Anticonvulsants are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures. Anticonvulsants are increasingly being used in the treatment of bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder, since many seem to act as mood stabilizers, for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Anticonvulsants suppress the excessive rapid firing of neurons during seizures. Anticonvulsants prevent the spread of the seizure within the brain. Conventional antiepileptic drugs may enhance γ-aminobutyric acid function. Several antiepileptic drugs have uncertain mechanisms of action. Next to the voltage-gated sodium channels and components of the GABA system, their targets include GABAA receptors, the GAT-1 GABA transporter, GABA transaminase. Additional targets include voltage-gated calcium channels, SV2A, α2δ. By blocking sodium or calcium channels, antiepileptic drugs reduce the release of excitatory glutamate, whose release is considered to be elevated in epilepsy, but that of GABA; this is a side effect or the actual mechanism of action for some antiepileptic drugs, since GABA can itself, directly or indirectly, act proconvulsively.

Another potential target of antiepileptic drugs is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. The drug class was the fifth-best-selling in the United States in 2007; some anticonvulsants have shown antiepileptogenic effects in animal models of epilepsy. That is, they either prevent the development of epilepsy or can halt or reverse the progression of epilepsy. However, no drug has been shown in human trials to prevent epileptogenesis. Anticonvulsants are more called antiepileptic drugs, are referred to as antiseizure drugs because they provide symptomatic treatment only and have not been demonstrated to alter the course of epilepsy; the usual method of achieving approval for a drug is to show it is effective when compared against placebo, or that it is more effective than an existing drug. In monotherapy it is considered unethical by most to conduct a trial with placebo on a new drug of uncertain efficacy; this is. Therefore all new epilepsy drugs are approved only as adjunctive therapies.

Patients whose epilepsy is uncontrolled by their medication are selected to see if supplementing the medication with the new drug leads to an improvement in seizure control. Any reduction in the frequency of seizures is compared against a placebo; the lack of superiority over existing treatment, combined with lacking placebo-controlled trials, means that few modern drugs have earned FDA approval as initial monotherapy. In contrast, Europe only requires equivalence to existing treatments, has approved many more. Despite their lack of FDA approval, the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society still recommend a number of these new drugs as initial monotherapy. In the following list, the dates in parentheses are the earliest approved use of the drug. Paraldehyde. One of the earliest anticonvulsants, it is still used to treat status epilepticus where there are no resuscitation facilities. Stiripentol. Indicated for the treatment of Dravet syndrome. Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia.

The following are classified as anticonvulsants: Phenobarbital. See the related drug primidone. Methylphenobarbital. Known as mephobarbital in the US. No longer marketed in the UK Barbexaclone. Only available in some European countries. Phenobarbital was the main anticonvulsant from 1912 until the development of phenytoin in 1938. Today, phenobarbital is used to treat epilepsy in new patients since there are other effective drugs that are less sedating. Phenobarbital sodium injection can be used to stop acute convulsions or status epilepticus, but a benzodiazepine such as lorazepam, diazepam or midazolam is tried first. Other barbiturates only have an anticonvulsant effect at anaesthetic doses; the benzodiazepines are a class of drugs with hypnotic, anticonvulsive and muscle relaxant properties. Benzodiazepines act as a central nervous system depressant; the relative strength of each of these properties in any given benzodiazepine varies and influences the indications for which it is prescribed. Long-term use can be problematic due to the development of tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects and dependency.

Of the many drugs in this class, only a few are used to treat epilepsy: Clobazam. Notably used on a short-term basis around menstruation in women with catamenial epilepsy. Clonazepam. Clorazepate; the following benzodiazepines are used to treat status epilepticus: Diazepam. Can be given rectally by trained care-givers. Midazolam. Being used as an alternative to diazepam; this water-soluble drug is not swallowed. It is absorbed by the buccal mucosa. Lorazepam. Given by injection in hospital. Nitrazepam and nimetazepam are powerful anticonvulsant agents, however their use is rare due to an increased incidence of side effects and strong sedative and motor-impairing properties. Potassium bromide; the earliest effective treatment for epilepsy. There would not be a better drug until phenobarbital in 1912, it is still us

Stanisław Bergman

Stanisław Wojciech Bergman was a Polish painter of historical scenes, genre scenes and still-lifes. He was born to a wealthy bourgeois family. From 1879 to 1885, he studied at the Kraków Academy of Fine Arts with Jan Matejko, who had a decisive influence on his style, he won a scholarship that allowed him to study at the Academy of Fine Arts, from 1885 to 1887. By Otto Seitz and Sandor Wagner; when he returned to Kraków, he received a small workshop at the Academy, where he assisted Matejko with his classes in composition and was awarded a degree in 1888. Three years he went back to Krosno, where he was married and began to turn away from historical themes, he joined the Sokol gymnastic movement and became one of the first members of "Sztuka", an art society. From 1909 to the end of World War I, he and his family lived in Vienna; when they once again returned to Krosno, they moved into a house designed for them by Jan Sas Zubrzycki, which still retains some of Bergman's decorative touches. In additional to historical paintings, he created portraits of eminent townspeople and fashionable ladies and was fond of painting flowers.

In his years, under the influence of Impressionism, his palette brightened considerably. Many of his works are in the National Museum and the Museum of Independence. A major retrospective was held at the "Muzeum Podkarpackie" in Krosno from 2010 to 2011. Anna Guz, Stanisław Wojciech Bergman: wybitny malarz krośnieński, Muzeum Podkarpackie w Krośnie, 2011 ISBN 83-930273-1-4 Exhibition review @ Krosno24 Munich Fine Arts Academy

Đào Sĩ Chu

Đào Sĩ Chu was a Vietnamese painter who studied in France and was known for following the traditional style of the EBAI school. He was an organizer of art exhibitions and writer on the history of art. Đào Sĩ Chu was born on Hà Nội, Việt Nam, from an intellectual family. His father Đào Huống Mai was an industrialist and one of his sisters was the renowned pre-war poet Vân Đài, Đào Thị Nguyệt Minh. Finishing his secondary classes in Lycée Albert-Sarraut, his family sent him to study pharmacy at the University of Toulouse, France and at that time, painting was only his hobby. After graduating as a 1st grade Pharmacist in 1939, he had initial contacts with well-known artist painters of Hànội such as Trần Bình Lộc, Lê Phổ, Tô Ngọc Vân who were graduates of l'École des beaux arts de l'Indochine for first painting techniques and therefore, he was influenced by the EBAI school. During his travels in 1949-1951 and visiting many Fine Arts Museums in France, he devoted himself to fine arts and determined to study painting in a private workshop.

His first exhibition with Lê Bá Đẚng was at Vibaud Galerie and his paintings received appreciative comments from the art magazines Les Ponts des Arts and Le Cri de Paris for his color composition and portrait skills. Heartened by his initial success, his other paintings were exhibited consecutively at Grand Palais and Salon des Artistes Independants in Paris where he was a member of the Societe des Artistes Independants. Back in Viêt Nam, he set up his private and permanent exhibition room Liên Hương in Hà Nội for his colleagues paintings and participated in other exhibitions organised in the Opera House of Hà Nội. Awarded the Golden Medal at the Sàigòn Exhibition in 1955, he was appointed to be the Chairman of the National Cultural Conference for promoting the next cultural movements and events as the annual Spring Painting Award and the First International Exhibition of Fine Arts of Sàigòn of which he was Delegate and Secretary General. In an interview, he said "Art should be a creation.

Although, there are many tendencies in Realism and Impressionism, I believe that the future will belong to Cubism, non-figurative and abstracts arts, however I prefer realism-impressionism oil painting". His typical oil painting of Thủ Đức landscape was printed on March page in the Calendar 1959 of the United States of Information Service. From the years 1960 to 1970, he was Professor of the École supérieure des Beaux Arts de Gia Định, he served as Professor and Fine Arts Advisor of Minh Đức Catholic University until his death in June 16, 1974. After 1975, his theories were criticized by Nguyễn Phi Hoanh, artist painter, a graduate of l'École des beaux arts of Toulouse, author of the book Mỹ Thuật Việt Nam, published by Nhà Xuất Bản Thành Phố Hồ Chí Minh in November 1984. In the late 1990s, two exhibitions were organized by two private galleries of Trương Văn Ý and Bùi Quốc Chí of Đức Minh VN Collection for famous painters of Việt Nam, including some of Đào Sĩ Chu's paintings. April 2002, his painting Young Girl Feeding Chicken appeared in an auction sale of Sotheby's Singapore.

A second auction was organised in France in October, 2009, including one Đào Sï Chu painting, Jeune Femme Pensive. In the Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts, among the contemporary arts, there are nine Dao Si Chu paintings. From October 2014, a painting of Đào Sĩ Chu could be seen at the Ho Chi Minh City Museum of Fine Arts; this painting was executed by Đào Sĩ Chu in December 1968 and the one in Sotheby's Catalogue April 2002 is only a version which painted by himself in 1974 as some gifts for his close friends. The face of the young girl is his niece Mai, he was a musician during the commencement period of the First Modern Vietnamese Songsin Hà Nội. Most of his songs which were recorded in Pathé's disks 78rpm, could be lost after the First Indochina War. Except his four songs in 2 disks PA 2854 and PA 2856 which are Gió Thu, Cố Hương, Phụ Nữ Viêt Nam and Trong Sương, could be listened to the following links: 1. Gió Thu 2.

Cố Hương 3. Phụ nữ Việt Nam 4. Trong Sương Among the above writing music pieces, during the First Republic of Viet Nam, the Phụ Nữ was an official march for the celebration of Trưng Sisters' Day and Vietnamese Women Day in 1957 and The Hoàng Hôn was played by the Little Orchestra of New York in the Saigon Botanic garden in spring 1959. However he concentrated on fine arts and was more successful in this field. Although the long-lasting Vietnam War could involve him in some influences and in spite of some critics and accusations, Đào Sĩ Chu is a true artist until his last days. Title, Vietnamese Aesthetics from 1925 Onwards. Author, Boi Tran Huynh. Publisher, Sydney College of the Arts, University of Sydney, 2005. Length, 836 pages, chapter 4, pages 196 - 231.

The First International Exhibition of Fine Arts of Saigon Mỹ thuât hiên đại Viêt Nam = L'art contemporain vietnamien Mỹ thuật Việt Nam - Nguyễn-Phi-Hoanh - Google Books les-peintures-a-lhuile-du-musee-des-beaux-arts-de-ho-chi-minh-ville/122909.html gtbosuutap/phong-canh-dao-si-chu artists/47256—dao-si-chu artist/263153/.../jeune-femme-pensive