Mathura is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is located 50 kilometres north of Agra, 145 kilometres south-east of Delhi, it is the administrative centre of Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh. In ancient times, Mathura was an economic hub, located at the junction of important caravan routes; the 2011 Census of India estimated the population of Mathura at 441,894. In Hinduism, Mathura is believed to be the birthplace of Krishna, located at the Krishna Janmasthan Temple Complex, it is one of the Sapta Puri, the seven cities considered holy by Hindus. The Kesava Deo Temple was built in ancient times on the site of Krishna's birthplace. Mathura was the capital of the kingdom of Surasena, ruled by the maternal uncle of Krishna. Mathura has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for the Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India. Mathura has an ancient history and believed to be the homeland and birthplace of Krishna, born in Yadu dynasty. According to the Archaeological Survey of India plaque at the Mathura Museum, the city is mentioned in the oldest Indian epic, the Ramayana.
In the epic, the Ikshwaku prince Shatrughna slays a demon claims the land. Afterwards, the place came to be known as Madhuvan as it was thickly wooded Madhupura and Mathura. Archaeological excavations at Mathura show the gradual growth of a village into an important city; the earliest period belonged to the Painted Grey Ware culture, followed by the Northern Black Polished Ware culture. Mathura derived its importance as a center of trade due to its location where the northern trade route of the Indo-Gangetic Plain met with the routes to Malwa and the west coast. By the 6th century BCE Mathura became the capital of the Surasena Kingdom; the city was ruled by the Maurya empire. Megasthenes, writing in the early 3rd century BCE, mentions Mathura as a great city under the name Μέθορα, it seems it never was under the direct control of the following Shunga dynasty as not a single archaeological remain of a Shunga presence were found in Mathura. The Indo-Greeks may have taken control, direct or indirect, of Mathura some time between 180 BCE and 100 BCE, remained so as late as 70 BCE according to the Yavanarajya inscription, found in Maghera, a town 17 kilometres from Mathura.
The opening of the 3 line text of this inscription in Brahmi script translates as: "In the 116th year of the Yavana kingdom..." or'"In the 116th year of Yavana hegemony" However, this corresponds to the presence of the native Mitra dynasty of local rulers in Mathura, in the same time frame pointing to a vassalage relationship with the Indo-Greeks. After a period of local rule, Mathura was conquered by the Indo-Scythians during the first 1st century BCE; the Indo-Scythian satraps of Mathura are sometimes called the "Northern Satraps", as opposed to the "Western Satraps" ruling in Gujarat and Malwa. However, Indo-Scythian control proved to be short lived, following the reign of the Indo-Scythian Mahakshatrapa Rajuvula, c. 10–25 CE. The Kushan Empire took control of Mathura some time after Rajuvula, although several of his successors ruled as Kushans vassals, such as the Indo-Scythian "Great Satrap" Kharapallana and the "Satrap" Vanaspara, both of whom paid allegiance to the Kushans in an inscription at Sarnath, dating to the 3rd year of the reign of the Kushan emperor Kanishka c. 130 CE.
Mathuran art and culture reached its zenith under the Kushan dynasty which had Mathura as one of its capitals. The preceding capitals of the Kushans included Kapisa and Takshasila/Sirsukh/. Faxian mentions the city as a centre of Buddhism about 400 CE while his successor Xuanzang, who visited the city in 634 CE, mentions it as Mot'ulo, recording that it contained twenty Buddhist monasteries and five Hindu temples, he went east to Thanesar, Jalandhar in the eastern Punjab, before climbing up to visit predominantly Theravada monasteries in the Kulu valley and turning southward again to Bairat and Mathura, on the Yamuna river. The city was sacked and many of its temples destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1018 CE and again by Sikandar Lodhi, who ruled the Sultanate of Delhi from 1489 to 1517 CE. Sikander Lodhi earned the epithet of'Butt Shikan', the'Destroyer of Hindu deities'; the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, built the Shahi-Eidgah Mosque during his rule, adjacent to Shri Krishna Janmabhoomi believed to be over a Hindu temple.
Mathura is a holy city for the world's third-largest religion. There are many places of religious importance in Mathura and its neighbouring towns; the twin-city to Mathura is Vrindavan. As the home of Krishna in his youth, the small town is host to a multitude of temples belonging to various sects of Hinduism proclaiming Krishna in various forms and avatars; some notable religious sites in and around Mathura are: Keshav Dev Temple Dwarkadheesh temple Mathura Vishram Ghat Krishna Balaram Mandir Prem Mandir, Vrindavan Kusum Sarovar, Govardhan Baldeo Shri Siddh Shani Mandir, Mundesi Lohwan Mata Mandir Shri Ratneshwar Mahadev Gopinath Maharaj Mandir Shri Jagannath Temple Bhuteshwar Mathura Vrindavan Chandrodaya Mandir, Vrindavan Mathura Museum Birla Mandir Madan Mohan Temple, Vrindavan Naam yog Sadhna Mandir Banke Bihari Temple Radha Raman
Euthydemus II was Graeco-Bactrian king. The style and rare nickel alloys of his coins associates him in time with the king Agathocles but their precise relation remains uncertain. Euthydemus is pictured as a boy on his coins and most died young, he was the last Euthydemid ruler of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Seleucid Empire Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press. Catalogue of Coins of Euthydemus II
The Indo-Greek Kingdom or Graeco-Indian Kingdom was a Hellenistic kingdom spanning modern-day Afghanistan and the northwest region of the Indian subcontinent, during the last two centuries BC and was ruled by more than thirty kings conflicting with one another. The kingdom was founded when the Graeco-Bactrian king Demetrius invaded the subcontinent early in the 2nd century BC; the Greeks in the Indian Subcontinent were divided from the Graeco-Bactrians centered in Bactria, the Indo-Greeks in the present-day north-western Indian Subcontinent. The most famous Indo-Greek ruler was Menander, he had his capital at Sakala in the Punjab. The expression "Indo-Greek Kingdom" loosely describes a number of various dynastic polities, traditionally associated with a number of regional capitals like Taxila and Sagala. Other potential centers are only hinted at. During the two centuries of their rule, the Indo-Greek kings combined the Greek and Indian languages and symbols, as seen on their coins, blended Greek and Indian ideas, as seen in the archaeological remains.
The diffusion of Indo-Greek culture had consequences which are still felt today through the influence of Greco-Buddhist art. The ethnicity of the Indo-Greek may have been hybrid to some degree. Euthydemus I was, according to Polybius, a Magnesian Greek, his son, Demetrius I, founder of the Indo-Greek kingdom, was therefore of Greek ethnicity at least by his father. A marriage treaty was arranged for the same Demetrius with a daughter of the Seleucid ruler Antiochus III; the ethnicity of Indo-Greek rulers is sometimes less clear. For example, Artemidoros may have been of Indo-Scythian ascendency. Following the death of Menander, most of his empire splintered and Indo-Greek influence was reduced. Many new kingdoms and republics east of the Ravi River began to mint new coinage depicting military victories; the most prominent entities to form were the Yaudheya Republic and the Audumbaras. The Yaudheyas and Arjunayanas both are said to have won "victory by the sword"; the Datta dynasty and Mitra dynasty soon followed in Mathura.
The Indo-Greeks disappeared as a political entity around 10 AD following the invasions of the Indo-Scythians, although pockets of Greek populations remained for several centuries longer under the subsequent rule of the Indo-Parthians and Kushans. In 326 BC, Alexander the Great conquered the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent as far as the Hyphasis River, established satrapies and founded several settlements, including Bucephala; the Indian satrapies of the Punjab were left to the rule of Porus and Taxiles, who were confirmed again at the Treaty of Triparadisus in 321 BC, remaining Greek troops in these satrapies were left under the command of general Eudemus. After 321 BC Eudemus toppled Taxiles, until he left India in 316 BC. To the south, another general ruled over the Greek colonies of the Indus: Peithon, son of Agenor, until his departure for Babylon in 316 BC. Around 322 BC, the Greeks may have participated, together with other groups, in the armed uprising of Chandragupta Maurya against the Nanda Dynasty, gone as far as Pataliputra for the capture of the city from the Nandas.
The Mudrarakshasa of Visakhadutta as well as the Jaina work Parisishtaparvan talk of Chandragupta's alliance with the Himalayan king Parvatka identified with Porus, according to these accounts, this alliance gave Chandragupta a composite and powerful army made up of Yavanas, Shakas, Kiratas and Bahlikas who took Pataliputra. In 305 BC, Seleucus I led an army to the Indus; the confrontation ended with a peace treaty, "an intermarriage agreement", meaning either a dynastic marriage or an agreement for intermarriage between Indians and Greeks. Accordingly, Seleucus ceded to Chandragupta his northwestern territories as far as Arachosia and received 500 war elephants: The Indians occupy in part some of the countries situated along the Indus, which belonged to the Persians: Alexander deprived the Ariani of them, established there settlements of his own, but Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus in consequence of a marriage contract, received in return five hundred elephants. The details of the marriage agreement are not known, but since the extensive sources available on Seleucus never mention an Indian princess, it is thought that the marital alliance went the other way, with Chandragupta himself or his son Bindusara marrying a Seleucid princess, in accordance with contemporary Greek practices to form dynastic alliances.
An Indian Puranic source, the Pratisarga Parva of the Bhavishya Purana, described the marriage of Chandragupta with a Greek princess, daughter of Seleucus, before detailing early Mauryan genealogy: "Chandragupta married with a daughter of Suluva, the Yavana king of Pausasa. Thus, he mixed the Yavanas, he ruled for 60 years. From him, Vindusara was ruled for the same number of years as his father, his son was Ashoka." Chandragupta, followed
Paropamisadae or Parapamisadae was a satrapy of the Alexandrian Empire in modern Afghanistan and Pakistan, which coincided with the Achaemenid province of Parupraesanna. It consisted of the districts of Sattagydia, Gandhara and Udyana. Paruparaesanna is mentioned in the Akkadian language and Elamite language versions of the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great, whereas in the Old Persian version it is called Gandāra; the entire satrapy was subsequently ceded by Seleucus I Nicator to Chandragupta Maurya following a treaty. Paropamisadae is the Latinized form of the Greek name Paropamisádai, in turn derived from Old Persian Parupraesanna; the latter means "Beyond the Hindu Kush", where the Hindu Kush is referred to as Uparaesanna. In the Greek language and Latin, "Paropamisus" came to mean the Hindu Kush. In many Greek and Latin sources editions of Ptolemy's Geography where their realm is included on the 9th Map of Asia, the names of the people and region are given as Paropanisadae and Paropanisus.
They appeared less as Parapamisadae and Parapamīsus, Paropamīsii, etc. The name was applied to a nearby river the Obi river. Strabo describes the region as follows: The geographical position of the tribes is as follows: along the Indus are the Paropamisadae, above whom lies the Paropamisus mountain. Alexander took these away from the Arians and established settlements of his own, but Seleucus I Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus, upon terms of intermarriage and of receiving in exchange 500 elephants. Alongside the Paropamisadae, on the west, are situated the Arii, along-side the Arachoti and Gedrosii the Drangae, thus the region was north of Arachosia, stretching up to the Hindu Kush and Pamir mountains, bounded in the east by the Indus river. It included the Kabul region and the northern regions such as Swat and Chitral; the nations who composed the Paropamisadae are recorded as the Cabolitae in the north near modern Kabul. The major cities of the land were the city of Ortospana or Carura identifiable with Kabul, Gauzaca modern Ghazni, modern-day Kapisa, Parsia, the capital of the Parsii.
In the ancient Buddhist texts, the Mahajanapada kingdom of Kamboja compassed the territories of Paropamisus and extended to the southwest of Kashmir as far as Rajauri. The region came under Achaemenid Persian control in the late 6th century BC, either during the reign of Cyrus the Great or Darius I. In the 320s BC, Alexander the Great conquered the entire Achaemenid Empire, beginning the Hellenistic period; the Greek name Παροπαμισάδαι or Παροπαμισσός was used extensively in Greek literature to describe the conquests of Alexander and those of the kings of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom and the Indo-Greek Kingdom, from the 3rd to the 1st centuries BC.. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, the area came under control of the Seleucid Empire, which gave the region to the Mauryan Dynasty of India in 305 BC. After the fall of the Mauryans in 185 BC, the Greco-Bactrians under King Demetrius I annexed the northwestern regions of the former Mauryan Empire, including Paropamisus, it became part of his Euthydemid Indo-Greek Kingdom.
The Eucratidians seized the area soon after the death of Menander I, but lost it to the Yuezhi around 125 BC. Indo-Greek kingdom Greco-Bactrian kingdom Eggermont, Pierre Herman Leonard, Alexander's Campaigns in Sind and Baluchistan and the Siege of the Brahmin Town of Harmatelia, Peeters Publishers, ISBN 978-90-6186-037-2 The Greeks in Bactria and India by W. W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press Ptolemy's section on the Paropanisadae in English translation John Watson McCrindle's Ancient India as Described in Ptolemy
Euthydemus I was a Greco-Bactrian king in about 230 or 223 BC according to Polybius. Strabo, on the other hand, correlates his accession with internal Seleucid wars in 223–221 BC, his kingdom seems to have been substantial, including Sogdiana to the north, Margiana and Ariana to the south or east of Bactria. Euthydemus was a native of Magnesia, son of the Greek general Apollodotus, born c. 295 BC, who might have been son of Sophytes, by his marriage to a sister of Diodotus II and daughter of Diodotus I, born c. 250 BC, was the father of Demetrius I according to Strabo and Polybius. For Euthydemus himself was a native of Magnesia, he now, in defending himself to Teleas, said that Antiochus was not justified in attempting to deprive him of his kingdom, as he himself had never revolted against the king, but after others had revolted he had possessed himself of the throne of Bactria by destroying their descendants. Euthydemus sent off his son Demetrius to ratify the agreement. Antiochus, on receiving the young man and judging him from his appearance and dignity of bearing to be worthy of royal rank, in the first place promised to give him one of his daughters in marriage and next gave permission to his father to style himself king.
Little is known of his reign until 208 BC when he was attacked by Antiochus III the Great, whom he tried in vain to resist on the shores of the river Arius, the modern Herirud. Although he commanded 10,000 horsemen, Euthydemus lost a battle on the Arius and had to retreat, he successfully resisted a three-year siege in the fortified city of Bactra, before Antiochus decided to recognize the new ruler, to offer one of his daughters to Euthydemus's son Demetrius around 206 BC. As part of the peace treaty, Antiochus was given Indian war elephants by Euthydemus. Classical accounts relate that Euthydemus negotiated peace with Antiochus III by suggesting that he deserved credit for overthrowing the descendants of the original rebel Diodotus, that he was protecting Central Asia from nomadic invasions thanks to his defensive efforts: "...for if he did not yield to this demand, neither of them would be safe: seeing that great hords of Nomads were close at hand, who were a danger to both. The war lasted altogether three years and after the Seleucid army left, the kingdom seems to have recovered from the assault.
The death of Euthydemus has been estimated to 200 BC or 195 BC, the last years of his reign saw the beginning of the Bactrian invasion of South Asia. There exist many coins of Euthydemus, portraying him as a middle-aged and old man, he is featured on no less than three commemorative issues by kings, Antimachus I and one anonymous series. He was succeeded by Demetrius, his coins were imitated by the nomadic tribes of Central Asia for decades after his death. Coins of Euthydemus "Euthydemus". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
A laurel wreath is a round wreath made of connected branches and leaves of the bay laurel, an aromatic broadleaf evergreen, or from spineless butcher's broom or cherry laurel. It is worn as a chaplet around the head, or as a garland around the neck; the symbol of the laurel wreath traces back to Greek mythology. Apollo is represented wearing a laurel wreath on his head, wreaths were awarded to victors, both in athletic competitions; this includes the ancient Olympics — for which they were made of wild olive tree known as "kotinos", — and in poetic meets. Whereas ancient laurel wreaths are most depicted as a horseshoe shape, modern versions are complete rings. In common modern idiomatic usage it refers to a victory; the expression "resting on one's laurels" refers to someone relying on long-past successes for continued fame or recognition, where to "look to one's laurels" means to be careful of losing rank to competition. Apollo, the patron of sport, is associated with the wearing of a laurel wreath.
This association arose from the ancient Greek mythology story of Daphne. Apollo, mocked the god of love, for his use of bow and arrow, as Apollo is patron of archery; the insulted Eros prepared two arrows: one of gold and one of lead. He shot Apollo with the gold arrow, instilling in the god a passionate love for the river nymph Daphne, he shot Daphne with the lead arrow. Apollo was turned into a laurel tree. Apollo vowed to honor Daphne forever and used his powers of eternal youth and immortality to render the laurel tree evergreen. Apollo crafted himself a wreath out of the laurel branches and turning Daphne into a cultural symbol for him and other poets and musicians. In some countries the laurel wreath is used as a symbol of the master's degree; the wreath is given to young masters at the university graduation ceremony. The word "laureate" in'poet laureate' refers to the laurel wreath; the medieval Florentine poet and philosopher Dante Alighieri, a member of the Sicilian School, is represented in paintings and sculpture wearing a laurel wreath.
In Italy, the term laureato is used in to refer to any student. Right after the graduation ceremony, or laurea in Italian, the student receives a laurel wreath to wear for the rest of the day; this tradition originated at the University of Padua and has spread in the last two centuries to all Italian universities. At Connecticut College in the United States, members of the junior class carry a laurel chain, which the seniors pass through during commencement, it represents the continuation of life from year to year. Following commencement, the junior girls write out with the laurels their class year, symbolizing they have become seniors and the period will repeat itself the following spring. At Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, Massachusetts, USA, laurel has been a fixture of commencement traditions since 1900, when graduating students carried or wore laurel wreaths. In 1902, the chain of mountain laurel was introduced; the mountain laurel represents the bay laurel used by the Romans in crowns of honor.
At Reed College in Portland, United States, members of the senior class receive laurel wreaths upon submitting their senior thesis in May. The tradition stems from the use of laurel wreaths in athletic competitions. At St. Mark's School in Southborough, students who complete three years of one classical language and two of the other earn the distinction of the Classics Diploma and the honor of wearing a laurel wreath on Prize Day. In Sweden, those receiving a doctorate or an honorary doctorate at the Faculty of Philosophy, receive a laurel wreath during the ceremony of conferral of the degree. In Finland, in University of Helsinki a laurel wreath is given during the ceremony of conferral for masters's degree. Doctors wear a special kind of Doctoral hat; the laurel wreath is a common motif in architecture and textiles. The laurel wreath is seen carved in the stone and decorative plaster works of Robert Adam, in Federal, Regency and Beaux-Arts periods of architecture. In decorative arts during the Empire period, the laurel wreath is seen woven in textiles, inlaid in marquetry, applied to furniture in the form of gilded brass mounts.
Alfa Romeo added a laurel wreath to their logo after they won the inaugural Automobile World Championship in 1925 with the P2 racing car. Laurel wreaths are sometimes used in heraldry, it may be used around the shield, or on top of it. Media related to Laurel in heraldry at Wikimedia Commons The "wreath of service" is located on all commissioner position patches in the Boy Scouts of America; this is a symbol for the service rendered to units and the continued partnership between volunteers and professional Scouter. The wreath of service represents commitment to unit service. Carruthers, Emile. "The Ancient Origins of the Flower Crown". The Iris; the Getty. Retrieved 2019-02-14. Civic Crown Corolla Grass Crown Kether Laureate Mural crown Naval crown Nobel laureate Olive wreath Coat of arms of Greece Media related to Laurel wreaths at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of rest on one's laurels at Wikti
Anthimachus I Theos was one of the Greco-Bactrian kings dated from around 185 BC to 170 BC. William Woodthorpe Tarn and numismatist Robert Senior place Antimachus as a member of the Euthydemid dynasty and as a son of Euthydemus and brother of Demetrius. Other historians, like A. K. Narain, mark him as independent of Euthydemid authority, a scion of some relation to the Diodotid dynasty, he was king of an area covering parts of Bactria and also Arachosia in southern Afghanistan. Antimachus I was either defeated during his resistance to the usurper Eucratides, or his main territory was absorbed by the latter upon his death. Adding to the argument against direct Euthydemid familial connections is a unique tax-receipt that states: "In the reign of Antimachos Theos and Eumenes and Antimachos... the fourth year, month of Olous, in Asangorna, the guardian of the law being... The tax collector Menodotus, in the presence of..., sent out by Demonax, the former... and of Simus who was... by the agency of Diodorus, controller of revenues, acknowledges receipt from... the son of Dataes from the priests... the dues relating to the purchase."
That Antimachus would list his own associate kings argues against the suggestion that he was appointed as a Northern associate ruler of Euthydemus and Demetrius, an idea that anyway is more or less unprecedented among Hellenistic kings. Eumenes and Antimachus could be his heirs. While Eumenes never issued any coins, a king named Antimachus II Nikephoros appeared in India, it seems plausible that the Indian Antimachus was the son of Antimachus I, but it is unclear whether his reign in India overlapped with his father's reign in Bactria. Antimachus I issued numerous silver coins on the Attic standard, with his own image in a flat Macedonian kausia hat, on the reverse Poseidon with his trident. Poseidon was the god of the ocean and great rivers - some scholars have here seen a reference to the provinces around the Indus River, where Antimachus I may have been a governor - but the protector of horses, a more important function in the hinterland of Bactria. On his coinage, Antimachus called himself a first in the Hellenistic world.
Just like his colleague Agathocles, he issued commemorative coinage, in his case silver tetradrachms honouring Euthydemus I called "The God", Diodotus I, called "The Saviour". This indicates. Antimachus I issued round bronzes depicting an elephant on the obverse, with a reverse showing the Greek goddess of victory Nike holding out a wreath; the elephant could be a Buddhist symbol. These coins are reminiscent of those of Demetrius I, as well as Apollodotus I. Other bronzes and rather crude portray a walking elephant, but with a reverse of a thunderbolt; these have been attributed by Bopearachchi to Arachosia. They are Indian in their design; the Greek in Bactria and India, W. W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press The Decline of the Indo-Greeks, R. C. Senior and D. MacDonald, Hellenistic Numismatic Society The Indo-Greeks, A. K. Narain, B. R. Publications Media related to Antimachus I at Wikimedia Commons Coins of Antimachus More coins of Antimachus