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Antiemetic

An antiemetic is a drug, effective against vomiting and nausea. Antiemetics are used to treat motion sickness and the side effects of opioid analgesics, general anaesthetics, chemotherapy directed against cancer, they may be used for severe cases of gastroenteritis if the patient is dehydrated. Some antiemetics thought to cause birth defects, appear safe for use by pregnant women in the treatment of morning sickness and the more serious hyperemesis gravidarum. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists block serotonin receptors in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. As such, they can be used to treat vomiting. However, they can cause constipation or diarrhea, dry mouth, fatigue. Dolasetron can be administered in an injection. Granisetron can be administered in tablet, oral solution, injection D, or in a single transdermal patch to the upper arm. Ondansetron is administered in an oral tablet form, orally dissolving tablet form, orally dissolving film, sublingual, or in an IV/IM injection. Tropisetron can be administered in injection form.

Palonosetron can be administered in oral capsules. Dopamine antagonists act on the brainstem and are used to treat nausea and vomiting associated with cancer, radiation sickness, cytotoxic drugs and general anaesthetics. Side effects include muscle restlessness. Amisulpride, administered by intravenous injection. Domperidone Olanzapine Haloperidol Alizapride Prochlorperazine Chlorpromazine Metoclopramide NK1 receptor antagonist Aprepitant is a commercially available NK1 Receptor antagonist Casopitant is an investigational NK1 receptor antagonist Rolapitant another approved drug from this class Antihistamines are effective in many conditions, including motion sickness, morning sickness in pregnancy, to combat opioid nausea. H1 receptors in central areas include area vomiting center in the vestibular nucleus. Many of the antihistamines have anticholinergic properties that block muscarinic receptors at the same sites. Cinnarizine Cyclizine Diphenhydramine Dimenhydrinate Doxylamine Mirtazapine is an antidepressant that has antiemetic effects it is a potent histamine H1 receptor antagonist, Ki=1.6 nM.

Meclizine Promethazine can be administered via a rectal suppository, intravenous injection, oral tablet or oral suspension for adults and children over 2 years of age. Hydroxyzine Cannabinoids are used in patients with cachexia, cytotoxic nausea, vomiting, or who are unresponsive to other agents; these may cause changes in perception and loss of coordination. Cannabis known as medical marijuana in the United States, is a Schedule I drug. Dronabinol is a Schedule II drug in the U. S; some synthetic cannabinoids such as Nabilone or the JWH series. Sativex is an oral spray containing THC and CBD, it is legal in Canada and a few countries in Europe & the US as of June 25, 2018. Benzodiazepines Midazolam is given at the onset of anesthesia and has been shown in recent trials to be as effective as ondansetron, but most effective when used in combination with ondansetron. Lorazepam is said to be good as an adjunct treatment for nausea along with first line medications such as Compazine. Anticholinergics Hyoscine Atropine Diphenhydramine Steroids Dexamethasone is given in low dose at the onset of a general anesthetic as an effective antiemetic.

It is used in chemotherapy as a single drug as well as with other antiemetics such as 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and NK1 receptor antagonist, but the specific mechanism of action is not understood. Other Trimethobenzamide is thought to work on the CTZ Ginger contains 5-HT3 antagonists gingerols and galanolactone. Preliminary clinical data suggests ginger may be effective for treatment of nausea and/or vomiting in a number of settings. Emetrol is claimed to be an effective antiemetic. Propofol is given intravenously, it has been used in an acute care setting in hospital as a rescue therapy for emesis. Peppermint is claimed to help stomach pain when added into a tea or peppermint candies. Muscimol is purported to have antiemetic activity. Ajwain is purported to be antiemetic, it is a popular spice in India and Eritrea. Cancer and nausea Emetic – substances that induce nausea and vomiting

Henry Vesey-FitzGerald, 3rd Baron FitzGerald and Vesey

Henry Vesey-FitzGerald, 3rd Baron FitzGerald and Vesey was an Irish Dean in the middle of the 19th century. Vesey-FitzGerald was born on 19 December 1786, the youngest son of James Fitzgerald and Catherine Vesey, created Baroness FitzGerald and Vesey in 1826, he was educated at Dublin. He held incumbencies at Castlerahan, County Cavan and Ballintemple, Cork, he was Dean of Emly from 1818, until 1825 when he became Dean of Kilmore, a position he held until his death on 30 March 1860 at Danesfort, County Cavan. He succeeded to the barony of Vesey in 1843 following the death of his brother.

Catherine Bagration

Princess Catherine Bagration née Skavronskaya was a Russian princess, married to general Pyotr Bagration. She was known for love affairs and unconventional behaviour, she was the daughter of Count Pavel Martinovich Skavronsky, Chamberlain of the Royal Court and Minister Plenipotentiary to Naples, well known for his mental imbalance and extraordinary love of music, Yekaterina von Engelhardt, niece and at the same time favorite of Prince Grigory Potemkin. She was educated at the court of the Empress Catherine II the Great and the Empress Maria Feodorovna, wife of her son Emperor Paul I. In 1800 the Paul I of Russia, well known for his caprices, found out that General Pyotr Bagration, a Prince of the Bagrationi dynasty, was secretly in love with Catherine; the Emperor used to marry members of his court off to each other, one day at the Palace of Gatchina he announced that it was his intention to attend the marriage of General Bagration and Countess Catherine Skavronskaya. The Countess was said to be in love with Count Peter von der Pahlen, the prospective groom was shocked.

Nobody however dared to argue with the monarch, the wedding took place on 2 September in the chapel of the Gatchina Palace, near St. Petersburg; this is what General Louis Alexandre Andrault de Langéron had to say about this union: "Bagration married the young niece of the great Prince Potemkin. This rich and lustrous partner did not suit him. Bagration was a mere soldier, with the tone and manners of one, he was ugly, his wife was as white as he was black, she was as beautiful as an angel, the liveliest of the beauties of St. Petersburg. In the year 1805 the Princess broke up with her husband and went to Europe; the couple had no children. She traveled so extensively that she had a special carriage made, with an elegant ladder that allowed her to climb in and out of it comfortably, it had a bed inside, all the luggage was placed on the outside. She called her carriage her dormez or'sleeper'. Prince Bagration called her back to Russia a number of times, sent her so many letters that her friends tried to persuade her to go.

In Europe Princess Bagration was a great success, became well known in court circles. She became notorious everywhere and was called le Bel Ange Nu because of her passion for revealing dresses, Chatte Blanche, because of her unlimited sensuality. Lord Palmerston noted in his memoirs that the Princess only wore translucent Indian muslin, which adhered to her figure. From her mother, she had inherited an angelic face, alabaster white skin, blue eyes, a cascade of golden hair; when she was thirty it was said she still had the skin of a fifteen-year-old. Her husband the Prince, refused to hear a word said against her, insisting that the affairs of his household were his business alone, her huge expenditure on receptions and clothes belied her claims of sickness, but he remained a generous husband and continued to pay her bills. The Prince remonstrated with the Princess's mother, who had started to get irritated by her daughter's extravagance. In 1808, a military Order was awarded to the wives of those generals who had distinguished themselves in the recent war.

Princess Bagration was bypassed, the pride of her husband was wounded. He argued that Ekaterina bore his name, and, enough: "She should be rewarded, because she's my wife...". The Prince paid thousands of roubles for debts Princess Catherine had accumulated from living in Vienna. There were rumors about her connection with the Saxon diplomat Count Friedrich von der Schulenberg, a Prince of Württemberg, Lord Charles Stewart and others. Goethe met her in Karlsbad, admired her beauty; the Prince soon died in the Battle of Saalfeld, the princess returned once more to Vienna. She became the mistress of the influential Prince Klemens von Metternich and had a daughter by him in Vienna on 29 September 1810, whom she named Marie-Clementine after the father, who acknowledged his paternity; the daughter lived with the Metternich family from 1814 until getting married. Princess Catherine was an emancipated lady for her age, played like a man, choosing for herself which man to take as lovers, which as just friends.

After travelling for many years between one European capital and another, she settled in Vienna. Based there the Princess made her home into one of the most brilliant salons of society, a distinctly pro-Russian, anti-Napoleonic salon; the Princess set up a covert diplomatic post without any official authorization. Her salon was filled with the rich and famous, she corresponded with him and Bulgakov. She boasted. Under her influence, Austrian high society began to boycott the French Embassy. Napoléon found her to be a serious political opponent; as a result of her closeness to Prince von Metternich, she was able to persuade him to let Austria join the anti-Napoleonic coalition. Prince Bagration, despite his age, continued to fight for Russia in the Napoleonic War. At