The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece. It is connected to the central part of the country by the Isthmus of Corinth land bridge which separates the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Gulf. During the late Middle Ages and the Ottoman era, the peninsula was known as the Morea, a name still in colloquial use in its demotic form; the peninsula is divided among three administrative regions: most belongs to the Peloponnese region, with smaller parts belonging to the West Greece and Attica regions. In 2016, Lonely Planet voted the Peloponnese the top spot of their Best in Europe list; the Peloponnese is a peninsula that covers an area of some 21,549.6 square kilometres and constitutes the southernmost part of mainland Greece. While technically it may be considered an island since the construction of the Corinth Canal in 1893, like other peninsulas that have been separated from their mainland by man-made bodies of waters, it is if referred to as an "island".
It has two land connections with the rest of Greece, a natural one at the Isthmus of Corinth, an artificial one by the Rio–Antirrio bridge. The peninsula has a mountainous interior and indented coasts; the Peloponnese possesses four south-pointing peninsulas, the Messenian, the Mani, the Cape Malea, the Argolid in the far northeast of the Peloponnese. Mount Taygetus in the south is the highest mountain in the Peloponnese, at 2,407 metres. Οther important mountains include Cyllene in the northeast, Aroania in the north and Panachaikon in the northwest, Mainalon in the center, Parnon in the southeast. The entire peninsula has been the site of many earthquakes in the past; the longest river is the Alfeios in the west, followed by the Evrotas in the south, the Pineios in the west. Extensive lowlands are found only in the west, with the exception of the Evrotas valley in the south and in the Argolid in the northeast; the Peloponnese is home to numerous spectacular beaches. Two groups of islands lie off the Peloponnesian coast: the Argo-Saronic Islands to the east, the Ionian to the west.
The island of Kythira, off the Epidaurus Limera peninsula to the south of the Peloponnese, is considered to be part of the Ionian Islands. The island of Elafonisos used to be part of the peninsula but was separated following the major quake of 365 AD. Since antiquity, continuing to the present day, the Peloponnese has been divided into seven major regions: Achaea, Argolis, Laconia and Elis; each of these regions is headed by a city. The largest city is Patras in Achaia, followed by Kalamata in Messenia; the peninsula has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Its modern name derives from ancient Greek mythology the legend of the hero Pelops, said to have conquered the entire region; the name Peloponnesos means "Island of Pelops". The Mycenaean civilization, mainland Greece's first major civilization, dominated the Peloponnese in the Bronze Age from its stronghold at Mycenae in the north-east of the peninsula; the Mycenean civilization collapsed at the end of the 2nd millennium BC. Archeological research has found that many of its palaces show signs of destruction.
The subsequent period, known as the Greek Dark Ages, is marked by an absence of written records. In 776 BC, the first Olympic Games were held at Olympia, in the western Peloponnese and this date is sometimes used to denote the beginning of the classical period of Greek antiquity. During classical antiquity, the Peloponnese was at the heart of the affairs of ancient Greece, possessed some of its most powerful city-states, was the location of some of its bloodiest battles; the major cities of Sparta, Corinth and Megalopolis were all located on the Peloponnese, it was the homeland of the Peloponnesian League. Soldiers from the peninsula fought in the Persian Wars, it was the scene of the Peloponnesian War of 431–404 BC; the entire Peloponnese with the notable exception of Sparta joined Alexander's expedition against the Persian Empire. Along with the rest of Greece, the Peloponnese fell to the expanding Roman Republic in 146 BC, when the Romans razed the city of Corinth and massacred its inhabitants.
The Romans created the province of Achaea comprising central Greece. During the Roman period, the peninsula remained prosperous but became a provincial backwater cut off from the affairs of the wider Roman world. After the partition of the Empire in 395, the Peloponnese became a part of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire; the devastation of Alaric's raid in 396–397 led to the construction of the Hexamilion wall across the Isthmus of Corinth. Through most of late antiquity, the peninsula retained its urbanized character: in the 6th century, Hierocles counted 26 cities in his Synecdemus. By the latter part of that century, building activity seems to have stopped everywhere except Constantinople, Thessalonica and Athens; this has traditionally been attributed to calamities such as plague and Slavic invasions. However, more recent analysis suggests that urban decline was linked with the collapse of long-distance and regional commercial networks that underpinned and supported late antique urba
Western Greece Region is one of the thirteen regions of Greece. It comprises the western part of continental Greece and the northwestern part of the Peloponnese peninsula; the region of Western Greece was established in the 1987 administrative reform. With the 2010 Kallikratis plan, its powers and authority were extended. Along with the Peloponnese and the Ionian Islands regions, it is supervised by the Decentralized Administration of the Peloponnese, Western Greece and the Ionian Islands based at Patras; the region is based at Patras and is divided into three regional units, Aetolia-Acarnania in Central Greece and Achaea and Elis in the Peloponnese, which are further subdivided into 19 municipalities. The governor is Apostolos Katsifaras, elected in the 2010 local elections running for PASOK and was narrowly re-elected in 2014 as an independent; the region has mild winters. Sunny days dominate during the summer months in areas within the beaches and cloudy and rainy in the mountains. Snow is common during the winter in the mountains of Erymanthus and Aroania.
Winter high temperatures are around the 10 °C mark throughout the low-lying areas. Missolonghi Agrinio Aigio Amaliada Patras Pyrgos Nafpaktos Official website
Motorway 5 (Greece)
The Greek Motorway 5 is a motorway in Greece. In 3 August 2017, the last section under construction was completed and delivered to traffic by the Greek Minister of Infrastructure and Network, making A5 a operational motorway, it is the second major north-south road connection after Motorway 1 and is part of the trans-balkanic Adriatic–Ionian motorway and the European routes E55 and E951. The motorway referred to as Ionia Odos, starts at Ioannina and it follows the western coastline of mainland Greece down to the Gulf of Corinth. At Rio, it crosses the gulf via the Rio–Antirrio bridge and is connected with the A8 Motorway at an interchange near Patras; as of 2017, it is yet unknown if the future Patras - Pyrgos motorway will be part of the A5 or the Olympia Odos motorway and its construction is being auctioned. The Ionia Odos motorway was one of the most challenging construction projects in Greece, as it spans a big part of Western Greece and because of its location on the foothills of the Pindus mountain range.
After its completion in August 2017, it reduced travel times between Antirrio and Ioannina to 1 hour and 40 minutes, down from 3 hours and 30 minutes and will provide a boost to the economy of the regions it spans. The motorway consists of: 196 kilometres of motorway, with 2 lanes in each direction, emergency lane and Jersey barrier separation 19 interchanges 133 overpasses and underpasses 4 twin-tube tunnels 24 bridges 4 main and 5 lateral toll stations 5 rest areas Construction of the Rio–Antirrio bridge, the world's longest suspended cable-stayed bridge, began in 1998, more than 100 years after a first proposal by then-prime minister Charilaos Trikoupis; the bridge was inaugurated on 7 August 2004, a week before the opening of the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens. With a length of 33 km, the Agrinio bypass was the first major segment of the northern A5 section to be completed. While construction had begun in 2002/03, it was put into service in May 2009. Starting from Aitoliko, the road bypasses the largest city and economical center of the Aetolia-Acarnania prefecture and ends in Kouvaras.
It replaced the 12 km longer National Road 5. In July 28, 2015, a 4,5 km segment before the Aitoliko interchange became operational; this segment features the Ioannina-Antirrio carriageway, with the Antirrio-Ioannina carriageway being under construction where the old road was. The latter was moved eastwards in order to make room for the construction of the motorway and the traffic is diverted there; the 17 km Arta bypass begins from Sellades near Arta and ends at Filippiada, near the border with the prefecture of Preveza. Its first part (Arta north interchange - Filippiada was opened in 2003 and the second part was opened in April 2011, with the bridge of the Arta north interchange being inaugurated on 22 November 2013; as of December 2016, the 25 km Kouvaras interchange - Amfilochia interchange segment has been completed. It should have been opened by July 2016, but because of landslides just before the Amfilochia interchange, it was opened in 27 December 2016 by the minister Christos Spirtzis.
The 37 km long section Kampi - Avgo was opened to traffic in 22 February 2017 by the minister of infrastructure Christos Spirtzis, however without the connection with the Egnatia Odos, completed in August 2017. The latter was one of the most difficult motorway segments under construction in Greece because of the rugged mountainous terrain along its route; the most important tunnel of the motorway, the Klokova Tunnel, has been excavated and other works are undergoing. The 37 km section Klokova-Kefalovryso was opened to traffic on 12 April 2017. In early September 2016, It was announced that the rest of the expropriation works were settled with the house owners receiving compensations for their respective areas, thus allowing full construction of the road. In late 2006, construction and maintenance of the motorway's northern, Ionia Odos, section from Ioannina to the Rio intersection has been granted to the Greek-Spanish "Nea Odos" consortium, responsible for the maintenance of the Athens–Skarfeia section of the A1 Motorway.
The consortium, consisting of construction firms GEK Group of Companies SA, Terna SA, Cintra SA, Grupo ACS, will build and operate the road, receiving toll fees for 30 years, while investing a combined €1.15 billion in the project. The rest of the total €1.4 billion funds will be provided by the European Union and the Greek government. Construction, undertaken by the Euroionia Joint Venture started in 2008 with a completion date of 72 months; the bill was ratified on March 28, 2007. In 2010, it was expected that the full length of the motorway would be completed by the end of 2013. However, the consortium's economical problems led to the construction being stopped in 2011. Construction works have been resumed by April 2013, but the slow progress of expropriations, archaeological investigations, expropriation-related lawsuits and environmental issues led to further significant delays; the remaining parts are expected to be finished by March 2017. The exits of the main northern section of the A5 motorway: The Patras bypass was the first segment of Olympia Odos, put into service.
Planning of the bypass began in the 1980s. It passes east of the city, through the foothills of the Panachaiko mountain, consists of several tunnels
Nafpaktos, known as Lepanto during part of its history, is a town and a former municipality in Phokis, West Greece, situated on a bay on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, 3 km west of the mouth of the river Mornos. It is named for an important Athenian naval station in the Peloponnesian war; as a strategically crucial possession controlling access to the Gulf of Corinth, Naupaktos changed hands many times during the Crusades and the Ottoman–Venetian Wars. It was under Venetian control in the 15th century, came to be known by the Venetian form of its name, Lepanto, it fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1499 and was used as naval station by the Ottoman Navy in the 16th century, being the site of the decisive victory by the Holy League in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. Except a brief period of Venetian control in 1687–1699, Lepanto remained under Ottoman control until Greek independence in 1829; the modern municipality was incorporated in 1946, but merged into the larger Nafpaktia municipality in the 2010 reform.
Nafpaktos is now both the name of a municipal unit within Nafpaktia and of the town proper within the Nafpaktos unit. The municipal district has an area of 159,947 square kilometres, with a population close to 20,000 as of 2011; the town is 9 km northeast of Antirrio, 18 km northeast of Patras, 35 km east of Missolonghi and 45 km southeast of Agrinio. The Greek National Road 48/E65 passes north of the town, it is the second largest town of Aetolia-Acarnania, after Agrinio. The ancient name Naupaktos means "boatyard", it was Latinized as Naupactus. By the late medieval period, the local name had been corrupted to Epaktos or Epahtos. By the "Franks" it was called Nepant or Lepant. French sources of the 14th century give Neopant; the name was adapted in Ottoman Turkish from Greek Νέπαχτος as Aynabahti or İnebahtı. The original ancient name was revived in modern Greece in the 19th century. In Greek legend, Naupactus is the place where the Heraclidae built a fleet to invade the Peloponnese. In Classical Antiquity, it was an important town of the Locri Ozolae and the best harbour on the northern coast of the Corinthian Gulf.
The town was situated just within the entrance of this gulf, a little east of the promontory Antirrhium. It is said to have derived its name from the Heracleidae having here built the fleet with which they crossed over to Peloponnesus. Though Naupactus was indebted for its historical importance to its harbour at the entrance of the Corinthian gulf, it was originally chosen as a site for a city on account of its strong hill, fertile plains, copious supply of running water. After the Greco-Persian Wars it fell into the power of the Athenians, who settled there the Messenians, compelled to leave their country at the end of the Third Messenian War in 455 BCE, during the Peloponnesian War it was the headquarters of the Athenians in all their operations in Western Greece, the scene of the Battle of Naupactus in 429 BCE. After the Battle of Aegospotami the Messenians were expelled from Naupactus, the Locrians regained possession of the town, it afterwards passed into the hands of the Achaeans, from whom, however, it was wrested by Epaminondas.
Philip II of Macedon gave it to the Aetolians, hence it is called a town of Aetolia. The Aetolians vigorously defended Naupactus against the Romans for two months in 191 BCE. Ptolemy calls it a town of the Locri Ozolae, to whom it must therefore have been assigned by the Romans after Pliny's time. Pausanias saw at Naupactus a temple of Poseidon near the sea, a temple of Artemis, a cave sacred to Aphrodite, the ruins of a temple of Asclepius; the Roman playwright Plautus mentions Naupactus in his comedy Miles Gloriosus as the destination of an Athenian master, on a diplomatic mission to the city. Naupactus is mentioned in the 6th-century list of Hierocles, but it was destroyed by an earthquake in 551/2, during the reign of Justinian I; the town and its hinterland were hit by an epidemic coming from Italy in 747/8 and deserted. From the late 9th century the 880s, it was capital of the Byzantine thema of Nicopolis. At the same time, its bishopric was elevated to a metropolis. During the 9th–10th centuries, the town was an important harbour for the Byzantine navy and a strategic point for communication with the Byzantine possessions in southern Italy.
A rebellion of the local populace, which led to the death of the local strategos George, is recorded during the early reign of Constantine VIII. In 1040, the town did not take part in the uprising of Peter Delyan, although attacked by the rebel army, alone among the towns of the theme of Nicopolis, it resisted successfully. St. Nicholas of Trani is recorded as having departed for Otranto in 1094 from the port; the history of the town over the next two centuries is obscure. Following the dissolution of the Byzantine Empire after the Fourth Crusade, it became part of the Despotate of Epirus. Under its metropolitan, John Apokaukos, the see of Naupactus gained in importance and headed the local synod for the southern half of the Epirote domains. In 1294, the town was ceded to Philip I, Prince of Taranto as part of the dowry of Thamar Angelina Komnene; the ruler of Thessaly, Constantine Doukas, attacked Epirus in the next year and captured Naupactus, but in 1296 handed most of his conquests back to the Angevins, Naupactus be
Chalkeia is a former municipality in Aetolia-Acarnania, West Greece, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Nafpaktia, of which it is a municipal unit; the municipal unit has an area of 114.189 km2. Population 2,397; the seat of the municipality was in Trikorfo. The municipal unit Chalkeia is subdivided into the following communities: Trikorfo Ano Vasiliki Vasiliki Gavrolimni Galatas Kalavrouza Perithori
Katafygio is a village in Aetolia-Acarnania in Greece. It is built amphitheatrically at an altitude of 620 metres on the Eastern foothills of Makryoro Mountain, naked and steep, it borders to the north with Anavriti village, north-east with Kentriki and Aspria villages, southeast with Chrysovo village, northwest with Gavros village and southwest with Anthofyto village. It is about 33 kilometres from Nafpaktos and is accessed by a tarmac road via Nafpaκtos - Anthofyto - Gavros - Golemi and after passing through the imposing rocks of Amorani; the village is surrounded by 2 hills on the summits of which are found the small churches of St Konstantinos and St Athanasios. The village is divided into 4 equal parts by 4 streams that join towards the lower part of the village; the land here is prone to landslip. In 1878, 25 buildings disappeared because of subsidence; the houses and the fields are strengthened with low walls. In the centre of village is the square with 2 coffee houses and the Holy Church of Koimiseos of Theotokou.
In the village there are 2 basketball courts, a children's playground, while at the top of village in the place named Desi there is a traditional hostel called Desi, in the entrance of the villagein the place named Saint Dimitrios there is another one called Katafigio. The natural environment itself constitutes a beautiful sight, it is worth climbing the gorge of Foniorema, visiting the old mills, the caves, the 2 old traditional bridges which are located in pretty settings. The Holy Church of "Metamorphosis of Sotiros" ), built about 13th century and situated near Chrysovo; this church is what remains of the historic monastery of Sotiros which at that time belonged to Amorani, and, closed in 1834. The old name of the village was Amorani and in 1928 it was renamed Katafygio; the new name of the village resulted from the fact that at the time of the Ottoman occupation the area represented a genuine refuge. The abundance of caverns, the rocky and steep terrain rendered the village exceptionally inaccessible.
It is not certain when it was founded, however it exists as a village round 1550-1575, at which time we find it registered in Turkish tax documents in the region of Kravara. During the period of Ottoman domination it constituted one of the main villages of the region. Around 1700 two families of cattle-breeders moved home to the western side of the Makryoro mountain and created a small settlement, named Golemi; this historical relationship renders Golemi an integral part of Katafygio. Administratively Katafygio village from 1836. With the royal decree in the 31 August 1912 261/Α/1912 it was recognized as the community of Amorani, it was renamed to Katafygio by the decree of 9 September 1927 of the official Journal of the Hellenic Republic 206/A/1927. Included in the community is the small settlement of Golemi. With the application of the Kapodistria law it constitutes henceforth the Municipal District of Katafygio, in the Municipality of Apodotia in Aetolia-Acarnania, Greece and it occupies 23.429 stremmata, while the census of 2011 recorded 322 individuals making it one of the more vibrant villages of the mountainous Nafpaktia area.
The residents lived by livestock farming, maintaining a significant number of animals, an activity which the remaining residents still carry on today. Katafigio Nafpaktias Katafigio - Amorani
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So