operating in the United States. It has a budget of $10 million, derived from a variety of sources, revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, donations. Its headquarters are in San Francisco, where about 30 of its 200 employees work, Most of its staff work in its book-scanning centers. The Archive has data centers in three Californian cities, San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond, the Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium and was officially designated as a library by the State of California in 2007.
Brewster Kahle founded the Archive in 1996 at around the time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet. In October 1996, the Internet Archive had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web in large quantities, the archived content wasnt available to the general public until 2001, when it developed the Wayback Machine. In late 1999, the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, Now the Internet Archive includes texts, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of projects, the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It. According to its web site, Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture, without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form, the Archives mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers and scholars. In August 2012, the Archive announced that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for over 1.3 million existing files, on November 6,2013, the Internet Archives headquarters in San Franciscos Richmond District caught fire, destroying equipment and damaging some nearby apartments.
The nonprofit Archive sought donations to cover the estimated $600,000 in damage, in November 2016, Kahle announced that the Internet Archive was building the Internet Archive of Canada, a copy of the archive to be based somewhere in the country of Canada. The announcement received widespread coverage due to the implication that the decision to build an archive in a foreign country was because of the upcoming presidency of Donald Trump. Kahle was quoted as saying that on November 9th in America and it was a firm reminder that institutions like ours, built for the long-term, need to design for change. For us, it means keeping our cultural materials safe, private and it means preparing for a Web that may face greater restrictions
Apple II series
Introduced at the West Coast Computer Faire on April 16,1977, the Apple II was among the first successful personal computers, it launched the Apple company into a successful business. Throughout the years, a number of models were sold, with the most popular model remaining relatively little changed into the 1990s, while primarily an 8-bit computer, by mid-run a 16-bit model was introduced. It was first sold on June 10,1977, by the end of production in 1993, somewhere between five and six million Apple II series computers had been produced. The Apple II was one of the longest running mass-produced home computer series, the Apple II became one of several recognizable and successful computers during the 1980s and early 1990s, although this was mainly limited to the USA. The original Apple II operating system was in ROM along with Integer BASIC, programs were entered and loaded on cassette tape. When the Disk II was implemented in 1978 by Steve Wozniak, the final and most popular version of this software was Apple DOS3.3.
Some commercial Apple II software booted directly and did not use standard DOS formats and this discouraged the copying or modifying of the software on the disks and improved loading speed. Apple DOS was superseded by ProDOS, which supported a hierarchical filesystem, with an optional third-party Z80-based expansion card the Apple II could boot into the CP/M operating system and run WordStar, dBase II, and other CP/M software. At the height of its evolution, towards the late 1980s, by 1992, the platform had 16-bit processing capabilities, a mouse-driven graphical user interface, and graphics and sound capabilities far beyond the original. At its peak, it was an industry with its associated community of third-party developers and retailers. The Apple IIGS was sold until the end of 1992, the last II-series Apple in production, total Apple II sales for its 14-year run were about 6 million units, with the peak occurring in 1983 when 1 million were sold. The Apple II was designed to more like a home appliance than a piece of electronic equipment.
The Apple II had color and high-resolution graphics modes, sound capabilities, the Apple II was targeted for the masses rather than just hobbyists and engineers, it influenced most of the microcomputers that followed it. Unlike preceding home microcomputers, it was sold as a consumer appliance rather than as a kit. VanLOVEs Apple Handbook and The Apple Educators Guide by Gerald VanDiver, the Apple dealer network used this book to emphasize the growing software developer base in education and personal use. The Apple II series had a built into the motherboard shell. An upgrade kit was to house the motherboard of an Apple IIGS in an Apple IIe case. The Apple II case was durable enough, according to a 1981 Apple ad, early II-series models were usually designated Apple ][ plus
The Centre for Computing History
The Centre for Computing History is a museum in Cambridge, established to create a permanent public exhibition telling the story of the Information Age. The museum acts as a repository for vintage computers and related artefacts, the museum is open Wednesdays through to Sundays from 10am to 5pm. On display are key items from the era of computers from aging comptometers through the Altair 8800 to the Sinclair ZX Spectrum. The museum holds vintage games consoles, software, the Centre is a registered educational charity. It is funded by a combination of sponsors from local business, private individuals, venture capitalist and entrepreneur Hermann Hauser was involved with funding discussions. He became patron of the museum in December 2011,30 years after the launch of the BBC Micro, the Centre for Computing History runs regular educational activities for schools and the general public. These range from programming workshops using 1980s BBC Micros to gaming tours to coding using software like Scratch for the Raspberry Pi, the centre collects and preserves historical computing related artefacts and has undertaken a project to preserve the data from the BBC Domesday Project and make it available online.
They already have data from both the National Disk and Community Disk online and are currently investigating copyright issues before releasing the URL to the general public, plans to relocate the museum to Cambridge, led to a report in October 2011 that negotiations were underway for a site. The museum was informed in June 2012 that planning permission for the new Cambridge site had been granted, the museum moved to a 10,500 sq ft site in Renee Court, Coldhams Road, off Coldhams Lane in the east side of Cambridge in summer 2013. Prior to the move, the museum had been situated in Haverhill, Suffolk
Brøderbund Software, Inc. was an American maker of video games, educational software and productivity tools. The company was founded in Eugene and moved to San Rafael, later to Novato, Brøderbund was purchased by The Learning Company in 1998. Many of Brøderbunds software titles, such as The Print Shop, PrintMaster, games released by the revived Broderbund are distributed by Encore, Inc. They would often release school editions of their games, which contained features to allow teachers to use the software to facilitate students learning. Brøderbund was founded by brothers Doug and Gary Carlston in 1980 for the purpose of marketing Galactic Empire and their sister, joined the company a year later. Before founding the company, Doug was a lawyer and Gary had held a number of jobs, Galactic Empire had many names taken from African languages, a group of merchants was named Broederbond, Afrikaans for association of brothers. That year it took over the assets of the well-regarded but financially troubled Synapse Software, although intending to keep it running as a business, they were unable to make money from Synapses products, and closed it down after a year.
Brøderbunds The Print Shop software produced signs and greeting cards, Brøderbund started discussions with Unison World about creating a version that would run on DOS. The two companies could not agree on a contract, but Unison World developed a DOS product with similar function, Broderbund sued for infringement of their copyright. Broderbund v. Unison became a case in establishing that the look. Sierra On-Line and Brøderbund ended merger discussions in March 1991, after an unsuccessful Initial Public Offering in 1987, it became a public company in November 1991, its NASDAQ symbol was BROD. When Brøderbund went public The Print Shop comprised 33% of total revenue, the companys stock price and market capitalization climbed steadily to a maximum of nearly US$80/share in late 1995, and fell steadily in the face of continued losses for a number of years. Brøderbund acquired PC Globe in July 1992, the Learning Company purchased Brøderbund in 1998 for about US$420 million in stock. Doug Carlston explained that in a bid to roll up Broderbund, mattel reeled from the financial impact of this transaction, and Jill E.
Barad, the CEO, ended up being forced out in a climate of investor outrage. Mattel gave away The Learning Company in September 2000 to Gores Technology Group, during this time, Broderbund products were owned by The Learning Company Deutschland GmbH, located in Oberhaching, Germany. Headed by Jean-Pierre Nordmann, the company was a subsidiary of The Learning Company LLC, the company published games under two logos and Red. In 2001, Gores sold The Learning Companys entertainment holdings to Ubisoft, many of Brøderbunds games, such as the Myst series, are published by Ubisoft. The Broderbund line of products is published by Encore, Inc under license from Riverdeep, under the terms of the agreement, Encore now manages the Broderbund family of products as well as Broderbund’s direct to consumer business
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
The Atari ST is a line of home computers from Atari Corporation and the successor to the Atari 8-bit family. The initial ST model, the 520ST, saw limited release in April-June 1985 and was available in July. The Atari ST is the first personal computer to come with a bitmapped color GUI, the 1040ST, released in 1986, is the first personal computer to ship with a megabyte of RAM in the base configuration and the first with a cost-per-kilobyte of less than US$1. The Atari ST is part of a generation of home computers that have 16 or 32-bit processors,256 KiB or more of RAM. It includes the Macintosh, Commodore Amiga, Apple IIGS, and, in certain markets, ST officially stands for Sixteen/Thirty-two, which refers to the Motorola 68000s 16-bit external bus and 32-bit internals. The ST was sold with either Ataris color or monochrome monitor, the systems color graphics modes were only available on the color monitor, while the highest resolution mode needed the monochrome monitor. In some markets, particularly Germany, the machine gained a foothold as a small business machine for CAD.
Thanks to its built-in MIDI ports, the ST enjoyed success for running music-sequencer software, the ST was superseded by the Atari STE, Atari TT, Atari MEGA STE, and Falcon computers. The Atari ST was born from the rivalry between home-computer makers Atari, Inc. and Commodore International, when his idea was rejected, Miner left Atari to form a small think tank called Hi-Toro in 1982 and began designing the new Lorraine chipset. The company, which was renamed Amiga Corporation, was pretending to sell video game controllers to deceive competition while it developed a Lorraine-based computer, Amiga ran out of capital to complete Lorraines development, and Atari, owned by Warner Communications, paid Amiga to continue development work. In return Atari received exclusive use of the Lorraine design for one year as a game console. After one year Atari would have the right to add a keyboard and market the complete computer, as Atari was heavily involved with Disney at the time, it was code-named Mickey, and the 256K memory expansion board was codenamed Minnie.
After leaving Commodore International in January 1984, Jack Tramiel formed Tramel Technology with his sons and other employees and, in April. The company initially considered the National Semiconductor NS320xx microprocessor but was disappointed with its performance and this started the move to the 68000. Tramiel learned that Warner wanted to sell Atari which, in mid-1984, was losing about a million dollars per day, interested in Ataris overseas manufacturing and worldwide distribution network for his new computer, Tramiel negotiated with Warner in May and June 1984. He secured funding and bought Ataris Consumer Division in July, as executives and engineers left Commodore to join Tramiels new Atari Corporation, Commodore responded by filing lawsuits against four former engineers for theft of trade secrets. This company was originally called TTL, renamed to Atari Corp, at the time of the purchase of Atari Incs assets, there were roughly 900 employees remaining from a high point of 10,000. After the interviews, approximately 100 employees were hired to work at Atari Corp, Amiga Corp. had sought more monetary support from investors in spring 1984