Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia. Bactria was located between the Hindu Kush mountain range and the Amu Darya river, covering the region that straddles modern-day Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. The English name Bactria is derived from the Ancient Greek, Βακτριανή, analogous names include the Pashto and Persian, باختر, translit. Bākhtar, Uzbek, Балх, Tajik, Бохтар, Chinese, 大夏, pinyin, Dàxià and this region played a major role in Central Asian history. At certain times the political limits of Bactria stretched far beyond the frame of the Bactrian plain. The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex is the modern designation for a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia. 2200–1700 BC, located in present-day eastern Turkmenistan, northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan and western Tajikistan, centred on the upper Amu Darya and its sites were discovered and named by the Soviet archaeologist Viktor Sarianidi. The early Greek historian Ctesias, c
Ancient cities of Bactria
Goddesses, Bactria, Afghanistan, 2000–1800 BC.
Kafirnigan from Tajikistan (traditional Bactrian male clothing).
Kafirnigan from Tajikistan (traditional Bactrian female clothing).
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean. It has the longest documented history of any living language, spanning 34 centuries of written records and its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history, other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic and many other writing systems. Together with the Latin texts and traditions of the Roman world, during antiquity, Greek was a widely spoken lingua franca in the Mediterranean world and many places beyond. It would eventually become the official parlance of the Byzantine Empire, the language is spoken by at least 13.2 million people today in Greece, Cyprus, Italy, Albania, Turkey, and the Greek diaspora. Greek roots are used to coin new words for other languages, Greek
Idealized portrayal of Homer
regions where Greek is the official language
Greek language road sign, A27 Motorway, Greece
Diodotus I Soter was Seleucid satrap of Bactria, rebelled against Seleucid rule soon after the death of Antiochus II in c.255 or 246 BC, and wrested independence for his territory. This event is recorded by Trogus, Prol,4,5, where he is called Theodotus, Strabo xi.515. The name apparently is related to the title Soter he uses for himself and his power seems to have extended over the neighbouring provinces. Diodotus was a contemporary, a neighbour, and probably an ally of Andragoras, the satrap of Parthia and their cities were Bactra, and Darapsa, and several others. Among these was Eucratidia, which was named after its ruler. The newly declared King married a daughter, born c.266 BC, of Antiochus II Theos, the Greco-Bactrians became cut from direct contacts with the Greek world. Overland trade continued at a rate, while sea trade between Greek Egypt and Bactria developed. When Seleucus II in 239 BC attempted to subjugate the rebels in the east, it appears he, of Diodotus I we possess g
"Pedigree" coin of Agathocles
, with the effigy of Diodotus, the Greek
inscription reads: ΔΙΟΔΟΤΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ - "(of) Diodotus the Saviour".
Gold coin of Diodotus I c. 250 BC. The Greek
inscription reads: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΙΟΔΟΤΟΥ - "(of) King Diodotus".
Gold stater of Diodotus in the name of the Seleucid
emperor Antiochus I Soter
, c. 250 BCE. Diodotus effectively declared his independence from Seleucid control by placing his own portrait on the obverse of the coin, and replacing Antiochos's preferred deity Apollo
with the Zeus
shown on this coin.
Zeus /ˈzjuːs/ is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who ruled as king of the gods of Mount Olympus. His name is cognate with the first element of his Roman equivalent Jupiter and his mythologies and powers are similar, though not identical, to those of the Indo-European deities such as Indra, Jupiter, Perun, Thor, and Odin. Zeus is the child of Cronus and Rhea, the youngest of his siblings to be born, in most traditions, he is married to Hera, by whom he is usually said to have fathered Ares, Hebe, and Hephaestus. At the oracle of Dodona, his consort was said to be Dione, Zeus was also infamous for his erotic escapades. These resulted in many godly and heroic offspring, including Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Hermes, Persephone, Dionysus, Perseus, Heracles, Helen of Troy, Minos, and the Muses. He was equated with many foreign weather gods, permitting Pausanias to observe That Zeus is king in heaven is a common to all men. His symbols are the thunderbolt, eagle, bull, and oak
The Jupiter de Smyrne, discovered in Smyrna
The Chariot of Zeus, from an 1879 Stories from the Greek Tragedians by Alfred Church.
Zeus, at the Getty Villa, A.D. 1 - 100 by unknown.
Seleucus received Babylonia and, from there, expanded his dominions to include much of Alexanders near eastern territories. At the height of its power, it included central Anatolia, Persia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, and what is now Kuwait, Afghanistan, and parts of Pakistan and Turkmenistan. The Seleucid Empire was a center of Hellenistic culture that maintained the preeminence of Greek customs where a Greek political elite dominated. The Greek population of the cities who formed the dominant elite were reinforced by immigration from Greece, Seleucid expansion into Anatolia and Greece was abruptly halted after decisive defeats at the hands of the Roman army. Their attempts to defeat their old enemy Ptolemaic Egypt were frustrated by Roman demands, contemporary sources, such as a loyalist degree from Ilium, in Greek language define the Seleucid state both as an empire and as a kingdom. Similarly, Seleucid rulers were described as kings in Babylonia and he refers to either Alexander Balas
Antiochus II Theos was a Greek king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire who reigned from 261 to 246 BC. He succeeded his father Antiochus I Soter in the winter of 262–61 BC and he was the younger son of Antiochus I and princess Stratonice, the daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes. Antiochus also made some attempt to get a footing in Thrace, during the war he was given the title Theos, being such to the Milesians in slaying the tyrant Timarchus. During the time Antiochus was occupied with the war against Egypt, Andragoras, his satrap in Parthia, then about 238 BC, Arsaces led a revolt of the Parthians against Andragoras, leading to the foundation of the Parthian Empire. These events would have cut off communications with India, phylarchus relays current scandals regarding his drunken banquets and liaisons with unsuitable young men. About this time, Antiochus made peace with Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Antiochus repudiated his wife Laodice I and exiled her to Ephesus. To seal the treaty, he mar
Coin of Antiochus II. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (of king Antiochus).
Strabo, on the other hand, correlates his accession with internal Seleucid wars in 223–221 BC. His kingdom seems to have substantial, including probably Sogdiana to the north. Finally Euthydemus sent off his son Demetrius to ratify the agreement, little is known of his reign until 208 BC when he was attacked by Antiochus III the Great, whom he tried in vain to resist on the shores of the river Arius, the modern Herirud. Although he commanded 10,000 horsemen, Euthydemus initially lost a battle on the Arius and had to retreat, the war lasted altogether three years and after the Seleucid army left, the kingdom seems to have recovered quickly from the assault. The death of Euthydemus has been estimated to 200 BC-195 BC. There exist many coins of Euthydemus, portraying him as a young, middle-aged and he is also featured on no less than three commemorative issues by later kings, Agathocles, Antimachus I and one anonymous series. He was succeeded by Demetrius, who went on to invade northweste
Coin with Greek
inscription reads: ΕΥΘΥΔΗΜΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ i.e. "of Euthydemus God", Euthydemus qualified as "THEOS" ("God"). (Pedigree coin of Agathocles of Bactria
of Euthydemus (c. 230-c. 200 BC). Greek
inscription reads: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΕΥΘΥΔΗΜΟΥ i.e. "of king Euthydemus"
Barbaric copy of a coin of Euthydemus, from the region of Sogdiana
. The legend on the reverse is in aramaic
. Such coins suggest that Euthydemus ruled, and then lost the territory of Sogdiana.
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial
A 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar code