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Antiochus IV of Commagene

Gaius Julius Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the last king of Commagene, reigned between 38–72 as a client king to the Roman Empire. The epithet "Epiphanes" means "the Glorious". Antiochus was born a prince of the royal family of Commagene, his parents King Antiochus III of Commagene and Queen Iotapa were full-blooded siblings who had married each other. The younger Antiochus himself would marry his full-blooded sister Iotapa. Antiochus was of Armenian and Median descent. Through his ancestor from Commagene, Queen Laodice VII Thea, the mother of King Antiochus I Theos of Commagene, he was a direct descendant of the Greek Seleucid kings. Antiochus appears to have been young when his father died in 17; the Roman emperor Tiberius agreed with the citizens of Commagene to make their kingdom a part of the Roman province of Syria. Between 17 and 38, Antiochus seems to have gained Roman citizenship, he was raised in Rome, along with his sister. While he and his sister were growing up in Rome, they were part of the remarkable court of Antonia Minor, a niece of the first Roman emperor Augustus and the youngest daughter of the triumvir Mark Antony.

Antonia Minor was a influential woman and supervised her circle of various princes and princesses. Her circle assisted in the political preservation of the Roman Empire's borders and affairs of the client states. In 38, Antiochus received his paternal dominion from the Roman emperor Caligula. In addition, the emperor enlarged Antiochus' territory with a part of Cilicia bordering on the seacoast. Caligula gave him the whole amount of the revenues of Commagene during the twenty years that it had been a Roman province; the reasons for providing a client king with such vast resources remain unclear. Antiochus was on most intimate terms with Caligula, he and King Agrippa I are spoken of as the instructors of the emperor in the art of tyranny; this friendship, did not last long, for he was subsequently deposed by Caligula. Antiochus did not regain his kingdom till the accession of Roman Emperor Claudius in 41. In 43 his first son, C. Julius Archelaus Antiochus Epiphanes, was betrothed to Drusilla, a daughter of Agrippa I.

Apart from Epiphanes, Antiochus had another two children with Iotapa: Callinicus and a younger Iotapa. In 53, Antiochus put down an insurrection of some barbarous tribes in Cilicia, called Clitae. In 55 he received orders from the Roman emperor Nero to levy troops to make war against the Parthians, in the year 59 he served under General Cn. Domitius Corbulo against King Tiridates I of Armenia, brother of the Parthian King Vologases I of Parthia. In consequence of his services in this war, in the year 61 he obtained parts of Armenia, he took the side of Vespasian when the latter was proclaimed Roman emperor in 70. In the same year he sent forces, commanded by his son Epiphanes, to assist prince Titus in the siege of Jerusalem. During his reign as king, he founded the following cities: Germanicopolis and Neronias. Antiochus' downfall came only two years afterwards, in 72, when he was accused by L. Caesennius Paetus, the governor of Syria, of conspiring with the Parthians against the Romans, he was therefore deprived of his kingdom, after a reign of thirty-four years from his first appointment by Caligula.

Antiochus' sons, the princes Epiphanes and Callinicus, fled to Parthia after a brief encounter with Roman troops. Antiochus himself retired first to Sparta and to Rome, where he passed the remainder of his life with his sons Epiphanes and Callinicus and was treated with great respect. Among the grandchildren of Antiochus and Iotapa was the prominent Athenian citizen Philopappos who lived in Greece between the 1st and 2nd centuries. There are several coins of this king extant, their die-marks prove he did rule large parts of Cappadocia and Cilicia as well as Commagene proper. In one of those coins he is called a testament to his political ambitions. On the reverse of that coin a scorpion is represented, surrounded with the foliage of the laurel, inscribed ΚΟΜΜΑΓΗΝΩΝ. From his coins we learn the name of his wife, Iotapa. Aytap Michael Alexander Speidel. "Early Roman Rule in Commagene". Mavors–Institute for Ancient Military History. Archived from the original on 2015-12-27. Retrieved 2015-10-22; this entry incorporates public domain text from: William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 1870.

A. K. Bowman, E. Champlin & A. Lintott, The Augustan Empire, 43 B. C.-A. D. 69, Cambridge University Press, 1996 The Building Program of Herod the Great, By Duane W. Roller, Published by University of California Press 1998, ISBN 0-520-20934-6 Nikos Kokkinos. Antonia Augusta: Portrait of a Great Roman Lady. Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415080293. Coinage of Antiochus IV

Acronicta euphorbiae

Acronicta euphorbiae, the sweet gale moth, is a moth of the family Noctuidae. Acronicta auricoma Acronicta megacephala Acronicta aceris Acronicta menyanthidis This species is distributed through parts of the Palearctic South of a line, across southern Poland, from northern Scotland, Northeastern Netherlands/border with North-Western Germany, southeastward through the northern Czech Republic, the Ukraine and southern Russia to the Ural mountains; these moths prefer warm, sunny slopes, grassy heaths and forests. In the Alps, they rise up to over 2500 metres above sea level; the wingspan of Acronicta euphorbiae can reach 32–40 mm. The females are larger than the males and have darker hindwings. Forewings are grey; the ab. montivaga Guen. is a mountain form, with darker, bluer grey forewings, occurring in the Alps and in Norway. The ab. myricae Guen. Occurring in the Scotch and Irish mountains, is still darker, with narrower, more pointed forewings, but not smaller as Staudinger states; the ab. euphrasiae Brahm, which appears to be the commoner form in France and S. W. Europe, is paler than the type and more luteous.

Hbn. is a quite, small form, with the markings obscured. Unlike adults the caterpillars are brightly colored, with hairy spikes, they gets more colorful. The adults fly at night from May to June; the larva feed on a wide range of plants on heather, bog-myrtle, Achillea and Plantago. ^ The flight season refers to the British Isles. This may vary in other parts of the range. South R; the Moths of the British Isles, Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd. London & NY: 359 pp. online Funet Taxonomy Lepiforum.de UKmoths

Thomas Graham (apothecary)

Thomas Graham was apothecary to King George I and George II, was apothecary general to the British army. Graham served his apprenticeship in Scotland, from which country he hailed, was admitted as a "foreign brother" of the Society of Apothecaries on 14 September 1698. Thomas died at his home in Pall Mall in London and was buried at St Mary's, Harrow on the Hill, where a wall plaque commemorates him and his wife Anne, his son was Daniel Graham, apothecary to King George II, King George III and Chelsea College Hospital. The Graham family of Harrow http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/D754495 http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=40580#s3