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Antipope Boniface VII

Antipope Boniface VII, was an antipope. He is supposed to have put Pope Benedict VI to death. A popular tumult compelled him to flee to Constantinople in 974. After a brief rule from 984 to 985, he died under suspicious circumstances. Boniface VII was not yet considered an antipope when the next pope of that same regnal name was elected. Boniface VII was the son of Ferrucius and was named Franco, he was born in Italy in early 930s AD, although the exact date is not known. Since his surname was Franco, it has been supposed that he belonged to a family of the name, mentioned in the documents of the tenth century, which may have been of French origin. In 972 he became a Cardinal Deacon, a position which he held until he began his papacy in 974. However, little else is known about his early life due to the lack of documents available from this period of Rome as a whole. Pope John XIII, born Giovanni Crescentius, of the powerful Roman Crescentii family, died on 6 September 972. Benedictus was the proposed candidate of the Imperial party, while the Nationalist party, led by the Crescentii, supported Franco.

Benedictus was consecrated as Pope Benedict VI on January 19, 973 though he lacked the support of much of the Roman aristocracy. On May 7, 973, Otto the Great died, the youthful Otto II took over. Otto II's preoccupation with events in Germany created an opportunity for the Roman aristocracy to rebel against the imperial administration. Crescentius, brother of the late Pope John XIII, led an insurrection and with the help of many unhappy Romans, kidnapped Pope Benedict VI, they imprisoned him in Castel Sant’Angelo for nearly two months. In July 974 Franco assumed the papacy as Boniface VII. Although Otto II, who supported Pope Benedict VI, was still fighting in Bavaria, could not make it to Rome, he sent Count Sicco, an imperial envoy from Spoleto, to demand the pope's release; when Sicco arrived at Castel Sant’Angelo, a priest named Stephen strangled Benedict VI. There is a chance that Franco could have made the demand of having Benedict strangled, but it is not known for certain. Boniface VII's first papal reign was a short one.

In one month and twelve days, the imperial representative Count Sicco had taken possession of the city. As riots and chaos ensued, Boniface VII took refuge in Castel Sant’Angelo where he robbed the treasury of the Vatican Basilica and fled to Byzantine territory in southern Italy; the fact that he fled to Constantinople, where he received protection, makes it probable that his rise to papacy might have been associated with the policy of one of the Byzantine co-emperors, who at this time was pushing to displace the German influence in Salerno. The banishment of the antipope must have been the work of the German party, which were again triumphant in Rome, led by Pandulf the Ironhead. Boniface VII is described as a monster by contemporaries, who stated that he was stained by the blood of Benedict VI; the events of this period in Rome are only known to us through the insufficient notices, we are aware of the rise of Boniface VII before we hear of his overthrow. Under the influence of Sicco, Bishop of Sutri, was elected by the Roman clergy and people, as a compromise candidate in October 974.

He took the name of Benedict VII. He was from the noble family of the Counts of Tusculum, connected to the Crescentii family. Benedict VII held a synod where he excommunicated Boniface; the Emperor celebrated the Easter of 981 in Rome and so overawed the factions that Benedict was able to finish his pontificate in peace. Benedict died on 10 July 983. Peter of Pavia, Otto II's imperial chancellor for the Kingdom of Italy, was elected pope, taking the name of John XIV. However, shortly after the election, the Emperor fell ill and died on December 7, 983. With Otto II's heir being only age three, the people of Rome felt free from the hated emperor and desired a Roman Pope. To this point, Boniface VII saw his opportunity and in league with Greeks and Saracens and headed for Rome in April 984. With the help of both the treasury he had stolen from his first attempt at the papacy as well as the gold of his Greek followers, he was able to strike relationships with several powerful people. With the help of Crescentius’ sons and Crescentius II, Boniface had Pope John XIV imprisoned in Castel Sant’Angelo.

Four months on August 20 984, John XIV died in Sant’Angelo either due to starvation, poison, or by the order of Boniface. The death of Pope John XIV meant that Boniface was the only remaining pope, so he once again took a hold of the papal throne, he still believed himself to be the only rightful pope, dated back his reign to 974. Little is known of the reign of Boniface VII, however, on July 20, 985, he died, it is possible that he was murdered. It is clear that there was a sense from the public of disgust at his reign, as his body was dragged through the streets, stripped naked until it was left beneath Marcus Aurelius's statue in front of the Lateran Palace. There were undoubtedly many atrocities that Boniface committed in the eleven months he was in power in 984–985, most of which were acts of revenge due to his previous exile, it is obvious he had become a stranger to the Roman people, had most even become an inconvenience to his own followers. He was referred to as “Malefatius” instead of Bonifatius, “horrendum monstrum” by many, showing the turn of feelings the people of Rome had had.

The Nationalist faction headed by Crescentius and now headed by his two sons, that h

Rod Pedraza

Rodney Bernard Pedraza is an American former professional baseball pitcher in Nippon Professional Baseball. He played for the Fukuoka Daiei Hawks from 1999 to 2002 and Yomiuri Giants in 2003, he was an All- Star four out of his five seasons in Japan. Prior to his career in Japan, he played Minor League Baseball in the Montreal Expos, Colorado Rockies and Texas Rangers organization from 1991 to 1998. Pedraza was drafted to in the 35th round to the Chicago Cubs in the 1988 amateur draft right out of high school, he instead spent 3 years at the University of Texas, had gone 13-3 with a 3.33 ERA in college. In the 1991 amateur draft he was drafted by the Montreal Expos, he made his debut with the Jamestown Expos and Sumter Flyers in 1991. In 1992, he had gone 3.26 record for the Albany Polecats. He led the South Atlantic League with 186 hits allowed, he fell one short of the win lead. In 1993 he played for San Bernardino Spirit, went 9-7 with a 3.18 ERA. He was second in the California League in ERA.

He played for the Colorado Rockies. In the Rockies chain, he debuted with the New Haven Ravens and Colorado Springs Sky Socks in 1994, he was chosen for the Eastern League All-Star team. In addition, he was rated for best control in the Eastern League by Baseball America. Rodney missed all of 1995 due to a shoulder injury, but returned in 1996 and did well with New Haven, he finished 3rd in the Eastern League in ERA. In 1997 Pedraza played for the Winnipeg Goldeyes. In 1998 he signed with the Texas Rangers, he split the year with the Tulsa Drillers. Rodney signed with the Fukuoka Daiei Hawks in 1999, he debuted in Japan by going 3-1 with 27 saves and a 1.98 ERA. He finished second in the Pacific League in saves, he mad the Pacific League All-Star team. In the 1999 Japan Series, Pedraza saved games 4 and 5, pitched 3 1/3 shutout innings in the Series, allowing one hit and no walks. In 2000, he went 3-4 with 35 saves and a 2.15 ERA. He had a WHIP of.77 with 4 walks and 35 hits in 50 1/3 IP. He was again picked for the Pacific League All-Star team, he led the Pacific League in saves.

He tied. In addition, he tied Otsuka's Pacific League save record. Pedraza became the second American to be named Fireman of the Year in the Pacific League. In the 2000 Japan Series, he threw two shutout innings. In 2001 he was once again an All-Star and he led the Pacific League in saves and points. For the second year in a row, Pedraza was awarded the Fireman of the Yearr, he was the second repeat foreign winner in Nippon Pro Baseball history and the first in the Pacific League. In 2002 Pedraza remained the closer for the Hawks, he made the All-Star team for the 4th time, he became the first American to save 100 games in Nippon Pro Baseball. In 2003 he was signed to the Yomiuri Giants, his performance suffered due to another shoulder injury. Overall, Rodney went 16-12 with 117 saves and a 2.99 ERA in 194 games in Nippon Pro Baseball and 65-40 with a 3.82 ERA in 159 minor league games. Through 2009, he was 19th in Nippon Pro Baseball annals in 3rd among foreign-born hurlers. After the end of his playing career, he moved back to Texas.

On March 2, 2007 he was inducted into the Latinos in Action hall of fame. He was a member of the Cuero Gobblers' 1987 state championship football team, was inducted into the Cuero Gobbler hall of fame in 2009. In 2008, he married Deborah, they have three daughters Haley, Mia. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference

Marina City Park

Marina City Park was a park in Singapore located at Marina South, with entrances at Marina Boulevard and Marina Park. It is about 26.2 ha. Standing on reclaimed land, this park was planned to be a premier park of Singapore's proposed "city of the 21st century", as part of Singapore's vision to be a "City in a Garden"; the park was closed on 1 June 2007 to make way for the Gardens by the Bay. Opened in 30 December 1990 by the Minister of Labour Lee Yock Suan on the reclaimed land known as Marina South, the park has a two-tiered large pond with a fountain known as The Spirit of the Sculptural Fountain which could sprouted water up 18 metres high. From the series of waterfront terraces besides the pond, one will get an enchanting view of the greenery on the islands in the pond. There are three large open spaces. Sculptures are found here, ranging from contemporary ones such as Soaring Vision, Spirit of Youth, Sculptural Fountain to historical ones like the 12 Chinese Legendary Heroes; the Constellation Plaza helped to trace the constellation during the evenings.

The Sundial Plaza at the seafront facing the Promenade is installed for the young to learn how to tell time. There used to be a sandy playground at the southern end of the park, but the former has been demolished to make way for new construction works. Marina City Park was closed from 1 June 2007 for the Gardens by the Bay's site preparatory works

Greatest Hits (Groove Coverage album)

Greatest Hits is the fourth album by German trance group Groove Coverage and their first Greatest Hits album released in Germany. The first single from the album was "Because I Love You". "Because I Love You" – 3:08 "7 Years and 50 Days" – 3:44 "Million Tears" – 3:13 "God Is A Girl" – 3:38 "Summer Rain" – 4:00 "Moonlight Shadow" – 2:52 "Nothing Lasts Forever" – 3:04 "The End" – 3:38 "Little June" – 3:38 "Poison" – 3:06 "Runaway" – 3:06 "Last Unicorn" – 3:54 "Angel From Above" – 3:10 "Living On A Prayer" – 3:19 "Call Me" – 3:34 "Holy Virgin" – 3:49 "Moonlight Shadow" – 4:18 "She" – 3:51 "November Night" – 3:22 "Only Love" – 3:29 "Remember" – 3:19 "When Love Lives In Heaven" – 3:43 "Far Away From Home" – 4:19 "When Life" – 4:07 "Lullaby For Love" – 3:12 "You" – 03:34 "On the Radio" – 2:59 "21st Century Digital Girl" – 2:53 "I Need You" – 5:34 "21st Century" – 6:07 "She" – 5:54

Colonization of Europa

Europa, the fourth-largest moon of Jupiter, is a subject in both science fiction and scientific speculation for future human colonization. Europa's geophysical features, including a possible subglacial water ocean, make it a possibility that human life could be sustained on or beneath the surface. Europa as a target for human colonization has several benefits compared to other bodies in the outer Solar System, but is not without challenges. Europa is thought to have a liquid water ocean underneath its icy exterior. Access to this liquid water ocean is a major difficulty, but the abundance of water on Europa is a benefit to any considerations for colonization. Not only can water provide for colonists' drinking needs, it can be broken down to provide breathable oxygen. Oxygen is believed to have accumulated from radiolysis of the ice on the surface, convected into the subsurface ocean and may prove sufficient for oxygen-using marine life; the colonization of Europa presents numerous difficulties.

One is the high level of radiation from Jupiter's radiation belt, about 10 times as strong as Earth's Van Allen radiation belts. Europa receives 5.4 Sv of radiation per day, 1,800 times the average annual dose of a human on earth at sea level. Humans exposed to this level of radiation for one day would have greater than 50% mortality rate within 30 days. A human would require significant radiation shielding to survive at or near the surface of Europa. Colonists on Europa would have to descend beneath the surface when Europa is not protected by Jupiter's magnetotail, stay in subsurface habitats; this would allow colonists to use Europa's ice sheet to shield themselves from radiation. Another problem is that the surface temperature of Europa rests at −170 °C. However, the fact that liquid water is believed to exist below Europa's icy surface, along with the likelihood that colonists would spend much of their time under the ice sheet in order to shield themselves from radiation, may somewhat mitigate the problems associated with low surface temperatures.

The low gravity of Europa may present challenges to colonization efforts. The effects of low gravity on human health are still an active field of study, but can include symptoms such as loss of bone density, loss of muscle density, a weakened immune system. Astronauts in Earth orbit have remained in microgravity for up to a year and more at a time. Effective countermeasures for the negative effects of low gravity are well-established an aggressive regimen of daily physical exercise; the variation in the negative effects of low gravity as a function of different levels of low gravity are not known, since all research in this area is restricted to humans in zero gravity. The same goes for the potential effects of low gravity on pediatric development, it has been hypothesized that children born and raised in low gravity would not be well adapted for life under the higher gravity of Earth. It is speculated that alien organisms may exist on Europa in the water underlying the moon's ice shell. If this is true, human colonists may come into conflict with harmful microbes.

More recent studies have indicated that the action of solar radiation on the surface of Europa might produce oxygen, which could be pulled down into the subsurface ocean by upwellings of the interior. If this process occurs, Europa's subsurface ocean could have an oxygen content equal to or greater than that of the Earth's. An unstable surface could represent another potential problem, it has been shown that the moon is geologically active, with an outer crust showing plate tectonics which resembles that on Earth. The reconstruction of the geological activity over a few years of an area the size of the state Alabama showed that a piece of the surface as big as Massachusetts had moved down underneath the crust and disappeared. In 1997, the Artemis Project produced a plan to colonize Europa. According to this plan, explorers would first establish a small base on the surface. From there, they would drill down into the Europan ice crust, entering the postulated subsurface ocean; the colonists would create a pocket between the icy surface and the liquid interior in which to establish a base.

This location would be protected from radiation by the ice overhead, would be at a more human-suitable temperature than the surface, as indicated by the presence of liquid water. Europa plays a role in the book and film of Arthur C. Clarke's 2010: its sequels. Highly-advanced aliens aiding the development of life take an interest in the primitive life forms under Europa's ice, they transform Jupiter into a star to kick-start their evolution, forbid humans from landing on or colonizing Europa. In 2061: Odyssey Three, Europa has become a tropical ocean world. In Bruce Sterling's novel Schismatrix, Europa is inhabited by genetically engineered posthumans. Alastair Reynolds's short story A Spy in Europa depicts an advanced human society called the Demarchists, who are based in colonies on Europa that cling to the underside of the ice crust at the surface of the ocean. A race of genetically altered humans adapted to live in the subsurface ocean is created, some of whom appear in Reynolds's 2006 short story "Grafenwalder's Bestiary."

Europa is one of multiple satellites, colonized in the Japanese animation Cowboy Bebop, along with Io, Ganymede and Titan. In Call of Duty: Infinite Warfare, Europa houses a military installation used as a black site for weapons development. In Warframe, Europa is under the alignment of the Corpus faction, it is depicted as an ice-covered planetoid and mining efforts by the Corpus are aided with machines and "heat generators" in open a

Gradiva (novel)

Gradiva is a novel by Wilhelm Jensen, first published in instalments from June 1 to July 20, 1902 in the Viennese newspaper "Neue Freie Presse". It was inspired by a Roman bas-relief of the same name and became the basis for Sigmund Freud's famous 1907 study Delusion and Dream in Jensen's Gradiva. Freud owned a copy of this bas-relief, which he had joyfully beheld in the Vatican Museums in 1907; the story is about an archaeologist named Norbert Hanold, obsessed with a woman depicted in a bas-relief that he sees in a museum in Rome. After his return to Germany, he manages to get a plaster-cast of the relief, which he hangs on a wall in his work-room and contemplates daily, he comes to feel that her calm, quiet manner does not belong in bustling, cosmopolitan Rome, but rather in some smaller city, one day an image comes to him of the girl in the relief walking on the peculiar stepping-stones that cross the streets in Pompeii. Soon afterwards, Hanold dreams that he has been transported back in time to meet the girl whose unusual gait so captivates him.

He sees her walking in the streets of Pompeii while the hot ashes of Vesuvius subsume the city in 79 AD. This fantastical dream leads Hanold on a real journey to Rome and Pompeii, amazingly, he sees the Gradiva of his bas-relief stepping calmly and buoyantly across the lava stepping-stones, he follows her, loses her finds her sitting on the low steps between two pillars. He greets her in Latin, only to be answered, "If you wish to speak to me, you must do so in German." When he addresses her as if she were the girl of his dream, she looks at him without comprehension, gets up and leaves. Hanold calls out after her, "Are you coming here again tomorrow in the noon hour?" But she does not turn round, gives no answer, a few moments disappears round the corner. Hanold hurries after her. What follows is his quest to determine whether the woman he has seen is real or a delusion. In 1970, the Italian actor and filmmaker Giorgio Albertazzi released a film titled Gradiva, based on Jensen's novel and featuring Laura Antonelli as Gradiva.

Albertazzi is best known for his portrayal of the male protagonist in Last Year at Marienbad, written by Alain Robbe-Grillet, who would himself go on to direct a film based on Jensen's novel. In 2006, the French writer and filmmaker Alain Robbe-Grillet released a film titled C'est Gradiva Qui Vous Appelle, based on the novel, although updated to more recent times, it begins with an English art historian named John Locke, doing research in Morocco on the paintings and drawings that French artist Eugène Delacroix produced over a century before, when he travelled to the country a French colony, as part of a diplomatic mission. Locke spots a beautiful, mysterious blonde girl in flowing robes dashing through the back alleys of Marrakech, becomes consumed with the need to track her down. Like most of Robbe-Grillet's cinematic output, the film is surreal and has explicit scenes of sex slavery and sadomasochism. Media related to Gradiva at Wikimedia Commons Freud Museum, Vienna: Sigmund Freud Museum Wien / Vienna - Sigmund Freud Privatstiftung Freud Museum, London: Freud Museum London The relief at the Freud Museum, London: Visiting Freud's Home In London - New York Times