Greek dances is a new tradition, being referred to by authors such as Plato, Aristotle and Lucian. There are different styles and interpretations from all of the islands and surrounding mainland areas; each region formed its own style to fit in with their own ways. For example, island dances have more of a different smooth flow to them, while Pontic dancing closer to Black Sea, is sharp. There are over 10 000 traditional dances. There are pan-Hellenic dances, which have been adopted throughout the Greek world; these include the syrtos, pyrrhichios and sirtaki. Traditional Greek dancing has a social function, it brings the community together at key points of the year, such as Easter, the grape harvest or patronal festivals. For this reason, tradition dictates a strict order in the arrangement of the dancers, for example, by age. Visitors tempted to join in a celebration should be careful not to violate these arrangements, in which the prestige of the individual villagers may be embodied. Greek dances are performed in diaspora Greek communities and among international folk dance groups.
Antistrophe Carpaea Choreia Cordax Dionysiakos Hyporchema Korybantes Pyrrhichios Syrtos The Aegean islands have dances which are fast in pace and light and jumpy. Many of these dances, are couples dances, not so much in lines. See Nisiotika for more information; these dances are light and jumpy, cardiovascular. Epirote dances are the most heavy in all of Greece. Great balance is required in order to perform these dances; the dances of the Peloponnese are simple and heavy, with the leader of the line improvising. Dances in Macedonia vary. Most are solid and are performed using heavy steps, whilst others are fast and agile. Most dances begin increase in speed. Dances in Thessaly are similar in style to the dances of Epirus. Heavy, some are fast; the leader, improvises, just like those in the Peloponnese. Ntarsa Plektos Tsamikos Thracian dance is skippy and light. In most Thracian dances, the men are only permitted to dance at the front of the line. Musicians and singers such as Hronis Aithonidis and Kariofilis Doitsidis have brought to life the music of Thrace.
The dances of are fast and similar to the Thracian style of dance. Dances from the town of Kavakli and Neo Monastiri are the most popular; the dances of the Pontic Greeks from the Black Sea, were performed by Pontian soldiers in order to motivate themselves before going into a battle. The dances are accompanied by the Pontian lyra called kemenche by Turkish people. See Horon for more information on the history of these dances. Byzantine dance Hasapiko Tessera Matia Patinada Nifis Rododahtilos Pizzica Tarantella Antipera Hatzistergiou Kalamatianos Kato Stin Aspri Petra La Valia di Giannena Sta Tria Syrtos Apano Stin Triandafilia Choros Katsa Despo Diplos Choros Sta Tria Tsamikos Music of Greece Greek folk music Greek musical instruments Byzantine music Assyrian folk dance Turkish dance Armenian dance In Greek - Traditional Dance by region Greek Dance ArchivesVideo Examples of Regional Greek DancesDance from region of Makedonia. Dance from region of Makedonia. Dance from region of Thessaly Dance from region of Thessaly Dance from the region of Thraki Dance from the region of Thraki Dances from the region of Pontus Dances from the region of Pontus
Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement. This movement has aesthetic and symbolic value, is acknowledged as dance by performers and observers within a particular culture. Dance can be categorized and described by its choreography, by its repertoire of movements, or by its historical period or place of origin. An important distinction is to be drawn between the contexts of theatrical and participatory dance, although these two categories are not always separate. Other forms of human movement are sometimes said to have a dance-like quality, including martial arts, cheerleading, figure skating, synchronized swimming, marching bands, many other forms of athletics. Theatrical dance called performance or concert dance, is intended as a spectacle a performance upon a stage by virtuoso dancers, it tells a story using mime and scenery, or else it may interpret the musical accompaniment, specially composed. Examples are western ballet and modern dance, Classical Indian dance and Chinese and Japanese song and dance dramas.
Most classical forms are centred upon dance alone, but performance dance may appear in opera and other forms of musical theatre. Participatory dance, on the other hand, whether it be a folk dance, a social dance, a group dance such as a line, chain or square dance, or a partner dance such as is common in western Western ballroom dancing, is undertaken for a common purpose, such as social interaction or exercise, of participants rather than onlookers; such dance has any narrative. A group dance and a corps de ballet, a social partner dance and a pas de deux, differ profoundly. A solo dance may be undertaken for the satisfaction of the dancer. Participatory dancers all employ the same movements and steps but, for example, in the rave culture of electronic dance music, vast crowds may engage in free dance, uncoordinated with those around them. On the other hand, some cultures lay down strict rules as to the particular dances in which, for example, men and children may or must participate. Archeological evidence for early dance includes 9,000-year-old paintings in India at the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, Egyptian tomb paintings depicting dancing figures, dated c. 3300 BC.
It has been proposed that before the invention of written languages, dance was an important part of the oral and performance methods of passing stories down from one generation to the next. The use of dance in ecstatic trance states and healing rituals is thought to have been another early factor in the social development of dance. References to dance can be found in early recorded history; the Bible and Talmud refer to many events related to dance, contain over 30 different dance terms. In Chinese pottery as early as the Neolithic period, groups of people are depicted dancing in a line holding hands, the earliest Chinese word for "dance" is found written in the oracle bones. Dance is further described in the Lüshi Chunqiu. Primitive dance in ancient China was associated with shamanic rituals. During the first millennium BCE in India, many texts were composed which attempted to codify aspects of daily life. Bharata Muni's Natyashastra is one of the earlier texts, it deals with drama, in which dance plays an important part in Indian culture.
It categorizes dance into four types – secular, abstract, interpretive – and into four regional varieties. The text elaborates various hand-gestures and classifies movements of the various limbs, steps and so on. A strong continuous tradition of dance has since continued in India, through to modern times, where it continues to play a role in culture, and, the Bollywood entertainment industry. Many other contemporary dance forms can be traced back to historical, traditional and ethnic dance. Dance is though not performed with the accompaniment of music and may or may not be performed in time to such music; some dance may provide its own audible accompaniment in place of music. Many early forms of music and dance were created for each other and are performed together. Notable examples of traditional dance/music couplings include the jig, tango and salsa; some musical genres have a parallel dance form such as baroque dance. Rhythm and dance are linked in history and practice; the American dancer Ted Shawn wrote.
A musical rhythm requires two main elements. The basic pulse is equal in duration to a simple step or gesture. Dances have a characteristic tempo and rhythmic pattern; the tango, for example, is danced in 24 time at 66 beats per minute. The basic slow step, called a "slow", lasts for one beat, so that a full "right–left" step is equal to one 24 measure; the basic forward and backward walk of the dance is so coun
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Byzantine dance developed during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, was centered in the capital city of Byzantium renamed Constantinople. Byzantine culture was oriented towards Greek culture and Christianity, rather than Roman paganism, in development of the arts; the Byzantine Empire existed for more than a thousand years, from the 4th century AD to 1453. Ancient Greek dance in classical antiquity was held to have educational value, as Plato's dialogues on this point evidence in the Laws. However, as Greek culture conquered Rome, dancing had less educational value and was more for entertainment purposes. At this time dancers were given a lower social status than other artists; the influence of Christianity brought change too, first as the Eastern Roman Empire sought to ban dance and condemned it for its pagan origins. However, as the Eastern Orthodox Church began to grant concessions to the vast number of Greeks who had converted to Christianity, rendering dance acceptable by refining and spiritualizing it.
This was similar to Christian reinterpretations of pre-Christian holidays and symbols. There are similarities between Byzantine dance and modern Greek dance; the dances that won the approval of the church were group dances processions or circles in which men, separated from women, performed solemn decorous movements. However, the information on dancing at this period is scarce. Since the Byzantine art is ecclesiastical, the references to dance are rare; some images from the Byzantine and meta-Byzantine dances have been saved on sculptures and manuscripts – but in church frescos amongst religious subjects. In his book Life and Culture of the Byzantines, Phaidon Koukoules assembled all known references to dance in texts of that time. From his writings, we learn that there were women's dances on Easter, nocturnal satirical dances in disguise on the Kalends, dances by itinerant bands of young men on the Roussalia. There were dances at weddings, in taverns, at banquets; the wealthy invited professional harpists and youths and maidens to dance, being appreciated for their bodily agility and deft footwork.
Dance spectacles staged in the theater in the accompaniment of flute and guitar were mentioned. Though we have so few descriptions of Byzantine dances, we know that they were often'intertwined'; the leader of the dance was called the koryphaios or chorolektes and it was he who began the song and made sure that the circle was maintained. Efstathios of Thessaloniki mentions a dance which commenced in a circle and ended with the dancers facing one another; when not dancing in a circle the dancers held their hands high or waved them to left and right. They held cymbals or a kerchief in their hands and their movements were emphasized by their long sleeves; as they danced, they sang, either set songs or extemporized ones, sometimes in unison, sometimes in refrain, repeating the verse sung by the lead dancer. The onlookers joined in, clapping the singing. Professional singers the musicians themselves, composed lyrics to suit the occasion. In Constantinople, important events were celebrated with large public dances.
On the return of the victorious Byzantine army, for instance, the citizens thronged the streets, danced with the soldiers and shouted in jubilation. There are instances recorded of people dancing inside the church, on Easter and Christmas, after Patriarch Theophylactos had granted his permission. Other times they danced and sang extemporized songs; the soldiers danced after maneuvers for amusement. The charioteers danced in the Hippodrome when they won their races and, the sailors danced an unmanly dance, full of twists and turns, as if imitating the spirals of the labyrinth. Byzantine dances in popular culture included: Syrtos Geranos Mantilia Saximos Pyrrichios Kordakas At the height of the Empire, court life "passed in a sort of ballet", with precise ceremonies prescribed for every occasion, to show that "Imperial power could be exercised in harmony and order", "the Empire could thus reflect the motion of the Universe as it was made by the Creator", according to the Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus, who wrote a Book of Ceremonies describing in enormous detail the annual round of the Court.
Special forms of dress for many classes of people on particular occasions are set down. In their hands they hold what are called phengia"; the second group do just the same, but wearing "a garment of green and red, with gold bands". These colours were the marks of the old chariot-racing factions, the four now merged to just the Blues and the Greens, incorporated into the official hierarchy; some dance historians imagine that these court dances by high officials were more like a restrained "stylized walk". However, enamel plaques on the Monomachus Crown, sent by the Byzantine Emperor to Hungary in about 1050, show courtly women dancing, with their hands over their head and one leg pulled back shaply behind them, they are shown waving long strips of fabric above their heads, such as when'skipping rope'. Instruments in Byzantine music for dance included: Guitar Single, double, or multiple flute Sistrum Timpani Psaltirio (Ψαλτήριν "p
According to the Greek mythology, the Korybantes were the armed and crested dancers who worshipped the Phrygian goddess Cybele with drumming and dancing. They are called the Kurbantes in Phrygia; the conventional English equivalent is "Corybants". The name Korybantes is of uncertain etymology. Edzard Johan Furnée and R. S. P. Beekes have suggested a Pre-Greek origin. Others refer the name to *κορυβή, the Macedonian version of κορυφή "crown, mountain peak", explaining their association with mountains Olympus; the Korybantes were Muse Thalia or Rhytia. In some accounts, they were described as the children of Helios; the Kuretes or Kouretes were nine dancers who venerate the Cretan counterpart of Cybele. A fragment from Strabo's Book VII gives a sense of the analogous character of these male confraternities, the confusion rampant among those not initiated: Many assert that the gods worshipped in Samothrace as well as the Kurbantes and the Korybantes and in like manner the Kouretes and the Idaean Daktyls are the same as the Kabeiroi, but as to the Kabeiroi they are unable to tell who they are.
These armored male dancers kept time to the rhythmic stamping of their feet. Dance, according to Greek thought, was one of the civilizing activities, like music; the dance in armor was a male coming-of-age initiation ritual linked to a warrior victory celebration. Both Jane Ellen Harrison and the French classicist Henri Jeanmaire have shown that both the Kouretes and Cretan Zeus, called "the greatest kouros", were intimately connected with the transition of boys into manhood in Cretan cities; the English "Pyrrhic Dance" is a corruption of the original Pyrríkhē or the Pyrríkhios Khorós "Pyrrhichian Dance". It has no relationship with the king Pyrrhus of Epirus, who invaded Italy in the 3rd century BC, who gave his name to the Pyrrhic victory, achieved at such cost that it was tantamount to a defeat; the Phrygian Korybantes were confused by Greeks with other ecstatic male confraternities, such as the Idaean Dactyls or the Cretan Kouretes, spirit-youths who acted as guardians of the infant Zeus.
In Hesiod's telling of Zeus's birth, when Great Gaia came to Crete and hid the child Zeus in a "steep cave", beneath the secret places of the earth, on Mount Aigaion with its thick forests. Emily Vermeule observed, This myth is Greek interpretation of mystifying Minoan ritual in an attempt to reconcile their Father Zeus with the Divine Child of Crete. Among the offerings recovered from the cave, the most spectacular are decorated bronze shields with patterns that draw upon north Syrian originals and a bronze gong on which a god and his attendants are shown in a distinctly Near Eastern style. Korybantes presided over the infancy of Dionysus, another god, born as a babe, of Zagreus, a Cretan child of Zeus, or child-doublet of Zeus; the wild ecstasy of their cult can be compared to the female Maenads. Ovid, in Metamorphoses, says; this suggests a connexion with the Pelasgian Hyades. The scholar Jane Ellen Harrison writes that besides being guardians and initiators of the infant Zeus, the Kouretes were primitive magicians and seers.
She writes that they were metal workers and that metallurgy was considered an magical art. There were several "tribes" of Korybantes, including the Cabeiri, the Korybantes Euboioi, the Korybantes Samothrakioi. Hoplodamos and his Gigantes were counted among Korybantes, Titan Anytos was considered a Kourete. Homer referred to select young men as kouretes, when Agamemnon instructs Odysseus to pick out kouretes, the bravest among the Achaeans to bear gifts to Achilles; the Greeks preserved a tradition down to Strabo's day, that the Kuretes of Aetolia and Acarnania in mainland Greece had been imported from Crete. Jane Ellen Harrison. Themis: A Study of the Social Origins of Greek Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1912. Strabo, translated by Horace Leonard Jones. LacusCurtis, Online version at the Perseus Digital Library, Books 6–14 Media related to Korybantes at Wikimedia Commons Theoi Project - Korybantes and Kouretes Long review of Paola Ceccarelli, La pirrica nell' antichità greco romana: Studi sulla danza armata, 1998
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences
Cyclopædia: or, An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences was an encyclopedia published by Ephraim Chambers in London in 1728, reprinted in numerous editions in the eighteenth century. The Cyclopaedia was one of the first general encyclopedias to be produced in English; the 1728 subtitle gives a summary of the aims of the author: Cyclopædia, or, an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences: Containing the Definitions of the Terms, Accounts of the Things Signify'd Thereby, in the Several Arts, both Liberal and Mechanical, the Several Sciences and Divine: the Figures, Properties, Productions and Uses, of Things Natural and Artificial. The first edition included numerous cross-references meant to connect articles scattered by the use of alphabetical order, a dedication to the King, George II, a philosophical preface at the beginning of Volume 1. Among other things, the preface gives an analysis of forty-seven divisions of knowledge, with classed lists of the articles belonging to each, intended to serve as a table of contents and as a directory indicating the order in which the articles should be read.
A second edition appeared in 1738 with 2,466 pages. This edition was retouched and amended in a thousand places, with a few added articles and some enlarged articles. Chambers was prevented from doing more because the booksellers were alarmed by a bill in Parliament containing a clause to oblige the publishers of all improved editions of books to print their improvements separately; the bill, after passing the House of Commons, was unexpectedly thrown out by the House of Lords. Five other editions were published in London from 1739 to 1751–1752. An edition was published in Dublin in 1742. An Italian translation appearing in Venice, 1748–1749, 4to, 9 vols. was the first complete Italian encyclopaedia. When Chambers was in France in 1739, he rejected favorable proposals to publish an edition there dedicated to Louis XV. Chambers' work was done, popular. However, it had omissions, as he was well aware. George Lewis Scott was employed by the booksellers to select articles for the press and to supply others, but he left before the job was finished.
The job was given to Dr. John Hill; the Supplement was published in London in 1753 in two folio volumes with 12 plates. Hill was a botanist, the botanical part, weak in the Cyclopaedia, was the best. Abraham Rees, a nonconformist minister, published a revised and enlarged edition in 1778–1788, with the supplement and improvements incorporated, it was published as a folio of 5 vols. 5010 pages, 159 plates. It was published in 418 numbers at 6d. Each. Rees claimed to have added more than 4,400 new articles. At the end, he gave an index of articles, classed under 100.heads, numbering about 57,000 and filling 80 pages. The heads, with 39 cross references, were arranged alphabetically. Among the precursors of Chambers's Cyclopaedia was John Harris's Lexicon Technicum, of 1704. By its title and content, it was "An Universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences: Explaining not only the Terms of Art, but the Arts Themselves." While Harris's work is classified as a technical dictionary, it took material from Newton and Halley, among others.
Chambers's Cyclopaedia in turn became the inspiration for the landmark Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert, which owed its inception to a proposed French translation of Chambers' work begun in 1744 by John Mills, assisted by Gottfried Sellius Bocast, Alexander. Chambers on Definition. McLean: Berkeley Bridge Press, 2016.. Bradshaw, Lael Ely. "Ephraim Chambers’ Cyclopedia." Notable Encyclopedias of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: Nine Predecessors of the Encyclopédie. Ed. Frank Kafker. Oxford: The Voltaire Foundation, 1981. 123–137.. Collison, Robert. Encyclopædias: Their History Throughout the Ages. New York: Hafner, 1966. OCLC 368968 Kafker, Frank. A. Notable Encyclopedias of the Late Eighteenth Century: Eleven Successors of the Encyclopédie. Oxford: Voltaire Foundation at the Taylor Institution, 1994. Kolb, Gwin J. and James H. Sledd. “Johnson’s ‘Dictionary’ and Lexicographical Tradition.” Modern Philology 50.3: 171–194. Mack, Ruth. “The Historicity of Johnson’s Lexicographer.”
Representations 76: 61–87. Shorr, Phillip. Science and Superstition in the Eighteenth Century: A Study of the Treatment of Science in Two Encyclopedias of 1725–1750. New York: Columbia, 1932. OCLC 3633346 Walsh, S. Patraig. "Cyclopaedia." Anglo-American General Encyclopedias: A Historical Bibliography, 1703–1967. New York: R. R. Bowker, 1968. 38–39. OCLC 577541 Yeo, Richard. "The Best Book in the Universe": Ephraim Chambers’ Cyclopedia. In Encyclopædic Visions: Scientific Dictionaries and Enlightenment Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001. 120–169. Yeo, Richard R. "A Solution to the Multitude of Books: Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopaedia as "the Best Book in the Universe."" Journal of the History of Ideas, v. 64, 2003. Pp. 61–72. Chambers' Cyclopaedia, 1728, 2 volumes