California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona is a public polytechnic university in Pomona, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. It is one of two polytechnics in the California State University system. Cal Poly Pomona began as the southern campus of the California Polytechnic School in 1938 when a equipped school and farm in the city of San Dimas were donated by Charles Voorhis and his son Jerry Voorhis; the southern campus grew further in 1949 when a horse ranch in the neighboring city of Pomona, which had belonged to Will Keith Kellogg, was acquired from the University of California. Cal Poly Pomona known as Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo continued operations under a unified administrative control until they became independent from one another in 1966. Cal Poly Pomona offers bachelor's degrees in 94 majors, 39 master's degrees, 13 teaching credentials and a doctorate across 9 distinct academic colleges; the university is one among a small group of polytechnic universities in the United States which tend to be devoted to the instruction of technical arts and applied sciences.
Its sports teams are known as the Cal Poly Pomona Broncos and play in the NCAA Division II as part of the California Collegiate Athletic Association. The Broncos have won 14 NCAA national championships. Current and former Cal Poly Pomona athletes have won 7 Olympic medals. Events leading to the foundation of present-day Cal Poly at Pomona began with the demise of the Voorhis School for Boys in San Dimas and its acquisition by the San Luis Obispo-based California Polytechnic School in 1938; the California Polytechnic School was founded as a vocational high school when California Governor Henry Gage signed the Polytechnic School Bill on March 8, 1901 after its drafting by school founder Myron Angel. Voorhis School, on the other hand, had been established in 1928 as a private vocational school which provided elementary schooling for underprivileged boys and operated under the Christian religious principle, "education coupled with the Kingdom of God", its founder Charles B. Voorhis and headmaster Jerry Voorhis maintained the school opened throughout the worst years of the Great Depression but persistent economic pressures forced them to transfer control to Cal Poly San Luis Obispo in 1938.
Hence, Voorhis School became the Cal Poly-Voorhis Unit and its educational offerings were raised to the same level as Cal Poly San Luis Obispo's a two-year college. The horticulture program was moved to the new satellite campus and the two units operated as one institution spanning two locations under the leadership of president Julian McPhee. During World War II most of the student body was called to active military duty, enrollment declined and the campus closed in 1943. Reopening after the war, Cal Poly-Voorhis Unit operated in San Dimas until 1956 when it moved to Will Keith Kellogg’s former horse ranch in the neighboring city of Pomona, California. Acknowledging its Kellogg legacy, Cal Poly-Voorhis Unit changed its name to Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis Unit and offered six programs in agriculture; the inaugural class of 1957 at the new campus consisted of 57 students graduating with bachelor’s degrees in a ceremony held at the Rose Garden in Pomona and religious services at Voorhis Chapel in San Dimas.
In 1957, Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis introduced the College of Engineering, the second academic unit after the College of Agriculture. The California Master Plan for Higher Education added the two Cal Poly campuses to the new California State College system in 1961 and Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis Unit opened its doors for the first time to 329 female students. President McPhee retired in 1966, Cal Poly split into two different and independent universities; the partnership between the two campuses remains with their involvement in the annual Cal Poly Universities Rose Float. To better reflect its new ties to the California State College system, Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis changed its name to “California State Polytechnic College, Kellogg-Voorhis” in 1966 and became the 16th campus to join the CSC system. Robert C. Kramer assumed presidency of the independent campus in 1966 and California State Polytechnic College, Kellogg-Voorhis adopted its present-day name California State Polytechnic University, Pomona on June 1, 1972.
In 1998, Cal Poly Pomona received criticism when it planned to grant an honorary degree to Robert Mugabe. Mugabe's negative humanitarian record as president of Zimbabwe lead to protests from staff and students forcing the university to rescind the award. Cal Poly Pomona underwent further growth in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, with the construction of the CLA Building, academic facilities, expansion to the Cal Poly Pomona University Library and the addition of programs such as the Lyle Center for Regenerative Studies, the I-Poly High School and the U. R. Bronco undergraduate research program. Under then-president J. Michael Ortiz, Cal Poly Pomona launched its first comprehensive capital campaign in fall of 2008 to increase its permanent endowment; the negative economic effects caused by the late-2000s recession has increased student fees, reduced enrollment availability, eliminated two athletic programs and introduced a mandatory furlough calendar for most of its 47,000 employees. The campus' office of public affairs recognizes two official names for the university: "California State Polytechnic University, Pomona" and "Cal Poly Pomona".
However, "Cal Poly" has been used to refer to Cal Poly at Pomona, as both its
California State University, Dominguez Hills
California State University, Dominguez Hills is a public university in Carson, California. It is part of the California State University system. In Fall 2016 the university had a total enrollment of 14,731 students comprising 12,632 undergraduates and 2,099 post baccalaureates, with over half of the student population identifying as the first in their families to go to college. CSUDH is one of the most ethnically and economically diverse universities in the western United States, it enrolls the largest number and percentage of African American students of any CSU campus and is ranked nationally as a top degree producer for minority students, including graduating more African American students than any public university in California. CSUDH offers 46 majors for a Bachelor's degrees, 23 different Master's degrees, a variety of single, multi-subject and specialized teaching credentials and a number of undergraduate and post-baccalaureate certificate programs within its five colleges: College of Arts and Humanities, College of Business Administration and Public Policy, College of Extended and International Education, College of Health, Human Services and Nursing, College of Natural and Behavioral Sciences.
The university is accredited by the WASC Senior University Commission. The campus offers small class sizes for its students; the campus sits on the oldest land grant in the Los Angeles area. The land was in the continuous possession of the Dominguez family through seven generations - from its concession to Juan Jose Dominguez in 1784 to its acquisition by the people of the state of California for the university; the campus mascot is the Spanish for bull. The foundation for what would become CSU Dominguez Hills was built in 1960 when Governor of California Pat Brown provided state funds to begin development of the campus, it was to be located in Palos Verdes and known as South Bay State College. The tentative name was changed to California State College at Palos Verdes in 1962. In 1964, architect A. Quincy Jones designed a master plan for construction; as the permanent campus had not yet been constructed, the first classes began to be taught in 1965 at the California Federal Savings Bank in Rolling Hills Estates, California.
The college began with an enrollment of 40 students. In 1965 the designated location for the campus was moved to an area known as Dominguez Hills in Carson. John Muns, president of the Dominguez Hills Homeowners Association in 1965, recognized that for a community to be selected as the site for a state college was a mark of status and prestige, he headed up the campaign in support of Dominguez Hills, which at the time was still unincorporated ranch and farming land in the soon-to-be city of Carson. The university was established, in large part, as a response to the African American outcry for higher education standards and opportunities. Additionally, from the months of October to November in 1969, demonstrations regarding the Vietnam War were held on the campus. In 1977 the California Postsecondary Education Commission endorsed the college trustees’ desire to change the name of the school from California State College, Dominguez Hills to California State University, Dominguez Hills. In 2015, Cal State Dominguez Hills ranked #11 in Washington Monthly's list of Master's University Rankings.
This same year CSUDH was ranked 88th nationally by The Brookings Institution for the value-add to students who graduate from there. Using a similar methodology, The Economist ranked CSUDH 63rd in its 2015 college rankings. CSU Dominguez Hills is a major university for the Southern geographical region of Los Angeles County and Orange County, it offers 46 undergraduate majors, 23 master's degrees, a number of certificate and credential programs. The campus is accredited by the following associations: Western Association of Schools and Colleges, the Association of Collegiate Business Schools and Programs, the National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration, the National Association of Schools of Music, the National Association of Schools of Theatre. Dominguez Hills is the administrative headquarters of the California State University's Statewide Nursing Program. CSU Dominguez Hills is the home of Dignity Health Sports Park, a 27,000 seat multiple-sports and entertainment complex, which houses the LA Galaxy Soccer Team, Calvary Chapel's Easter Service each year among other community organizations.
The Velodrome seats 2,450, the Track and Field facilities are world-class. From 2009 to 2015 CSUDH hosted the Educación: Feria Es El Momento in partnership with Univision's Los Angeles stations KMEX 34 and KFTR 46 known as Feria Deja Huella designed to guide predominantly Spanish-speaking parents through the U. S. educational system. In 2012 over 35,000 attended the fair. California State University, Dominguez Hills has been designated a Hispanic-Serving Institution and is a member of the Computing Alliance of Hispanic-Serving Institutions, its College of Education & College of Arts and Humanities offer bilingual education teachers additional training for them to improve their academic Spanish. Starting in 2011 Cal State Dominguez Hills began hosting the "Honoring the Indigenous Peoples o
California Institute of Technology
The California Institute of Technology is a private doctorate-granting research university in Pasadena, California. Known for its strength in natural science and engineering, Caltech is ranked as one of the world's top-ten universities. Although founded as a preparatory and vocational school by Amos G. Throop in 1891, the college attracted influential scientists such as George Ellery Hale, Arthur Amos Noyes and Robert Andrews Millikan in the early 20th century; the vocational and preparatory schools were disbanded and spun off in 1910 and the college assumed its present name in 1921. In 1934, Caltech was elected to the Association of American Universities and the antecedents of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which Caltech continues to manage and operate, were established between 1936 and 1943 under Theodore von Kármán; the university is one among a small group of institutes of technology in the United States, devoted to the instruction of pure and applied sciences. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphasis on science and engineering, managing $332 million in 2011 in sponsored research.
Its 124-acre primary campus is located 11 mi northeast of downtown Los Angeles. First-year students are required to live on campus and 95% of undergraduates remain in the on-campus House System at Caltech. Although Caltech has a strong tradition of practical jokes and pranks, student life is governed by an honor code which allows faculty to assign take-home examinations; the Caltech Beavers compete in 13 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division III's Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. As of October 2018, Caltech alumni and researchers include 73 Nobel Laureates, 4 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners. In addition, there are 53 non-emeritus faculty members who have been elected to one of the United States National Academies, 4 Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force and 71 have won the United States National Medal of Technology. Numerous faculty members are associated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as well as NASA. According to a 2015 Pomona College study, Caltech ranked number one in the U.
S. for the percentage of its graduates who go on to earn a PhD. Caltech started as a vocational school founded in Pasadena in 1891 by local businessman and politician Amos G. Throop; the school was known successively as Throop University, Throop Polytechnic Institute and Throop College of Technology before acquiring its current name in 1920. The vocational school was disbanded and the preparatory program was split off to form an independent Polytechnic School in 1907. At a time when scientific research in the United States was still in its infancy, George Ellery Hale, a solar astronomer from the University of Chicago, founded the Mount Wilson Observatory in 1904, he joined Throop's board of trustees in 1907, soon began developing it and the whole of Pasadena into a major scientific and cultural destination. He engineered the appointment of James A. B. Scherer, a literary scholar untutored in science but a capable administrator and fund raiser, to Throop's presidency in 1908. Scherer persuaded retired businessman and trustee Charles W. Gates to donate $25,000 in seed money to build Gates Laboratory, the first science building on campus.
In 1910, Throop moved to its current site. Arthur Fleming donated the land for the permanent campus site. Theodore Roosevelt delivered an address at Throop Institute on March 21, 1911, he declared: I want to see institutions like Throop turn out ninety-nine of every hundred students as men who are to do given pieces of industrial work better than any one else can do them. In the same year, a bill was introduced in the California Legislature calling for the establishment of a publicly funded "California Institute of Technology", with an initial budget of a million dollars, ten times the budget of Throop at the time; the board of trustees offered to turn Throop over to the state, but the presidents of Stanford University and the University of California lobbied to defeat the bill, which allowed Throop to develop as the only scientific research-oriented education institute in southern California, public or private, until the onset of the World War II necessitated the broader development of research-based science education.
The promise of Throop attracted physical chemist Arthur Amos Noyes from MIT to develop the institution and assist in establishing it as a center for science and technology. With the onset of World War I, Hale organized the National Research Council to coordinate and support scientific work on military problems. While he supported the idea of federal appropriations for science, he took exception to a federal bill that would have funded engineering research at land-grant colleges, instead sought to raise a $1 million national research fund from private sources. To that end, as Hale wrote in The New York Times: Throop College of Technology, in Pasadena California has afforded a striking illustration of one way in which the Research Council can secure co-operation and advance scientific investigation; this institution, with its able investigators and excellent research laboratories, could be of great service in any broad scheme of cooperation. President S
University of California
The University of California is a public university system in the U. S. state of California. Under the California Master Plan for Higher Education, the University of California is a part of the state's three-system public higher education plan, which includes the California State University system and the California Community Colleges System; the University of California was founded on March 23, 1868, operated temporarily in Oakland before moving to its new campus in Berkeley in 1873. In March 1951, the University of California began to reorganize itself into something distinct from its first campus at Berkeley, with Robert Gordon Sproul remaining in place as the first systemwide President and Clark Kerr becoming the first Chancellor of UC Berkeley. However, the 1951 reorganization was stalled by resistance from Sproul and his allies, it was not until Kerr succeeded Sproul as President that UC was able to evolve into a true university system from 1957 to 1960. In the 21st century, the University of California has 10 campuses, a combined student body of 251,700 students, 21,200 faculty members, 144,000 staff members and over 1.86 million living alumni, as governed by a semi-autonomous Board of Regents.
Its tenth and newest campus in Merced opened in fall 2005. Nine campuses enroll graduate students. In addition, the UC Hastings College of Law, located in San Francisco, is affiliated with UC, but other than sharing its name is autonomous from the rest of the system; the University of California manages or co-manages three national laboratories for the U. S. Department of Energy: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Collectively, the colleges and alumni of the University of California make it the most comprehensive and advanced postsecondary educational system in the world, responsible for nearly $50 billion per year of economic impact. UC campuses have large numbers of distinguished faculty in every academic discipline, with UC faculty and researchers having won at least 62 Nobel Prizes as of 2017. In 1849, the state of California ratified its first constitution, which contained the express objective of creating a complete educational system including a state university.
Taking advantage of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts, the California Legislature established an Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College in 1866. However, it existed only as a placeholder to secure federal land-grant funds. Meanwhile, Congregational minister Henry Durant, an alumnus of Yale, had established the private Contra Costa Academy, on June 20, 1853, in Oakland, California; the initial site was bounded by Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets and Harrison and Franklin Streets in downtown Oakland. In turn, the Academy's trustees were granted a charter in 1855 for a College of California, though the College continued to operate as a college preparatory school until it added college-level courses in 1860; the College's trustees and supporters believed in the importance of a liberal arts education, but ran into a lack of interest in liberal arts colleges on the American frontier. In November 1857, the College's trustees began to acquire various parcels of land facing the Golden Gate in what is now Berkeley for a future planned campus outside of Oakland.
But first, they needed to secure the College's water rights by buying a large farm to the east. In 1864, they organized the College Homestead Association, which borrowed $35,000 to purchase the land, plus another $33,000 to purchase 160 acres of land to the south of the future campus; the Association subdivided the latter parcel and started selling lots with the hope it could raise enough money to repay its lenders and create a new college town. But sales of new homesteads fell short. Governor Frederick Low favored the establishment of a state university based upon the University of Michigan plan, thus in one sense may be regarded as the founder of the University of California. At the College of California's 1867 commencement exercises, where Low was present, Benjamin Silliman, Jr. criticized Californians for creating a state polytechnic school instead of a real university. That same day, Low first suggested a merger of the already-functional College of California with the nonfunctional state college, went on to participate in the ensuing negotiations.
On October 9, 1867, the College's trustees reluctantly agreed to join forces with the state college to their mutual advantage, but under one condition—that there not be an "Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College", but a complete university, within which the assets of the College of California would be used to create a College of Letters. Accordingly, the Organic Act, establishing the University of California, was introduced as a bill by Assemblyman John W. Dwinelle on March 5, 1868, after it was duly passed by both houses of the state legislature, it was signed into state law by Governor Henry H. Haight on March 23, 1868. However, as constituted, the new University was not an actual merger of the two colleges, but was an new institution which inherited certain objectives and assets from each of them; the University
The AFI Conservatory is a private not-for-profit graduate film school in the Hollywood Hills district of Los Angeles. Students learn from the masters in a collaborative, hands-on production environment with an emphasis on storytelling; the Conservatory is a program of the American Film Institute founded in 1969. The Center for Advanced Film Studies opened its doors at Greystone Mansion on September 23, 1969. Harold Lloyd screened his film The Freshman and spoke with AFI Fellows on the school's first day; the first class included Caleb Deschanel and Paul Schrader. In 1975, filmmaker Ján Kadár, director of the Oscar-winning film The Shop on Main Street, became the Conservatory's first filmmaker-in-residence. In 2013, Emmy and Oscar-winning director and screenwriter James L. Brooks joined the AFI Conservatory as Artistic Director, where he provides leadership for the film program. Brooks' artistic role at the AFI Conservatory has a rich legacy that includes Daniel Petrie, Jr. Robert Wise and Frank Pierson.
Award-winning director Robert Mandel served as Dean of the AFI Conservatory for nine years. Jan Schuette took over as Dean in 2014 and served until 2017. Film Producer Richard Gladstein became Dean in May 2017. Michael Chung & Tom Engfer became Co-Interim Deans in November 2018. Among those AFI has bestowed Honorary Degrees upon during its annual Commencement ceremony are Maya Angelou, John Williams, Ken Burns, Sherry Lansing, Sydney Pollack, Clint Eastwood, Jeffrey Katzenberg, Kathleen Kennedy, Spike Lee, Rita Moreno and Quentin Tarantino. Thirteen AFI Conservatory thesis films have been nominated for Academy Awards. In 2011, The Hollywood Reporter ranked it the #1 film school in the world, it is ranked in the top five graduate film programs along with USC, UCLA, NYU and California Institute of the Arts by the Princeton Review and US News and World Report AFI Conservatory is a five-term Master of Fine Arts program in six disciplines: Cinematography, Editing, Production Design, Screenwriting.
Traditionally, the Conservatory accepts 28 Fellows per year for most disciplines and 14 for the Production Design and Editing disciplines. Each discipline's program runs two years in length. First Year - Fellows from all disciplines work on at least three digital video or high definition short films, referred to as'cycle projects'; each of these first-year projects are accomplished by Fellows with a minimum of oversight from the senior faculty. The purported goal being to stimulate a flexible and creative approach to filmmaking within imposed budgetary constraints and without the crutch of seasoned oversight. These'cycle projects' make up the core curriculum of the first year experience and amount to a'boot camp" of filmmaking that challenges and invigorates the Fellows involved. Second Year - Most Fellows work on at least one thesis short film, shot on digital video, high definition, 35mm film, or 16mm film, develop portfolio materials. Screenwriting Fellows have the option of writing two feature-length screenplays instead of participating in a thesis film.
They are responsible for raising the bulk of their own financing for these projects, must adhere to standard industry regulations, such as SAG charter rules, during filming. The senior faculty of the conservatory oversee the development of the'second year' projects and monitor their development in a manner similar to what might be expected of an Executive Producer. Cinematography - Encompassing training from pre-visualization to advanced image manipulation and control, Cinematography Fellows develop their storytelling skills using formats ranging from digital video to 16mm and 35mm film cameras to the most cutting-edge cameras on the market. Directing - With a focus on narrative filmmaking, Directing Fellows learn diverse directing styles and strategies as they gain a thorough understanding of the production process, script to screen. Editing - Editing Fellows master the skills to be editors, assistant editors and post-production producers while learning the technical and collaborative aspects of post-production with a primary focus on storytelling.
Producing - Producing Fellows study all aspects of creative, entrepreneurial production while developing and producing a minimum of three short films in their first year and a thesis film in their second year. Production Design - Attracting artists from architecture, interior design, theater design and other related fields, the Production Design curriculum focuses on the creative process of visually and physically developing cinematic environments. Screenwriting - Screenwriting Fellows conceive and write multiple projects in features, short films and short-form TV drama and comedy as well as webisodes and other Internet innovations. Fellows learn to collaborate with Directing and Producing classmates to bring their stories to the screen; the AFI Conservatory has an esteemed faculty of working professionals including Todd Cherniawsky, Stan Chervin, Destin Daniel Cretton, (director, Short Term 12, David Cook, Joe Garrity, Michael Jablow, Susan Littenberg, Stephen Lighthill, Elvis Mitchell, Michele Mulroney, Martin Nicholson, Lauren Polizzi, Louis Provost, Patricia Riggen, Russell Sc
A public university is a university, publicly owned or receives significant public funds through a national or subnational government, as opposed to a private university. Whether a national university is considered public varies from one country to another depending on the specific education landscape. In Egypt, Al-Azhar University was founded in 970 AD as a madrassa, making it one of the oldest institutions of higher education in the world, formally becoming a university in 1961, it was followed by a lot of universities opened as public universities in the 20th century such as Cairo University, Alexandria University, Assiut University, Ain Shams University, Helwan University, Beni-Suef University, Benha University, Zagazig University, Suez Canal University, where tuition fees are subsidized by the government. In Kenya, the Ministry of Education controls all of the public universities. Students are enrolled after completing the 8-4-4 system of education and attaining a mark of C+ or above. Students who meet the criteria determined annually by the Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service receive government sponsorship, as part of their university or college fee is catered for by the government.
They are eligible for a low interest loan from the Higher Education Loan Board. They are expected to pay back the loan after completing higher education. In Nigeria public universities can be established by both the federal government and by state governments. Examples include the University of Lagos, Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Ibadan, University of Benin, University of Nigeria, Ahmadu Bello University, Abia State University, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Gombe State University, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Federal University of Technology Yola, University of Maiduguri, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, University of Jos, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, University of Ilorin, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University South Africa has 23 public tertiary educational institutions, either categorised as a traditional university or a comprehensive university. Prominent public South African universities include the University of Johannesburg, University of Cape Town, Nelson Mandela University, North-west University, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University of Pretoria, University of Stellenbosch, University of Witwatersrand, Rhodes University and the University of South Africa.
In Tunisia, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research controls all of the public universities. For some universities, the ministry of higher education coordinates with other ministries like: the Ministry of Public health or the Ministry of Information and Communication Technologies. Admission in a public university in Tunisia is assured after succeeding in the Tunisian Baccalaureate: Students are classified according to a Formula score based on their results in the Baccalaureate; the students make a wishlist with the universities they want to attend on a state website dedicated for orientation. Thus, the high-ranking-students get priority to choose. Examples of Tunisian public universities: Carthage University, Carthage Ez-Zitouna University, Tunis Manouba University, Manouba Tunis El Manar University, Tunis Tunis University, Tunis Université Tunis Carthage University of Gabès, Gabès University of Gafsa, Gafsa University of Jendouba, Jendouba University of Kairouan, Kairouan University of Monastir, Monastir University of Sfax, Sfax University of Sousse, Sousse There are 40 public universities in Bangladesh.
The universities do not deal directly with the government, but with the University Grants Commission, which in turn deals with the government. Many private universities are established under the Private University Act of 1992. All universities in Brunei are public universities; these are major universities in Brunei: University of Brunei Darussalam Brunei Technological University Sultan Sharif Ali Islamic University In mainland China, nearly all universities and research institutions are public and all important and significant centers for higher education in the country are publicly administered. The public universities are run by the provincial governments; some public universities are national. Private undergraduate colleges do exist, which are vocational colleges sponsored by private enterprises; the majority of such universities are not entitled to award bachelor's degrees. Public universities enjoy higher reputation domestically. Eight institutions are funded by the University Grants Committee.
The Academy for Performing Arts receives funding from the government. The Open University of Hong Kong is a public university, but it is self-financed; the Shue Yan University is the only private institution with the status of a university, but it receives some financial support from the government since it was granted university status. In India, most universities and nearly all research institutions are public. There are some private undergraduate colleges engineering schools, but a majority of these are affiliated to public universities; some of these private schools are partially aided by the national or state governments. India has an "open" public university, the Indira Gandhi National Open University, which offers distance education, in terms of the number of enrolled students is now the largest university in the world with over 4 million students. There are private educational institutes in Indonesia; the government (Ministry of Re
Culver City, California
Culver City is a city in Los Angeles County, California. The city was named after Harry Culver; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 38,883. It is surrounded by the city of Los Angeles, but shares a border with unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County. Over the years, it has annexed more than 40 pieces of adjoining land and now comprises about five square miles. Since the 1920s, Culver City has been a center for motion picture and television production, best known as the home of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios. From 1932 to 1986, it was the headquarters for the Hughes Aircraft Company. National Public Radio West and Sony Pictures Entertainment have headquarters in the city; the NFL Network studio is based in Culver City. Archaeological evidence suggests a human presence in the area of present-day Culver City since at least 8,000 BC; the region was the homeland of the Tongva-Gabrieliño Native Americans. The city was founded on the lands of the former Rancho La Ballona, Rancho Rincon de los Bueyes, Rancho La Cienega o Paso de la Tijera.
In 1861, during the American Civil War, Camp Latham was established by the 1st California Infantry under Col. James H. Carleton and the 1st California Cavalry under Lt. Col. Benjamin F. Davis. Named for California Senator Milton S. Latham, the camp was the first staging area for the training of Union troops and their operations in Southern California, it was located on land of the Rancho La Ballona, on the South side of Ballona Creek, near what is now the intersection of Jefferson and Overland Boulevards. The post was moved to Camp Drum, which became the Drum Barracks. Harry Culver first attempted to establish Culver City in 1913; the first film studio in Culver City was built by Thomas Ince in 1918. Silent film comedy producer Hal Roach built his studios there in 1919, Metro Goldwyn Mayer in the'20s. During Prohibition and nightclubs such as the Cotton Club lined Washington Boulevard. Culver Center, one of Southern California's first shopping malls, was completed in 1950 on Venice Boulevard near the Overland Avenue intersection.
Many other retail stores, including a Rite Aid and several banks and restaurants, have occupied the center since then. Hughes Aircraft opened its Culver City plant in July 1941. There the company built the H-4 Hercules transport. Hughes was an active subcontractor in World War II, it developed and patented a flexible feed chute for faster loading of machine guns on B-17 bombers, manufactured electric booster drives for machine guns. Hughes produced more ammunition belts than any other American manufacturer, built 5,576 wings and 6,370 rear fuselage sections for Vultee BT-13 trainers. Hughes grew after the war, in 1953 Howard Hughes donated all his stock in the company to the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. After he died in 1976, the institute sold the company, which made it the second-best-endowed medical research foundation in the world; the Hal Roach Studios were demolished in 1963. In the late 1960s, much of the MGM backlot acreage, the nearby 28.5-acre of the RKO Forty Acres, once owned by RKO Pictures and Desilu Productions, were sold by their owners.
In 1976 the sets were razed to make way for redevelopment. Today the RKO site is the southern expansion of the Hayden Industrial Tract, while the MGM property has been converted to a subdivision and a shopping center known as Raintree Plaza. In the 1990s, Culver City launched a successful revitalization program in which it renovated its downtown as well as several shopping centers in the Sepulveda Boulevard corridor near Westfield Culver City. Around the same time, Sony's motion picture subsidiary, Columbia Pictures, moved into the old MGM lot; the influx of many art galleries and restaurants to the eastern part of the city, formally designated the Culver City Art District, prompted The New York Times in 2007 to praise the new art scene and call Culver City a "nascent Chelsea."In 2012 Roger Vincent of the Los Angeles Times said that, according to local observers, the city's "reputation as a pedestrian-friendly destination with upscale restaurants, gastropubs and a thriving art scene is less than a decade old."
Hundreds of movies have been produced on the lots of Culver City's studios: Sony Pictures Studios, Culver Studios, the former Hal Roach Studios. These include The Wizard of Oz, The Thin Man, Gone with the Wind, the Tarzan series, the original King Kong. More recent films made in Culver City include Grease, Raging Bull, E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial, City Slickers, Air Force One, Wag the Dog and Contact. Television series made on Culver City sets have included Las Vegas, Cougar Town, Mad About You, Hogan's Heroes, The Green Hornet, Arrested Development, The Andy Griffith Show, Gomer Pyle, U. S. M. C. Jeopardy!, The Nanny, Hell's Kitchen, MasterChef, the syndicated version of Wheel of Fortune and Tosh. O; the television series The Green Hornet featured Bruce Lee as Kato. John Travolta's "Stranded at the Drive-In" sequence in Grease was filmed at the Studio Drive-In on the corner of Jefferson and Sepulveda, it served as a set including Pee-wee's Big Adventure. The theatre was closed in 1993 and demolished in 1998.
Culver City's streets have been featured in television series. Since much of the