Antipope Boniface VII
Antipope Boniface VII, was an antipope. He is supposed to have put Pope Benedict VI to death. A popular tumult compelled him to flee to Constantinople in 974. After a brief rule from 984 to 985, he died under suspicious circumstances. Boniface VII was not yet considered an antipope when the next pope of that same regnal name was elected. Boniface VII was the son of Ferrucius and was named Franco, he was born in Italy in early 930s AD, although the exact date is not known. Since his surname was Franco, it has been supposed that he belonged to a family of the name, mentioned in the documents of the tenth century, which may have been of French origin. In 972 he became a Cardinal Deacon, a position which he held until he began his papacy in 974. However, little else is known about his early life due to the lack of documents available from this period of Rome as a whole. Pope John XIII, born Giovanni Crescentius, of the powerful Roman Crescentii family, died on 6 September 972. Benedictus was the proposed candidate of the Imperial party, while the Nationalist party, led by the Crescentii, supported Franco.
Benedictus was consecrated as Pope Benedict VI on January 19, 973 though he lacked the support of much of the Roman aristocracy. On May 7, 973, Otto the Great died, the youthful Otto II took over. Otto II's preoccupation with events in Germany created an opportunity for the Roman aristocracy to rebel against the imperial administration. Crescentius, brother of the late Pope John XIII, led an insurrection and with the help of many unhappy Romans, kidnapped Pope Benedict VI, they imprisoned him in Castel Sant’Angelo for nearly two months. In July 974 Franco assumed the papacy as Boniface VII. Although Otto II, who supported Pope Benedict VI, was still fighting in Bavaria, could not make it to Rome, he sent Count Sicco, an imperial envoy from Spoleto, to demand the pope's release; when Sicco arrived at Castel Sant’Angelo, a priest named Stephen strangled Benedict VI. There is a chance that Franco could have made the demand of having Benedict strangled, but it is not known for certain. Boniface VII's first papal reign was a short one.
In one month and twelve days, the imperial representative Count Sicco had taken possession of the city. As riots and chaos ensued, Boniface VII took refuge in Castel Sant’Angelo where he robbed the treasury of the Vatican Basilica and fled to Byzantine territory in southern Italy; the fact that he fled to Constantinople, where he received protection, makes it probable that his rise to papacy might have been associated with the policy of the Byzantine Roman Emperor, who at this time was pushing to displace the German influence in Salerno. The banishment of the antipope must have been the work of the German party, which were again triumphant in Rome, led by Pandulf the Ironhead. Boniface VII is described as a monster by contemporaries, who stated that he was stained by the blood of Benedict VI; the events of this period in Rome are only known to us through the insufficient notices, we are aware of the rise of Boniface VII before we hear of his overthrow. Under the influence of Sicco, Bishop of Sutri, was elected by the Roman clergy and people, as a compromise candidate in October 974.
He took the name of Benedict VII. He was from the noble family of the Counts of Tusculum, connected to the Crescentii family. Benedict VII held a synod where he excommunicated Boniface; the Emperor celebrated the Easter of 981 in Rome and so overawed the factions that Benedict was able to finish his pontificate in peace. Benedict died on 10 July 983. Peter of Pavia, Otto II's imperial chancellor for the Kingdom of Italy, was elected pope, taking the name of John XIV. However, shortly after the election, the Emperor fell ill and died on December 7, 983. With Otto II's heir being only age three, the people of Rome felt free from the hated emperor and desired a Roman Pope. To this point, Boniface VII saw his opportunity and in league with Greeks and Saracens and headed for Rome in April 984. With the help of both the treasury he had stolen from his first attempt at the papacy as well as the gold of his Greek followers, he was able to strike relationships with several powerful people. With the help of Crescentius’ sons and Crescentius II, Boniface had Pope John XIV imprisoned in Castel Sant’Angelo.
Four months on August 20 984, John XIV died in Sant’Angelo either due to starvation, poison, or by the order of Boniface. The death of Pope John XIV meant that Boniface was the only remaining pope, so he once again took a hold of the papal throne, he still believed himself to be the only rightful pope, dated back his reign to 974. Little is known of the reign of Boniface VII, however, on July 20, 985, he died, it is possible that he was murdered. It is clear that there was a sense from the public of disgust at his reign, as his body was dragged through the streets, stripped naked until it was left beneath Marcus Aurelius's statue in front of the Lateran Palace. There were undoubtedly many atrocities that Boniface committed in the eleven months he was in power in 984–985, most of which were acts of revenge due to his previous exile, it is obvious he had become a stranger to the Roman people, had most even become an inconvenience to his own followers. He was referred to as “Malefatius” instead of Bonifatius, “horrendum monstrum” by many, showing the turn of feelings the people of Rome had had.
The Nationalist faction headed by Crescentius and now headed by his two sons, that had he
Antipope Benedict X
Pope/Antipope Benedict X was born Giovanni, a son of Guido, a brother of the notorious Pope Benedict IX, a member of the dominant political dynasty in the region at that time. He later was given the nickname of Mincius due to his ignorance. Giovanni was named Cardinal Bishop of Velletri by Pope Leo IX in 1050, he was esteemed, however, by those who wanted to reform the Church, was one of five men proposed by Cardinal Frederick of Lorraine when consulted during the summer of 1057 concerning a possible successor to Pope Victor II, whom Frederick himself succeeded as Pope Stephen IX. Upon Pope Stephen's death the following year, Giovanni was elected pope on 4 April 1058, his election having been arranged by his family; this was in violation, however, of a decree by the late pope that no election was to be held until the return of Cardinal Hildebrand from a mission to Germany. Hildebrand had been sent by the late Pope Stephen to the court of Empress Agnes, who had questioned the validity of Stephen's own election.
As a result, a number of cardinals alleged. These cardinals were soon forced to flee Rome; when Hildebrand heard of Benedict's election during his return journey to Rome, he decided to oppose it. He went to Florence where he obtained the support of the Duke of Lorraine and Tuscany for the election of Gerhard of Burgundy, Archbishop of Florence, as pope instead. Support for this was given by Empress Agnes; those cardinals who had opposed Benedict's election met at Siena in December 1058, elected Gerhard, who took the name of Nicholas II. Nicholas proceeded towards Rome, along the way holding a synod at Sutri, where he pronounced Benedict deposed and excommunicated; the supporters of Nicholas gained control of Rome, forced Benedict to flee to the castle of Count Gerard of Galeria. Having arrived in Rome, Nicholas was crowned as pope on 24 January 1059, he proceeded to wage war against Benedict and his supporters, with the assistance of Norman forces based in southern Italy, after he agreed to recognize Count Richard of Aversa as ruler of Capua.
An initial battle was fought in Campagna in early 1059, not wholly successful for Nicholas. Benedict was allowed to go free, he retired to one of his family's estates in the city. Pope Nicholas, deemed his submission inadequate and had him publicly tried in 1060, with Hildebrand serving as his prosecutor. Despite pleading that he had been forced to assume the papal crown, he was convicted that April and stripped of all his titles, he was further sentenced to confinement in the hospital attached to the Basilica of Sant'Agnese fuori le mura, where he died, still a prisoner, sometime between 1073 and 1080. He was buried in the adjoining church; the most important consequence of these events was the adoption of new regulations for papal elections, laid out at a synod called by Pope Nicholas in the Lateran Palace on Easter 1059. These took away the role of the Roman citizenry in the election of future popes, limiting the vote to the College of Cardinals. Additionally, the ancient title which Benedict had held of Bishop of Velletri was combined with the see of the Bishop of Ostia.
Papal selection before 1059 Literature by and about Benedikt X. in the German National Library catalogue
The Encyclopædia Britannica published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia. It was written by more than 4,000 contributors; the 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition. The Britannica is the English-language encyclopaedia/encyclopedia, in print for the longest time: it lasted 244 years, it was first published between 1768 and 1771 as three volumes. The encyclopaedia grew in size: the second edition was 10 volumes, by its fourth edition it had expanded to 20 volumes, its rising stature as a scholarly work helped recruit eminent contributors, the 9th and 11th editions are landmark encyclopaedias for scholarship and literary style. Beginning with the 11th edition and following its acquisition by an American firm, the Britannica shortened and simplified articles to broaden its appeal to the North American market. In 1933, the Britannica became the first encyclopaedia to adopt "continuous revision", in which the encyclopaedia is continually reprinted, with every article updated on a schedule.
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Milan is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,372,810 while its metropolitan city has a population of 3,245,308. Its continuously built-up urban area has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres; the wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age. Milan is considered a leading alpha global city, with strengths in the field of the art, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism, its business district hosts Italy's stock exchange and the headquarters of national and international banks and companies.
In terms of GDP, it has the third-largest economy among European cities after Paris and London, but the fastest in growth among the three, is the wealthiest among European non-capital cities. Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and one of the "Four Motors for Europe"; the city has been recognized as one of the world's four fashion capitals thanks to several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair, which are among the world's biggest in terms of revenue and growth. It hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015; the city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students. Milan is the destination of 8 million overseas visitors every year, attracted by its museums and art galleries that boast some of the most important collections in the world, including major works by Leonardo da Vinci; the city is served by a large number of luxury hotels and is the fifth-most starred in the world by Michelin Guide.
The city is home to two of Europe's most successful football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, one of Italy's main basketball teams, Olimpia Milano; the etymology of the name Milan remains uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum planus. However, some scholars believe that lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence Mediolanum could signify the central sanctuary of a Celtic tribe. Indeed, about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France bore the name "Mediolanum", for example: Saintes and Évreux. In addition, another theory links the name to the boar sow an ancient emblem of the city, fancifully accounted for in Andrea Alciato's Emblemata, beneath a woodcut of the first raising of the city walls, where a boar is seen lifted from the excavation, the etymology of Mediolanum given as "half-wool", explained in Latin and in French; the foundation of Milan is credited to two Celtic peoples, the Bituriges and the Aedui, having as their emblems a ram and a boar.
Alciato credits Ambrose for his account. The Celtic Insubres, the inhabitants of the region of northern Italy called Insubria, appear to have founded Milan around 600 BC. According to the legend reported by Livy, the Gaulish king Ambicatus sent his nephew Bellovesus into northern Italy at the head of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes; the Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres and captured the city in 222 BC. They conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province "Cisalpine Gaul" – "Gaul this side of the Alps" – and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name of Mediolanum: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon meant " in the midst of the plain". In 286 the Roman Emperor Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. Diocletian himself chose to reside at Nicomedia in the Eastern Empire, leaving his colleague Maximian at Milan.
Maximian built several gigantic monuments, the large circus, the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain. Maximian increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers; the monumental area had twin towers. From Mediolanum the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of Roman Europe. Constantine had come to Mediolanum to celebrate the wedding of his sister
Ammianus Marcellinus was a Roman soldier and historian who wrote the penultimate major historical account surviving from antiquity. His work, known as the Res Gestae, chronicled in Latin the history of Rome from the accession of the Emperor Nerva in 96 to the death of Valens at the Battle of Adrianople in 378, although only the sections covering the period 353–378 survive. Ammianus was born in the Greek-speaking East in Syria or Phoenicia, his native language was most Greek. The surviving books of his history cover the years 353 to 378. Ammianus served as a soldier in the army of Constantius II and Julian in Gaul and in the Roman–Persian Wars, he professes to have been "a former soldier and a Greek", his enrollment among the elite protectores domestici shows that he was of middle class or higher birth. Consensus is that Ammianus came from a curial family, but it is possible that he was the son of a comes Orientis of the same family name, he entered the army at an early age, when Constantius II was emperor of the East, was sent to serve under Ursicinus, governor of Nisibis in Mesopotamia, magister militum.
He returned with Ursicinus to Italy when Ursicinus was recalled by Constantius to begin an expedition against Claudius Silvanus. Silvanus had been forced by the false accusations of his enemies into proclaiming himself emperor in Gaul. Ammianus campaigned in the East twice under Ursicinus. On one occasion, he became separated from the officer's entourage and took refuge in Amida during the siege of the city by the Sassanids under King Shapur II; when Ursicinus was dismissed from his military post by Constantius, Ammianus too seems to have retired from the military. He accompanied Julian, for whom he expresses enthusiastic admiration, in his campaigns against the Alamanni and the Sassanids. After Julian's death, Ammianus accompanied the retreat of the new emperor, Jovian, as far as Antioch, he was residing in Antioch in 372 when a certain Theodorus was thought to have been identified the successor to the emperor Valens by divination. Speaking as an alleged eyewitness, Marcellinus recounts how Theodorus and several others were made to confess their deceit through the use of torture, cruelly punished.
He settled in Rome and began the Res Gestae. The precise year of his death is unknown, but scholarly consensus places it somewhere between 392 and 400 at the latest. Modern scholarship describes Ammianus as a pagan, tolerant of Christianity. Marcellinus writes of Christianity as being a pure and simple religion that demands only what is just and mild, when he condemns the actions of Christians, he does not do so on the basis of their Christianity as such, his lifetime was marked by lengthy outbreaks of sectarian and dogmatic strife within the new state-backed faith with violent consequences and these conflicts sometimes appeared unworthy to him, though it was territory where he could not risk going far in criticism, due to the growing and volatile political connections between the church and imperial power. He was not blind to the faults of Christians or of pagans, and he condemns his hero Julian for excessive attachment to sacrifice, for his edict barring Christians from teaching posts. While living in Rome in the 380s, Ammianus wrote a Latin history of the Roman empire from the accession of Nerva to the death of Valens at the Battle of Adrianople, in effect writing a continuation of the history of Tacitus.
He completed the work before 391, as at 22.16.12 he praises the Serapeum in Egypt as the glory of the empire. The Res Gestae was composed of thirty-one books, but the first thirteen have been lost; the surviving eighteen books cover the period from 353 to 378. It constitutes the foundation of modern understanding of the history of the fourth century Roman Empire, it is lauded as a clear and impartial account of events by a contemporary. Although criticised as lacking literary merit by his early biographers, he was in fact quite skilled in rhetoric, which has brought the veracity of some of the Res Gestae into question, his work has suffered from manuscript transmission. Aside from the loss of the first thirteen books, the remaining eighteen are in many places corrupt and lacunose; the sole surviving manuscript from which every other is derived is a ninth-century Carolingian text, Vatican lat. 1873, produced in Fulda from an insular exemplar. The only independent textual source for Ammianus lies in Fragmenta Marbugensia, another ninth-century Frankish codex, taken apart to provide covers for account-books during the fifteenth
Charles A. Coulombe
Charles A. Coulombe is an American Catholic author and lecturer. Born in New York City, Coulombe moved with his parents and older brother Andre to Hollywood, California at age 6. A product of L. A.'s parochial schools, he attended college at New Mexico Military Institute and California State University, majoring in political Science. After spending three years as a stand-up comic on the Sunset Strip, Coulombe authored his first book, Everyman Today Call Rome, a look at the Catholic Church in America from an under-30 viewpoint. In 1990, some of his poetry was published in The White Cockade. Coulombe's work has appeared in more than 20 journals, including regular columns in Fidelity of Australia, PRAG of London, Monarchy Canada, Creole of Louisiana. A contributing editor and regular movie reviewer to the National Catholic Register, he has been a frequent contributor to such publications as Success, Catholic Twin Circle, Gnosis, FATE and New Oxford Review. Lecturing on a wide variety of religious, political and literary topics has taken him throughout the U.
S. Canada and New Zealand. In August 1992, he spoke at England. In October 1993 he embarked on a lecture tour of Ireland and England; the following year he returned to the latter two nations, in 1995 spoke at Oxford and Cambridge. Coulombe has lectured at the University of Southern California on the history of rock and roll, at Cleveland's John Carroll University on medieval monarchy, he has acted as a media consultant on all things Catholic the history of the Papacy. Alongside William L. Biersach, Coulombe lectures at St. Therese's Church in Alhambra, California on various topics regarding the Catholic Faith. Coulombe serves as Western U. S. Delegate of the Grand Council of the U. K.-based International Monarchist League, is a Knight of the Order of St. Sylvester and a member of the Catholic Writer's Guild of Great Britain, the Royal Stuart Society and the Knights of Peter Claver. Coulombe is a founding board member of the Los Angeles-based Queen of Angels Foundation, a Roman Catholic devotional society.
As a child, he lived with his parents in a house owned by the TV psychic known as The Amazing Criswell, through whom he met the now-famous film-maker, Ed Wood. Coulombe is a registered member of the Constitution Party. In summer of 2018, he moved from Los Angeles, CA to Trumau, where he resides and studies theology at the International Theological Institute. Platonic Realism monarchism Catholicism Paleoconservatism hat is certain is that the ruins and traces of the Holy Empire are all about us. An understanding of its history and continuing influence is key to understanding the practical implications of the Social Kingship of Christ — which idea, in so many ways, is the ideal successive Emperors and their loyal subjects sought to follow on Earth, without which, as Pius XI teach in Quas primas, real peace is impossible. Whether or not the Great Monarch returns in our day, it would be good to know upon what basis such a Sovereign would rule. I would rather be ruled by people who think they're gonna fry in Hell forever if they rule me poorly, than by people for whom I'm a convenient economic siphon who can be milked like a cow.
The 4th of July might inspire us to wear black armbands and bone up on our League of the South or United Empire Loyalist or Sinarquista or Societe Saint Jean Baptiste literature, or else mindlessly chant in unison the praises of infanticidal freedom as the true spirit of ’76. But a far better response would be to enjoy the picnics, concerts and fireworks; the judiciary have, in a real sense, made themselves the source of authority. Coulombe, Charles A. ed.. The muse in the bottle: great writers on the joys of drinking. New York: Citadel Press. —, ed.. Classic horror stories: sixteen legendary stories of the supernatural. Guilford, Conn.: Lyons Press. —. Haunted castles of the world: ghostly legends and phenomena from keeps and fortresses around the globe. Guilford, Conn.: Lyons Press. —. Haunted places in America: a guide to spooked and spooky public places in the United States. Guilford, Conn.: Lyons Press. Rum: The Epic Story of the Drink That Conquered the World, Citadel, 2004. ISBN 0806525819 —; the Pope's legion: the multinational fighting force that defended the Vatican.
New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Puritan's Empire, Tumblar House, 2008. ISBN 0979160057 Desire & Deception, Tumblar House, 2009. ISBN 0984236511 The White Cockade: Catholic Poetry and Verse, Tumblar House, 2009. ISBN 0984236503 Everyman Today Call Rome, Tumblar House, 2011. ISBN 0984236562 Vicars of Christ, Tumblar House, 2014. ISBN 0988353725 Star-Spangled Crown, Tumblar House, 2016. ISBN 1944339051 —. A Catholic quest for the Holy Grail. Charlotte, NC: TAN Books. Coulombe, Charles A.. "Rum and rebellion... enumerated, extolled". Catholic Men's Quarterly. 2: 8–13. Charles A. Coulombe on Tumblar House
Aurelius Ambrosius, better known in English as Ambrose, was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century. He was the Roman governor of Liguria and Emilia, headquartered in Milan, before being made bishop of Milan by popular acclamation in 374. Ambrose was a staunch opponent of Arianism. Ambrose was one of the four original Doctors of the Church, is the patron saint of Milan, he is notable for his influence on Augustine of Hippo. Traditionally, Ambrose is credited with promoting "antiphonal chant", a style of chanting in which one side of the choir responds alternately to the other, as well as with composing Veni redemptor gentium, an Advent hymn. Ambrose was born into a Roman Christian family about 340 and was raised in Gallia Belgica, the capital of, Augusta Treverorum, his father is sometimes identified with a praetorian prefect of Gaul. His mother was a woman of intellect and piety and a member of the Roman family, Aurelii Symmachi and thus Ambrose was cousin of the orator Q.
Aurelius Symmachus. He was the youngest of three children, who included Marcellina and Satyrus venerated as saints. There is a legend that as an infant, a swarm of bees settled on his face while he lay in his cradle, leaving behind a drop of honey, his father honeyed tongue. For this reason and beehives appear in the saint's symbology. After the early death of his father, Ambrose went to Rome, where he studied literature and rhetoric, he followed in his father's footsteps and entered public service. Praetorian Prefect Sextus Claudius Petronius Probus first gave him a place in the council and in about 372 made him governor of Liguria and Emilia, with headquarters at Milan. In 286 Diocletian had moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. Ambrose was the Governor of Aemilia-Liguria in northern Italy until 374, when he became the Bishop of Milan, he was a popular political figure, since he was the Governor in the effective capital in the Roman West, he was a recognizable figure in the court of Valentinian I.
In the late 4th century there was a deep conflict in the diocese of Milan between the Nicene Church and Arians. In 374 the bishop of Milan, Auxentius, an Arian and the Arians challenged the succession. Ambrose went to the church where the election was to take place, to prevent an uproar, probable in this crisis, his address was interrupted by a call, "Ambrose, bishop!", taken up by the whole assembly. Ambrose was known to be Nicene Christian in belief, but acceptable to Arians due to the charity shown in theological matters in this regard. At first he energetically refused the office, for which he was in no way prepared: Ambrose was neither baptized nor formally trained in theology. Upon his appointment, Ambrose fled to a colleague's home seeking to hide. Upon receiving a letter from the Emperor Gratian praising the appropriateness of Rome appointing individuals evidently worthy of holy positions, Ambrose's host gave him up. Within a week, he was baptized and duly consecrated bishop of Milan; as bishop, he adopted an ascetic lifestyle, apportioned his money to the poor, donating all of his land, making only provision for his sister Marcellina.
This raised his popularity further, giving him considerable political leverage over the emperor. Upon the unexpected appointment of Ambrose to the episcopate, his brother Satyrus resigned a prefecture in order to move to Milan, where he took over managing the family's affairs. Ambrose studied theology with a presbyter of Rome. Using his excellent knowledge of Greek, rare in the West, to his advantage, he studied the Old Testament and Greek authors like Philo, Origen and Basil of Caesarea, with whom he was exchanging letters, he applied this knowledge as preacher, concentrating on exegesis of the Old Testament, his rhetorical abilities impressed Augustine of Hippo, who hitherto had thought poorly of Christian preachers. In the confrontation with Arians, Ambrose sought to theologically refute their propositions, which were contrary to the Nicene creed and thus to the defined orthodoxy; the Arians appealed to many high level clergy in both the Western and Eastern empires. Although the western Emperor Gratian supported orthodoxy, the younger Valentinian II, who became his colleague in the Empire, adhered to the Arian creed.
Ambrose did not sway the young prince's position. In the East, Emperor Theodosius I professed the Nicene creed. In this contested state of religious opinion, two leaders of the Arians, bishops Palladius of Ratiaria and Secundianus of Singidunum, confident of numbers, prevailed upon Gratian to call a general council from all parts of the empire; this request appeared so equitable. However, Ambrose feared the consequences and prevailed upon the emperor to have the matter determined by a council of the Western bishops. Accordingly, a synod composed of thirty-two bishops was held at Aquileia in the year 381. Ambrose was elected president and Palladius, being called upon to defend his opinions, declined. A vote was taken, when Palladius and his associate Secundianus were deposed