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Antinomy

Antinomy refers to a real or apparent mutual incompatibility of two laws. It is a term used in logic and epistemology in the philosophy of Kant. There are many examples of antinomy. A self-contradictory phrase such as "There is no absolute truth" can be considered an antinomy because this statement is suggesting in itself to be an absolute truth, therefore denies itself any truth in its statement. A paradox such as "this sentence is false" can be considered to be an antinomy; the term acquired a special significance in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, who used it to describe the rational but contradictory results of applying to the universe of pure thought the categories or criteria of reason that are proper to the universe of sensible perception or experience. Empirical reason cannot here play the role of establishing rational truths because it goes beyond possible experience and is applied to the sphere of that which transcends it. For Kant there are four antinomies, connected with: the limitation of the universe in respect to space and time the theory that the whole consists of indivisible atoms the problem of free will in relation to universal causality the existence of a universal beingIn each antinomy, a thesis is contradicted by an antithesis.

For example: in the first antinomy, Kant proves the thesis that time must have a beginning by showing that if time had no beginning an infinity would have elapsed up until the present moment. This is a manifest contradiction because infinity cannot, by definition, be completed by "successive synthesis"—yet just such a finalizing synthesis would be required by the view that time is infinite, he proves the antithesis, that time has no beginning, by showing that if time had a beginning there must have been "empty time" out of which time arose. This is incoherent for the following reason: Since no time elapses in this pretemporal void there could be no alteration, therefore nothing would come to be: so the antithesis is proven. Reason makes equal claim to each proof, since they are both correct, so the question of the limits of time must be regarded as meaningless; this was part of Kant's critical program of determining limits to science and philosophical inquiry. These contradictions are inherent in reason when it is applied to the world as it is in itself, independently of any perception of it.

Kant's goal in his critical philosophy was to identify what claims are and are not justified, the antinomies are a illustrative example of his larger project. Kant is not the only philosopher to employ the term, however. Another famous use of antinomy is by Karl Marx, in Capital Volume One, in the chapter entitled "The Working Day". On Marx's account, capitalist production sustains "the assertion of a right to an unlimited working day, the assertion of a right to a limited working day, both with equal justification". Furner emphasizes that the thesis and antithesis of this antinomy are not contradictory opposites, but rather "consist in the assertion of rights to states of affairs that are contradictory opposites". Mutual incompatibilityLaw: Alternative pleading Logic: Mutual exclusivity Kettle logic Paradox Religion: Antinomianism Others: Oxymoron Double bind Hazewinkel, Michiel, ed. "Antinomy", Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer Science+Business Media B. V. / Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4 Antinomy at PhilPapers

PrisiĆ³n Fatal (June 2013)

Prisión Fatal was an annually recurring major professional wrestling event, produced by the Mexico based International Wrestling Revolution Group professional wrestling promotion. The event took on June 23, 2013, at "Arena Naucalpan" in Naucalpan, State of Mexico, IWRG's main venue; the show was the third overall show promoted under the Prisión Fatal name and the first of two shows in 2014 billed as Prisión Fatal. The main event was the eponymous Prisión Fatal Steel cage match where the last person remaining in the cage was forced to unmasked or shaved bald as per the match stipulation; the Prisión Fatal match saw Dr. Cerebro face off against X-Fly where the two competitors were chained together by a long steel change, attached to a dog collar around their necks. In the end Dr. Cerebro defeated X-Fly and forced him to have all his hair shaved off after the match. Starting as far back as at least 2000, the Mexican wrestling promotion International Wrestling Revolution Group has held several annual events where the main event was a multi-man steel cage match where the last wrestler left in the cage would be forced to either remove their wrestling mask or have their hair shaved off under Lucha de Apuestas, or "bet match", rules.

From 2012 IWRG has promoted a variation of the steel cage match under the moniker Prisión Fatal at least once a year since its inception. The Prisión Fatal has the added twist that each competitor is chained by the wrist to the cage with a long steel chain and to escape they fight have to get a key to unlock their chain before they are able to escape; the added chain helps to distinguish it from other Steel cage matches held throughout the year such as the IWRG Guerra del Golfo, IWRG Guerra de Sexos or IWRG El Castillo del Terror shows. The Prisión Fatal shows, as well as the majority of the IWRG shows in general, are held in "Arena Naucalpan", owned by the promoters of IWRG and their main arena; the June 2013 Prisión Fatal show was the third time. The event featured five professional wrestling matches with different wrestlers involved in pre-existing scripted feuds and storylines. Wrestlers were portrayed as either heels or faces as they followed a series of tension-building events, which culminated in a wrestling match or series of matches.

IWRG official website

Nicolas Brigaut

Nicolas Brigaut was a French pirate and buccaneer active in the Caribbean. He was associated with fellow corsair Michel de Grammont. Brigaut first went to sea in 1679, surviving a shipwreck before joining the flibustier fleet of Sieur de Grammont. Over the next few years he was part of their expeditions attacking Cumana and Cartagena. By 1683 he had risen to the position of quartermaster aboard the ship La Mutine commanded by Michiel Andrieszoon. Andrieszoon sailed up the American east coast to Boston to resupply in late 1684. While there Brigaut purchased a 40-ton sloop of his own. Now in command of his own vessel, he and other buccaneers gathered off the coast of Caracas for another raid which never materialized; the pirates dispersed, Brigaut left to find Grammont, with whom he sailed in a 1685 attack on Campeche alongside Laurens de Graaf. While there Brigaut transferred to command of a captured Spanish galliot. Afterwards he sailed for Roatan. Grammont and Brigaut conspired to attack the Spanish again at Saint Augustine, Florida with help from English colonists in Charleston.

They arrived off Florida at the end of April 1686. Grammont sent Brigaut ahead to Matanzas Inlet to capture guides and interpreters and gather intelligence on Saint Augustine. Brigaut’s men captured several Indians and Spaniards but were attacked by a contingent of Spanish soldiers. Brigaut’s forces retreated to their ship; the Frenchmen tried to come ashore but met resistance failing to free the galliot, they returned to the beach and marched overland to await rescue by Grammont. The Governor of Florida sent additional soldiers who attacked Brigaut and his men, slaughtering over forty of them and leaving alive only Brigaut, a black sailor named Diego, a young boy; the Spanish Governor interrogated Brigaut and Diego, at first mistaking Brigaut for Spanish turncoat Alonso de Avesilla thanks to Brigaut having flown Spanish flags to disguise his ship. Brigaut revealed their plan to attack Saint Augustine and confirmed the involvement of men from the Carolinas, he confessed that La Salle had established a French colony in Mississippi, which alarmed the Governor.

Brigaut and Diego were hanged at the end of May 1686. Grammont himself tried approaching the coast in Le Hardi but was run aground just as Brigaut had been; the Lords Proprietors wrote to Governor James Colleton of South Carolina early the following year, warning him to restrain his colonists from dealing with pirates or attacking the Spanish. They cautioned that: …the people of Carolina have received the pirates who have unjustly burned and robbed the houses of the Spaniards. Could any rational man doubt that the Spaniards would seek revenge, would be justified in seeking it, if this be true? We have been informed that a design was on foot in Carolina to take St. Augustine, which our Government was ready to countenance, being persuaded that they were justified by our clause permitting invaders to be pursued beyond the bounds of our province, but that clause means only a pursuit in heat of victory, not a granting of commissions and a deliberate invasion of the King of Spain's dominions. John King - a boy of 9–12 years of age who sailed with pirate Samuel Bellamy, and, cited as the youngest pirate of the Golden Age.

The boy captured with Brigaut may have been younger

Glenmore (Jefferson City, Tennessee)

Glenmore is a historic house in Jefferson City, United States. The three-story house was built in 1868-1869 for John Roper Branner, the President of the East Tennessee and Georgia Railway. From 1868 to 1879, it was the location of the Branner Institute for Young Women, run by his brother; the house was acquired by Milton Preston Jarnagin in 1882. It was Jarnagin; when he died, the house was inherited by his son, Frank Watkins Jarnagin, who raised Percheron horses on the property. It was deeded to the Preservation of Tennessee Antiquities in 1969-1970; the house was designed in the Second Empire architectural style. It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since April 13, 1973

Nirav Modi

Nirav Deepak Modi is a fugitive Indian businessman, wanted by the Interpol for criminal conspiracy, criminal breach of trust and dishonesty including delivery of property, money laundering, fraud and breach of contract since August 2018. Modi made international headlines again in early October 2018 when Los Angeles entrepreneur, Paul Alfonso, filed a US$4.2 million lawsuit in Los Angeles against Modi and two of his now defunct companies namely Firestar Diamond Inc. and A. Jaffe Inc. According to court records from the Superior Court of California, Modi fraudulently sold two custom diamond engagement rings to Alfonso that turned out to be lab diamonds; the value of both diamond rings were US$200,000. Modi's younger brother Neeshal Deepak Modi and manager and close aide Parab Subhash Shankhar are wanted by Interpol since August 2018 in connection with the same crimes as Nirav Modi. Modi is being investigated in a $2 billion fraud case of Punjab National Bank and is being sued in the State of California for US$4.2 million for defrauding Los Angeles entrepreneur, Paul Alfonso, over two custom diamond engagement rings that turned out to be lab diamonds.

In March 2018, Modi applied for bankruptcy protection in New York. In June 2018, Modi has applied for political asylum in Britain, he is now under arrest in the UK. In June 2019, Swiss authorities have frozen a total of 6 million US dollars present in Nirav Modi's Swiss bank accounts along with the assets. Nirav Modi was born in Palanpur and grew up in Antwerp, Belgium, his family has been in the diamond business for several generations. When he was 19, he and his father Deepak Modi moved to Mumbai to work in his uncle's business, Mehul Choksi, the head of Gitanjali Group, a retail jewellery company with 4,000 stores in India. Modi attended the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania but dropped out. While studying, he met his future wife, the daughter of a diamond businessman Amukuraj Choksey. After moving to India in 1989, training in all aspects of the diamond trading business, he founded Firestar in 1999, a diamond sourcing and trading company. Firestar is the exclusive distributor of Rio Tinto’s Argyle pink diamonds in India.

In 2002, his company started manufacturing jewellery on a contract basis. He acquired Frederick Goldman in 2005, Sandberg & Sikorski and A. Jaffe in 2007 in the USA. In 2008, a close friend asked Nirav Modi to make a pair of earrings, after which he created the brand. In 2010 he launched a diamond store bearing his name in New Delhi's Defence Colony, followed by one in Mumbai's Kala Ghoda. 17 other store openings followed across the world. He became well known after he designed his "Golconda Lotus Necklace" with an old, 12-carat, pear-shaped diamond as a centerpiece in 2010; the diamond was earlier sold in the 1960s. It featured a lattice of pink diamonds, it was included on the cover of Christie’s catalogue in Hong Kong, was auctioned for US$3.6 million in 2010. In 2012, the Riviere of Perfection, featuring 36 flawless white diamonds weighing a total of 88.88 carats, was sold at Sotheby’s Hong Kong auction. In 2014, Nirav Modi opened his first flagship store at Defence Colony, New Delhi, followed by a store at Kala Ghoda, Mumbai in 2015.

Nirav Modi launched globally with boutiques in New York City and Hong Kong in 2015, followed by two other boutiques opened in Hong Kong in 2016. and one in MGM Macau in 2016. It had been reported that he was planning to sell some of his business to a well-known foreign brand and was planning to raise funds through an initial public offering, it is believed that he was overextended for several years and used new MOUs to pay for the past ones for about seven year. One of his employees has stated that "He wanted to grow his business, to do in five years what might otherwise have taken 20 years." He claimed that "If he’d gone public, maybe he could have pledged his equity, raised some money, paid the bank back. He would have done that." The Union Bank of India sued Nirav Modi in a Hong Kong court. Union Bank claimed in a writ filed at the High Court on 26 September 2018 that Nirav Modi guaranteed two loans made to Firestone Trading Private on 21 October 2011 and Firestar Diamond on 15 November 2011.

The bank demanded that Nirav Modi pay more than $5.49 million plus interest after both firms defaulted on repayments. In February 2018, the Indian government's Central Bureau of Investigation launched an investigation of Modi, acting on a complaint from the Punjab National Bank alleging Modi and his partners defrauded the bank of ₹28000 Crore by conspiring with bank officials to fraudulently obtain Letters of Undertaking for making payments to overseas suppliers. While ₹28000 Crore is the fraud, alleged to date, the potential loss to Punjab National Bank is reported to be up to ₹11000 Crore; the Enforcement Directorate is looking into the case of fraud that the CBI has registered against Modi. A few of Modi's stores remained open for business as usual, including the one at Marina Bay Sands in Singapore, however these have all closed. On 7 March 2018, Modi's firm Firestar Diamond Inc. applied for bankruptcy protection at a Manhattan bankruptcy court, in order to protect its assets in the United States and their revolving credit facility with Israel Discount Bank.

Modi responded to the bank on 15/16 February 2018, stating that "In the anxiety to recover your dues despite my offer your actions have destroyed my brand and the business and ha

Juan de Fuca

Ioannis Phokas, better known by the Spanish translation of his name, Juan de Fuca, was a Greek maritime pilot in the service of the King of Spain, Philip II. He is best known for his claim to have explored the Strait of Anián, now known as the Strait of Juan de Fuca, between Vancouver Island and the Olympic Peninsula. Phokás's grandfather, Emmanouíl Phokás, fled Constantinople at its fall in 1453, accompanied by his brother Andrónikos; the two settled first in the Peloponnese, where Andrónikos remained, but in 1470 Emmanouel moved to the island of Cefalonia. Iákovos, Ioánnis's father, established himself in the village of Valerianos on the island and came to be known as "the Valeriáno Fokás" to distinguish him from his brothers, it was in this village of Valeriáno that Phokás was born in 1536. Little to nothing is known about his life before he entered the service of Spain, some time around 1555; the name of the man known to history as Juan de Fuca is the source of some confusion. While Juan de Fuca is a Spanish rendering of Ioánnis Phokás, some sources cite Apóstolos Valeriános as his "real" name.

It is possible that Phokás was baptized Apóstolos and adopted the name Ioánnis/Juan because Apóstol is not much used as a name in Spanish. Given that Fokás/Fuca was the family name borne by the seafarer's father and grandfather, Valeriános is to be a nickname used on the island which would have been quite meaningless in the Spanish Empire. De Fuca's early voyages were to the Far East, he claimed to have arrived in New Spain in 1587 when, off Cabo San Lucas in Baja California, the English privateer Thomas Cavendish seized his galleon Santa Ana and deposited him ashore, he was a well-traveled seaman. The King of Spain, he claimed, recognized him for his excellence and made him pilot of the Spanish navy in the West Indies, but there is no record in Spanish Archives of his name or position or of his visit to the royal court. Before he made his famous trip up the northwest coast of the North American continent, he sailed to China, the Philippines and Mexico; the Strait of Juan de Fuca between the United States of America and Canada was named for him by British Captain Charles Barkley because it was at the same latitude that Juan de Fuca described as the location of the Strait of Anián.

According to de Fuca's account, he undertook two voyages of exploration on the orders of the Viceroy of New Spain, Luis de Velasco, marqués de Salinas, both intended to find the fabled Strait of Anián, believed to be a Northwest Passage, a sea route linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The first voyage saw 200 soldiers and three small ships under the overall command of a Spanish captain assigned the task of finding the Strait of Anián and fortifying it against the English; this expedition failed when due to the captain's malfeasance, the soldiers mutinied and returned home to California. In 1592, on his second voyage, de Fuca enjoyed success. Having sailed north with a caravel and a pinnace and a few armed marines, he returned to Acapulco and claimed to have found the strait, with a large island at its mouth, at around 47° north latitude; the Strait of Juan de Fuca is in fact at around 48° N, although Fuca's account of sailing into it departs from reality, describing a region far different from what existed there.

During the voyage, de Fuca noted a "high pinnacle or spired rock", which may have been Fuca Pillar, a tall rectangular, rock on the western shore of Cape Flattery on the northwestern tip of Washington beside the Strait of Juan de Fuca - although de Fuca noted it being on the other side of the strait. Despite Velasco's repeated promises, however, de Fuca never received the great rewards he claimed as his due. After two years, on the viceroy's urging, de Fuca travelled to Spain to make his case to the court in person. Disappointed again and disgusted with the Spanish, the aging Greek determined to retire to his home in Kefallonia but was in 1596 convinced by an Englishman, Michael Lok, to offer his services to Spain's archenemy, Queen Elizabeth. Nothing came of Lok and de Fuca's proposals, but it is through Lok's account that the story of Juan de Fuca entered English letters; because the only written evidence for Fokás's voyages lay in Lok's account — researchers being unable to find records of the expedition in Spanish colonial archives — there was long much controversy over his discovery and, whether he had even existed as a real person.

With English exploration and settlement of the area, Fokás's claims seemed much more credible. In 1859, an American researcher, with the help of the U. S. Consul in the Ionian Islands, was able to demonstrate not only that Fokás had lived but that his family and history were well known on the islands. While we may never know