Saint Hubertus or Hubert became Bishop of Liège in 708 AD. He is a Christian saint, the patron saint of hunters, mathematicians and metalworkers. Known as the Apostle of the Ardennes, he was called upon, until the early 20th century, to cure rabies through the use of the traditional St Hubert's Key. Saint Hubertus was venerated during the Middle Ages; the iconography of his legend is entangled with the legend of Saint Eustace. The Bollandists published seven early lives of Hubertus, he died 30 May 727 AD near a place called Fura. In the Middle Ages, this place was identified as Tervuren near Brussels, but recent scholarship considers Voeren/Fourons, between Maastricht and Liège, the likelier place, his feast day is November 3. Saint Hubertus was born about the year 656, he was the eldest son of Duke of Aquitaine. As a youth, Hubert was sent to the Neustrian court of Theuderic III at Paris, where his charm and agreeable address led to his investment with the dignity of "count of the palace". Like many nobles of the time, Hubert was addicted to the chase.
Meanwhile, the tyrannical conduct of Ebroin, mayor of the Neustrian palace, caused a general emigration of the nobles and others to the court of Austrasia at Metz. Hubert soon followed them and was warmly welcomed by Pepin of Herstal, mayor of the palace, who created him immediately grand-master of the household. About this time Hubert married daughter of Dagobert, Count of Leuven, their son Floribert of Liège would become bishop of Liège, for bishoprics were all but accounted fiefs heritable in the great families of the Merovingian kingdoms. He nearly died at the age of 10 from "fever", his wife died giving birth to their son and Hubert retreated from the court, withdrew into the forested Ardennes, gave himself up to hunting. However, a great spiritual revolution was imminent. On Good Friday morning, when the faithful were crowding the churches, Hubert sallied forth to the chase; as he was pursuing a magnificent stag or hart, the animal turned and, as the pious legend narrates, he was astounded at perceiving a crucifix standing between its antlers, while he heard a voice saying: "Hubert, unless thou turnest to the Lord, leadest an holy life, thou shalt go down into hell".
Hubert dismounted, prostrated himself and said, "Lord, what wouldst Thou have me do?" He received the answer, "Go and seek Lambert, he will instruct you." The story of the hart appears first in one of the legendary hagiographies and has been appropriated from the legend of Saint Eustace or Placidus. It was first attributed to St. Hubert in the 15th century. Saint Hubertus is honored among sport-hunters as the originator of ethical hunting behavior. During Hubert's religious vision, the Hirsch is said to have lectured Hubertus into holding animals in higher regard and having compassion for them as God's creatures with a value in their own right. For example, the hunter ought to only shoot when a humane and quick kill is assured, he ought shoot only old stags past their prime breeding years and to relinquish a much anticipated shot on a trophy to instead euthanize a sick or injured animal that might appear on the scene. Further, one ought never shoot a female with young in tow to assure the young deer have a mother to guide them to food during the winter.
Such is the legacy of Hubert who still today is taught and held in high regard in the extensive and rigorous German and Austrian hunter education courses. The legacy is followed by the French chasse à courre masters and followers, who hunt deer and roe on horseback and are the last direct heirs of Saint Hubert in Europe. Chasse à courre is enjoying a revival in France; the Hunts apply a specific set of ethics, rituals and tactics dating back to the early Middle-Ages. Saint Hubert is venerated every year by the Hunts in formal ceremonies. Be that as it may, Hubert set out for Maastricht, for there Lambert was bishop. Saint Lambert received Hubert kindly, became his spiritual director. Hubert now renounced all his considerable honors, gave up his birthright to the Aquitaine to his younger brother, whom he made guardian of his infant son, Floribert. Having distributed all his personal wealth among the poor, he studied for the priesthood, was soon ordained, shortly afterwards became one of St. Lambert's chief associates in the administration of his diocese.
By the advice of St. Lambert, Hubert made a pilgrimage to Rome in 708, but during his absence, Lambert was assassinated by the followers of Pepin. According to the hagiographies of Hubert, this act was revealed to the pope in a vision, together with an injunction to appoint Hubert bishop of Maastricht, he distributed his episcopal revenues among the poor, was diligent in fasting and prayer, became famous for his eloquence in the pulpit. In 720, in obedience to a vision, Hubert translated St. Lambert's remains from Maastricht to Liège with great pomp and ceremonial, several neighboring bishops assisting. A basilica for the relics was built upon the site of Lambert's martyrdom, was made a cathedral the following year, the see being removed from Maastricht to Liège only a small village; this laid the foundation of the future greatness of Liège, of which Saint Lambert is honored as patron, Saint Hubert as founder and first bishop. Hubert evangelised among the pagans in the extensive Ardennes forests and in Toxandria, a district stretching from near Tongeren
An altar server is a lay assistant to a member of the clergy during a Christian liturgy. An altar server attends to supporting tasks at the altar such as fetching and carrying, ringing the altar bell, among other things. A young male altar server is called an altar boy, whereas a young female altar server is called an altar girl. While the function of altar server is associated with children, it can be and is carried out by people of any age or dignity."Mass should not be celebrated without a minister, or at least one of the faithful, except for a just and reasonable cause." As in other churches, altar servers are sometimes called acolytes in the Latin Church. Pope Benedict XVI spoke of Saint Tarcisius as "presumably an acolyte, that is, an altar server". However, within the Latin Church, the term "acolyte" is used in a more restricted sense specified as "instituted acolyte", to mean an adult man who has received the instituted ministry of that name. Acolytes in this narrower sense are not preparing for ordination as deacons and priests.
They are authorized to carry out some functions, in particular that of cleansing the Eucharistic vessels, that are not entrusted to ordinary servers. Those who are to be ordained to the diaconate must be instituted as acolytes at least six months previously; this ministry was long classified in the Latin Church as a minor order, as by the Council of Trent. The General Instruction of the Roman Missal, which does not use the term "server" and instead speaks of altar servers generically among "other ministers", treats in detail of the functions of the "acolyte" specifying "instituted acolyte"; the 1983 Code of Canon Law altered the juridical situation: without distinguishing between male and female, it declared: "Lay persons can fulfill the function of lector in liturgical actions by temporary designation. All lay persons can perform the functions of commentator or cantor, or other functions, according to the norm of law." On 30 June 1992, the Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts issued an authentic interpretation of that canon declaring that service of the altar is one the "other functions" open to lay persons in general, without distinguishing between male and female.
In reference to this authentic interpretation, the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments sent on 15 March 1994 a circular letter to presidents of episcopal conferences, clarifying that the canon in question is only of permissive character. It does not require the use of female altar servers, it is thus for each diocesan bishop to decide whether to allow them in his diocese.. A document, from 2001, states that if a bishop permits female altar servers, the priest in charge of a church in that diocese is not obliged to recruit them, since nobody, male or female, has a right to become an altar server; the document states that "it will always be appropriate to follow the noble tradition of having boys serve at the altar". As priests in charge of churches are not obliged to avail of a diocesan bishop's permission in this matter, those belonging to traditionalist Catholic groups such as the FSSP and the Institute of Christ the King and some other priests do not. In the absence of instituted acolytes, some of their functions at Mass may be carried out by altar servers.
Servers hold liturgical books for the priest when he is not at the altar and is proclaiming the presidential prayers with outstretched hands. They bring and hold such things as books, the lavabo water and towel, vessels to hold the consecrated bread, microphones. Entrance: The entrance procession is led by a thurifer with burning incense and a cross-bearer carrying a processional cross, flanked on either side by another server bearing a lighted candle. Proclamation of the Gospel: If incense is used, a server presents to the priest at the Alleluia or other pre-Gospel chant the thurible and the incense that he puts in the thurible and blesses, servers, who may carry the thurible and lighted candles, precede to the ambo the deacon or priest who there proclaims the Gospel. Preparation of the Gifts: One or more servers assist in arranging on the altar the corporal, the purificator, the chalice, the pall, the Missal, leaving it to the deacon to take care of the sacred vessels. If, as is appropriate, the bread and wine for the Mass are presented by the faithful, servers assist the priest or deacon who receives these and other gifts and carry the bread and wine to the priest, placing other gifts in a place distinct from the altar.
They present the cruets of water for the priest or deacon to pour some into the chalice. If incense is used, a server presents the thurible and incense to the priest, who incenses the offerings, the cross and the altar, after which the deacon or a server incenses the priest and the people; when the priest washes his hands standing at the side of the altar, a server pours the water over them. Consecration: An altar server rings a bell shortly before the consecration at the epiclesis. In accordance with local custom, a server rings the bell when, after the consecrations of the bread and wine, the priest shows the Host and the Chalice. If incense is used, a server incenses the consecrated host and the chalice while these are being shown to the people. Sign of Peace: The priest or deacon may give the sign of peace to servers, while remaining within the sanctuary. Distribution of Holy Communion: In some places it is customary for servers to assist at the distribution of Holy Communion by
Maundy Thursday is the Christian holy day falling on the Thursday before Easter. It commemorates the foot washing and Last Supper of Jesus Christ with the Apostles, as described in the canonical gospels, it is the fifth day of Holy Week, followed by Good Friday. The name comes from the Latin word mandatum, "commandment", which comes from Jesus' words "I give you a new commandment"; the date is always between March 19 and April 22 inclusive, but these dates fall on different days depending on whether the Gregorian calendar or Julian calendar is used liturgically. Eastern churches use the Julian calendar and celebrate this feast throughout the 21st century between April 1 and May 5 in the more used Gregorian calendar; the liturgy held on the evening of Maundy Thursday initiates the Easter Triduum, the period which commemorates the passion and resurrection of Jesus. The Mass of the Lord's Supper or service of worship is celebrated in the evening, when Friday begins according to Jewish tradition, as the Last Supper was held on the feast of Passover, according to the three Synoptic Gospels.
Use of the names "Maundy Thursday", "Holy Thursday", others is not evenly distributed. What is the accepted name for the day varies according to geographical area and religious affiliation. Thus, although in England "Maundy Thursday" is the normal term, the term is less used in Ireland, Scotland or Canada. People may use one term in a religious context and another in the context of the civil calendar of the country in which they live; the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England, the mother Church of the Anglican Communion, uses the name "Maundy Thursday" for this observance. The corresponding publication of the US Episcopal Church, another province of the Anglican Communion refers to the Thursday before Easter as "Maundy Thursday". Throughout the Anglican Communion, the term "Holy Thursday" is a synonym for Ascension Day; as of 2017, the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church uses the name "Holy Thursday" in its official English-language liturgical books. The personal ordinariates in the Catholic Church, which have an Anglican patrimony, retain the traditional English term "Maundy Thursday", however.
An article in the 1911 Catholic Encyclopedia used the term "Maundy Thursday", some Catholic writers use the same term either or alternatively. The Methodist Book of Worship for Church and Home uses the term "Maundy Thursday". Both names are used by other Christian denominations as well, including the Lutheran Church or portions of the Reformed Church; the Presbyterian Church uses the term "Maundy Thursday" to refer to the holy day in its official sources. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the name for the holy day is, in the Byzantine Rite, "Great and Holy Thursday" or "Holy Thursday", in Western Rite Orthodoxy "Maundy Thursday", "Holy Thursday" or both; the Coptic Orthodox Church uses the term "Covenant Thursday" or "Thursday of the Covenant". In the Maronite Church and the Syriac Orthodox Church, the name is "Thursday of Mysteries". "Maundy Thursday" is the official name of the day in the civil legislation of England and the Philippines. The day has been known in English as Shere Thursday, from the word shere.
This name might refer to the act of cleaning, or to the fact that churches would switch liturgical colors from the dark tones of Lent, or because it was customary to shear the beard on that day, or for a combination of reasons. This name has cognates throughout Scandinavia, such as Danish Skærtorsdag, Swedish Skärtorsdag, Norwegian Skjærtorsdag, Faroese Skírhósdagur and Skírisdagur, Icelandic Skírdagur. Maundy is the name of the Christian rite of footwashing, which traditionally occurs during Maundy Thursday church services. Most scholars agree that the English word maundy in that name for the day is derived through Middle English and Old French mandé, from the Latin mandatum, the first word of the phrase "Mandatum novum do vobis ut diligatis invicem sicut dilexi vos" This statement by Jesus in the Gospel of John 13:34 by which Jesus explained to the Apostles the significance of his action of washing their feet; the phrase is used as the antiphon sung in the Roman Rite during the Maundy ceremony of the washing of the feet, which may be held during Mass or as a separate event, during which a priest or bishop ceremonially washes the feet of others 12 persons chosen as a cross-section of the community.
In 2016, it was announced that the Roman Missal had been revised to allow women to participate as part of the 12 in the Mandatum. Others theorize that the English name "Maundy Thursday" arose from "maundsor baskets" or "maundy purses" of alms which the king of England distributed to certain poor at Whitehall before attending Mass on that day. Thus, "maund" is connected to the Latin mendicare, French mendier, to beg. A source from the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod states that, if the name was derived from the Latin mandatum, we would call the day Mandy Thursday, or Mandate Thursday, or Mandatum Thursday.
Lent is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends six weeks before Easter Sunday. The purpose of Lent is the preparation of the believer for Easter through prayer, doing penance, mortifying the flesh, repentance of sins and denial of ego; this event is observed in the Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, Methodist, Oriental Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches. Some Anabaptist and evangelical churches observe the Lenten season; the last week of Lent is Holy Week, starting with Palm Sunday. Following the New Testament story, Jesus' crucifixion is commemorated on Good Friday, at the beginning of the next week the joyful celebration of Easter Sunday recalls the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. In Lent, many Christians commit to fasting, as well as giving up certain luxuries in order to replicate the account of the sacrifice of Jesus Christ's journey into the desert for 40 days. Many Christians add a Lenten spiritual discipline, such as reading a daily devotional or praying through a Lenten calendar, to draw themselves near to God.
The Stations of the Cross, a devotional commemoration of Christ's carrying the Cross and of his execution, are observed. Many Roman Catholic and some Protestant churches remove flowers from their altars, while crucifixes, religious statues, other elaborate religious symbols are veiled in violet fabrics in solemn observance of the event. Throughout Christendom, some adherents mark the season with the traditional abstention from the consumption of meat, most notably among Lutherans, Roman Catholics and Anglicans. Lent is traditionally described as lasting for 40 days, in commemoration of the 40 days Jesus spent fasting in the desert, according to the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, before beginning his public ministry, during which he endured temptation by Satan. Depending on the Christian denomination and local custom, Lent ends either on the evening of Maundy Thursday, or at sundown on Holy Saturday, when the Easter Vigil is celebrated. Regardless, Lenten practices are properly maintained until the evening of Holy Saturday.
The English word Lent is a shortened form of the Old English word lencten, meaning "spring season", as its Dutch language cognate lente still does today. A dated term in German, Lenz, is related. According to the Oxford English Dictionary,'the shorter form seems to be a derivative of *laŋgo- long... and may have reference to the lengthening of the days as characterizing the season of spring'. The origin of the -en element is less clear: it may be a suffix, or lencten may have been a compound of *laŋgo-'long' and an otherwise little-attested word *-tino, meaning'day'. In languages spoken where Christianity was earlier established, such as Greek and Latin, the term signifies the period dating from the 40th day before Easter. In modern Greek the term is Σαρακοστή, derived from the earlier Τεσσαρακοστή, meaning "fortieth"; the corresponding word in Latin, quadragesima, is the origin of the term used in Latin-derived languages and in some others: for example, Croatian korizma, French carême, Irish carghas, Italian quaresima, Portuguese quaresma, Albanian kreshma, Romanian păresimi, Spanish cuaresma, Basque garizuma, Galician coresma, Welsh crawys.
In other languages, the name used refers to the activity associated with the season. Thus it is called "fasting period" in Czech and Norwegian, it is called "great fast" in Polish and Russian; the terms used in Filipino are Mahál na Araw. Various Christian denominations calculate the 40 days of Lent differently; the way they observe Lent differs. In the Roman Rite since 1970, Lent finishes on Holy Thursday Evening; this comprises a period of 44 days. The Lenten fast excludes Sundays and continues through Good Friday and Holy Saturday, totaling 40 days. In the Ambrosian Rite, Lent begins on the Sunday that follows what is celebrated as Ash Wednesday in the rest of the Latin Catholic Church, ends as in the Roman Rite, thus being of 40 days, counting the Sundays but not Holy Thursday; the day for beginning the Lenten fast is the first weekday in Lent. The special Ash Wednesday fast is transferred to the first Friday of the Ambrosian Lent; until this rite was revised by Saint Charles Borromeo the liturgy of the First Sunday of Lent was festive, celebrated in white vestments with chanting of the Gloria in Excelsis and Alleluia, in line with the recommendation in Matthew 6:16, "When you fast, do not look gloomy".
The period of Lent observed in the Eastern Catholic Churches corresponds to that in other churches of Eastern Christianity that have similar traditions. In Protestant and Western Orthodox Churches, the season of Lent lasts from Ash Wednesday to the evening of Holy Saturday; this calculation makes Lent last 46 days if the 6 Sundays are included, but only 40 days if they are excluded. This definition is still that of the Anglican Church, Lutheran Church, Methodist Church, Western Rite Orthodox Church. In the Byzantine Rite, i.e. the Eastern Orthodox Great Lent is the most important fasting season in the church year. The 40 days of Great Lent includes Sundays, begins on Clean Monday and are immediatel
The Byzantine Rite known as the Greek Rite or Constantinopolitan Rite, is the liturgical rite used by the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Greek/Byzantine Catholic churches, in a modified form, Byzantine Rite Lutheranism. Its development began during the fourth century in Constantinople and it is now the second most-used ecclesiastical rite in Christendom after the Roman Rite; the Byzantine Rite was developed and used in Greek language and with introduction of Eastern Orthodoxy to other ethnic groups it was translated into local languages and continued further development. Most important non-Greek variants of Byzantine Rite are: Byzantine-Slavonic and Byzantine-Georgian; the rite consists of the divine liturgies, canonical hours, forms for the administration of sacred mysteries and the numerous prayers and exorcisms developed by the Church of Constantinople. Involved are the specifics of church architecture, liturgical music and traditions which have evolved over the centuries in the Eastern Orthodox Church and which are associated with this rite.
Traditionally, the congregation stands throughout the whole service, an iconostasis separates the sanctuary from the nave of the church. The faithful are active in their worship, making frequent bows and prostrations, feeling free to move about the temple during the services. Traditionally, the major clergy and monks neither shave nor cut their hair or beards. Scripture plays a large role in Byzantine worship, with not only daily readings but many quotes from the Bible throughout the services; the entire psalter is read each week, twice weekly during Great Lent. Fasting is stricter than in the Roman Rite. On fast days, the faithful give up not only meat, but dairy products, on many fast days they give up fish and the use of oil in cooking; the rite observes four fasting seasons: Great Lent, Nativity Fast, Apostles' Fast and Dormition Fast. In addition, most Wednesdays and Fridays throughout the year are fast days and many monasteries observe Monday as a fast day. There are two ancient liturgical traditions from which all of the Eastern Rites developed: the Alexandrian Rite in Egypt and the Antiochene Rite in Syria.
These two Rites developed directly from practices of the Early Church. Of these two traditions, the Rite of Constantinople developed from the Antiochene Rite. Prior to the see of Constantinople's elevation to the dignity of patriarch by the Second Ecumenical Council in 381, the primary jurisdiction in Asia Minor was the Patriarchate of Antioch. With the council's elevation of Constantinople to primacy in the East, with the words "The Bishop of Constantinople... shall have the prerogative of honour after the Bishop of Rome. Because the Rite of Constantinople evolved as a synthesis of two distinct rites — cathedral rite of Constantinople called the "asmatiki akolouthia" and the monastic typicon of the Holy Lavra of Saint Sabbas the Sanctified near Jerusalem — its offices are developed and quite complex. Further developments continued to occur, centered around Constantinople and Mount Athos. Monasticism played an important role in the development of the rituals. In Constantinople, the work of the monastery of the Studion enriched the liturgical traditions with regard to the Lenten observance.
Iconography continued to develop and a canon of traditional patterns evolved which still influences Eastern religious art to this day. Historical events have influenced the development of the liturgy; the great Christological and Trinitarian controversies of Late Antiquity are reflected in the glorifications of the Trinity heard in the numerous ekphonies encountered during the services. In response to Nestorius' attack on giving the title of Theotokos to the Virgin Mary, the Byzantines increased the use of the term in the liturgy, now every string of hymns ends with one in her honour, called a theotokion. All liturgical rites develop over time; as new saints are canonized, new hymns are composed. The rite profits from the fact that the Christian East is not so centralized in ecclesiastical polity as the West; this allows for greater diversity, as members of one church visit another, a natural cross-pollination occurs with resultant enrichment on all sides. In spite of its great emphasis on tradition, the Byzantine Rite comprises a growing and expanding ritual, with room for local practice.
The tradition of the Church of Constantinople ascribes the older of its two main Divine Liturgies to St. Basil the Great, Metropolitan of Cæsarea in Cappadocia; this tradition is confirmed by the witness of several ancient authors, some of whom were contemporaries. It is certain that St. Basil made a reformation of the Liturgy of his Church, that the Byzantine service called after him represents his reformed Liturgy in its chief parts, although it has undergone further modification since his time. St. Basil himself speaks on several occasions of the changes he made in the services of Cæsarea. and other contemporary witnesses attest his arrangement of the services. Basil had as his goal the streamlining of the services to make them more cohesive and attractive to the faithful, he worked to reform the clergy and improve the moral life of Christians. He wrote a number of new prayers; the most important work attributed to him is the Divine Liturgy of St. Basil, he took as his basis the Liturgy of St. James as it was celebrated at his time in the r
A paten, or diskos, is a small plate made of silver or gold, used to hold Eucharistic bread, to be consecrated during the Mass. It is used during the liturgy itself, while the reserved sacrament are stored in the tabernacle in a ciborium. In many Western liturgical denominations, the paten is either a simple saucer-like plate or a low bowl. A smaller style paten will have a depression that allows it to securely sit on top of the chalice, as shown in the illustration on the left here; the General Instruction of the Roman Missal lays down rules for patens: "Sacred vessels should be made from precious metal. If they are made from metal that rusts or from a metal less precious than gold, they should be gilded on the inside." However, provisions for vessels made from non-precious metals are made as well, provided they are "made from other solid materials which in the common estimation in each region are considered precious or noble."The communion-plate is by some called a paten. The English translation of the General Instruction of the Roman Missal approved by the English-speaking episcopal conferences and confirmed by the Holy See uses "communion-plate", not "paten", to speak of this object, which in the official Latin liturgical norms is called a patina, while a paten is called a patena.
Patens are used among Anglicans and Lutherans. In the United Methodist Church, during the Order for the Ordination of Elders, each elder receives a stole, along with a chalice and paten, from the bishop after the part of the liturgy in which the bishop lays his hands and prays over the ministerial candidates; this is because the newly ordained elders are now able to celebrate the Sacraments, such as Holy Communion. In the Methodist service of the Holy Communion, the bread is placed upon a paten during the offertory and once again after it consecrated following the fraction; the paten, along with the claice, lays on the altar during the celebration of the Holy Eucharist. In the Byzantine Rite Orthodox and Byzantine Rite Catholic Churches, the paten is called a diskos and is elevated by a stand permanently attached underneath; the diskos is more ornate than its Latin Rite counterpart, must always be made of gold or at least be gold-plated. The diskos may be engraved with an icon of Jesus Christ, the Nativity of Christ, the Cross, or most the Theotokos.
When a diskos is made, it is accompanied by a matching asterisk, a spoon, a spear. For Christians of Eastern church families, the diskos symbolises the Ever-virgin Mary, who received God the Word into her womb and gave birth to him, as well as the Tomb of Christ, which received his body after the Crucifixion and from which he resurrected. During the Divine Liturgy it is not only the Lamb, placed on the diskos, but particles to commemorate the Theotokos, the Saints, the living and the departed. Thus, on the diskos is represented the entire Church: the Church Militant and the Church Triumphant, arrayed around Christ. At the Great Entrance the deacon carries the Diskos, he kneels at the side of the Holy Table, the priest takes the diskos from him and places it on the Antimension. During the Anaphora, only the Lamb is consecrated. At Holy Communion, the clergy partake of their portions of the Lamb directly from the diskos, but for the Communion of the faithful, the remainder of the Lamb is cut into small portions and placed in the chalice, from which the priest distributes Communion using the spoon.
After Communion, the Deacon holds the diskos above the holy chalice and recites hymns of the Resurrection. He wipes the remaining particles into the chalices saying the words: "Wash away, O Lord, the sins of all those here commemorated, by Thy precious Blood, through the prayers of all Thy saints." Sometimes, when a bishop celebrates the Liturgy, a smaller diskos is prepared for him with a small prosphoron from which he takes particles to commemorate the living and the departed before the Great Entrance. During the Consecration of a Church, a diskos is used to hold the relics of the saints which will be sealed in the Holy Table and antimension by the bishop; when a priest is ordained, a portion of the Lamb will be placed on a small diskos and given to him, as a sign of the Sacred Mysteries which are being entrusted to his care. In the Russian tradition, there is a special liturgy of blessing used to sanctify a diskos before its first use at Liturgy; the diskos may be blessed together in a set with the other sacred vessels.
The blessing is done before beginning of the Liturgy of Preparation, after which the priest carries the diskos into the sanctuary and begins the liturgy, using the newly blessed vessel in that Liturgy. Up until the first time a diskos is used in the Divine Liturgy it is considered to be an ordinary vessel, may be touched by anyone. However, after having been used in the Divine Liturgy, a diskos may be touched only by a deacon, priest or bishop. A subdeacon may touch the sacred vessels, but only; when not in use, the chalice and all the sacred vessels should remain on the Table of Oblation, wrapped in their cloth bags—either sitting on top and covered with a cloth, or stored securely in a cabinet built into the prothesis. In the usage of the Alexandrian Rite, the diskos has a flat bottom with no foot. Additionally, it has a raised edge, forming a high rim, preventing particles of the offer
The Eucharist is a Christian rite, considered a sacrament in most churches, as an ordinance in others. According to the New Testament, the rite was instituted by Jesus Christ during the Last Supper. Through the Eucharistic celebration Christians remember both Christ's sacrifice of himself on the cross and his commission of the apostles at the Last Supper; the elements of the Eucharist, sacramental bread and sacramental wine, are consecrated on an altar and consumed thereafter. Communicants, those who consume the elements, may speak of "receiving the Eucharist", as well as "celebrating the Eucharist". Christians recognize a special presence of Christ in this rite, though they differ about how and when Christ is present. While all agree that there is no perceptible change in the elements, Roman Catholics believe that their substances become the body and blood of Christ. Lutherans believe the true body and blood of Christ are present "in, under" the forms of the bread and wine. Reformed Christians believe in a real spiritual presence of Christ in the Eucharist.
Others, such as the Plymouth Brethren and the Christadelphians, take the act to be only a symbolic reenactment of the Last Supper and a memorial. In spite of differences among Christians about various aspects of the Eucharist, there is, according to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "more of a consensus among Christians about the meaning of the Eucharist than would appear from the confessional debates over the sacramental presence, the effects of the Eucharist, the proper auspices under which it may be celebrated"; the Greek noun εὐχαριστία, meaning "thanksgiving", appears fifteen times in the New Testament but is not used as an official name for the rite. Do this in remembrance of me"; the term "Eucharist" is that by which the rite is referred to by the Didache, Ignatius of Antioch and Justin Martyr. Today, "the Eucharist" is the name still used by Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholics, Anglicans and Lutherans. Other Protestant or Evangelical denominations use this term, preferring either "Communion", "the Lord's Supper", "Memorial", "Remembrance", or "the Breaking of Bread".
Latter-day Saints call it "Sacrament". The Lord's Supper, in Greek Κυριακὸν δεῖπνον, was in use in the early 50s of the 1st century, as witnessed by the First Epistle to the Corinthians: When you come together, it is not the Lord's Supper you eat, for as you eat, each of you goes ahead without waiting for anybody else. One remains hungry, another gets drunk; those who use the term "Eucharist" use the expression "the Lord's Supper", but it is the predominant term among Evangelical and Pentecostal churches, who avoid using the term "Communion". They refer to the observance as an "ordinance"; those Protestant churches avoid the term "sacrament".'Holy Communion' are used by some groups originating in the Protestant Reformation to mean the entire Eucharistic rite. Others, such as the Catholic Church, do not use this term for the rite, but instead mean by it the act of partaking of the consecrated elements; the term "Communion" is derived from Latin communio, which translates Greek κοινωνία in 1 Corinthians 10:16: The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ?
The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? The phrase appears in various related forms five times in the New Testament in contexts which, according to some, may refer to the celebration of the Eucharist, in either closer or symbolically more distant reference to the Last Supper, it is the term used by the Plymouth Brethren. The "Blessed Sacrament" and the "Blessed Sacrament of the Altar" are common terms used by Catholics and some Anglicans for the consecrated elements when reserved in a tabernacle. "Sacrament of the Altar" is in common use among Lutherans. In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints the term "The Sacrament" is used of the rite. Mass is used in the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the Lutheran Churches, by many Anglicans, in some other forms of Western Christianity. At least in the Catholic Church, the Mass is a longer rite which always consists of two main parts: the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist, in that order; the Liturgy of the Word consists of readings from scripture (the