In philosophy, ideas are taken as mental representational images of some object. Ideas can be abstract concepts that do not present as mental images. Many philosophers have considered ideas to be a fundamental ontological category of being; the capacity to create and understand the meaning of ideas is considered to be an essential and defining feature of human beings. In a popular sense, an idea arises in a reflexive, spontaneous manner without thinking or serious reflection, for example, when we talk about the idea of a person or a place. A new or original idea can lead to innovation; the word idea comes from Greek ἰδέα idea "form, pattern," from the root of ἰδεῖν idein, "to see." One view on the nature of ideas is that there exist some ideas which are so general and abstract that they could not have arisen as a representation of an object of our perception but rather were in some sense always present. These are distinguished from adventitious ideas which are images or concepts which are accompanied by the judgment that they are caused or occasioned by an external object.
Another view holds that we only discover ideas in the same way that we discover the real world, from personal experiences. The view that humans acquire all or all their behavioral traits from nurture is known as tabula rasa. Most of the confusions in the way ideas arise is at least in part due to the use of the term "idea" to cover both the representation perceptics and the object of conceptual thought; this can be always illustrated in terms of the scientific doctrines of innate ideas, "concrete ideas versus abstract ideas", as well as "simple ideas versus complex ideas". Plato in Ancient Greece was one of the earliest philosophers to provide a detailed discussion of ideas and of the thinking process. Plato argued in dialogues such as the Phaedo, Symposium and Timaeus that there is a realm of ideas or forms, which exist independently of anyone who may have thoughts on these ideas, it is the ideas which distinguish mere opinion from knowledge, for unlike material things which are transient and liable to contrary properties, ideas are unchanging and nothing but just what they are.
Plato seems to assert forcefully that material things can only be the objects of opinion. Furthermore, ideas for Plato appear to serve as universals. "Yes, so we do." "And we assert that there is a fair itself, a good itself, so on for all things that we set down as many. Now, again, we refer to them as one idea of each. "That's so." "And, moreover, we say that the former are seen, but not intellected, while the ideas are intellected but not seen." Descartes wrote of the meaning of idea as an image or representation but not "in the mind", well known in the vernacular. Despite that Descartes is credited with the invention of the non-Platonic use of the term, he at first followed this vernacular use.b In his Meditations on First Philosophy he says, "Some of my thoughts are like images of things, it is to these alone that the name'idea' properly belongs." He sometimes maintained that ideas were innate and uses of the term idea diverge from the original primary scholastic use. He provides multiple non-equivalent definitions of the term, uses it to refer to as many as six distinct kinds of entities, divides ideas inconsistently into various genetic categories.
For him knowledge took the form of ideas and philosophical investigation is the deep consideration of these entities. In striking contrast to Plato's use of idea is that of John Locke. In his Introduction to An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke defines idea as "that term which, I think, serves best to stand for whatsoever is the object of the understanding when a man thinks, I have used it to express whatever is meant by phantasm, species, or whatever it is which the mind can be employed about in thinking, he said he regarded the book necessary to examine our own abilities and see what objects our understandings were, or were not, fitted to deal with. In his philosophy other outstanding figures followed in his footsteps — Hume and Kant in the 18th century, Arthur Schopenhauer in the 19th century, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Karl Popper in the 20th century. Locke always believed in good sense — not pushing things to extremes and on taking into account the plain facts of the matter.
He considered his common-sense ideas "good-tempered and down-to-earth." As John Locke studied humans in his work “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding” he continually referenced Descartes for ideas as he asked this fundamental question: “When we are concerned with something about which we have no certain knowledge, what rules or standards should guide how confident we allow ourselves to be that our opinions are right?” A simpler way of putting it is how do humans know ideas, what are the different types of ideas. An idea to Locke “can mean some sort of brute experience.” He shows that there are “No innate principles in the mind.”. Thus, he concludes that “our ideas are all experiential in nature.” An experience can either be a sensation or a reflection: “consider whether there are any innate ideas in the mind before any are brought in by the impression from sensation or reflection.” Therefore
George Galloway is a British politician and writer. Between 1987 and 2015, with a gap in 2010–12, he represented four constituencies as a Member of Parliament, elected as a candidate for the Labour Party and the Respect Party. After becoming the youngest Chairman of the Scottish Labour Party in 1981, he became General Secretary of the London-based charity War on Want in 1983, remaining in the post until elected as MP for Glasgow Hillhead at the 1987 general election. In 2003, Galloway was expelled from the Labour Party, having been found guilty by the party's national constitutional committee of four of the five charges of bringing the party into disrepute, including having called on Arabs to fight British troops. In 2004, he became a member of Respect–The Unity Coalition known as the Respect Party. Having decided not to seek re-election for the Glasgow Kelvin constituency prior to the 2005 general election, he stood for the London constituency of Bethnal Green and Bow, he returned to the House of Commons at the Bradford West by-election in 2012, but lost his seat at the 2015 general election.
Galloway stood as a candidate in the 2016 London mayoral election, but lost to the Labour Party nominee, Sadiq Khan. The Respect Party "voluntarily deregistered" itself at the Electoral Commission in August 2016, he stood for election to Parliament in 2017, in the Manchester Gorton constituency gaining 5.7% of the vote. Early in his career, Galloway was an opponent of Saddam Hussein, but he has been accused by David Aaronovitch and Christopher Hitchens of changing his mind about the Iraqi leader when it became Western policy not to support him. Galloway testified to the United States Senate in 2005 over alleged illicit payments from the United Nations' Oil for Food Program. Galloway supports the Palestinian side in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, opposes Zionism, was involved in the Viva Palestina aid convoys. Galloway has supported Jeremy Corbyn since his election campaign and subsequent election victory in September 2015. In the 2016 EU membership referendum, he advocated a "Leave" vote, campaigning with the cross-party, pro-Brexit organisation Grassroots Out.
Galloway was born in Dundee. His teetotal parents were George Galloway senior, a Scottish trade unionist, Sheila, of Irish descent. Raised in Lochee, Dundee, he has described himself as "born in an attic in a slum tenement in the Irish quarter of Dundee, known as Tipperary." His father began as an electrician, before becoming an electro-mechanical engineer at NCR. After being made redundant, he retrained as a teacher, his mother was a cleaner, a factory worker. According to Galloway, his father was patriotic, while his mother had Irish nationalist sympathies, was critical of British pretensions in the world. Galloway took his mother's side in arguments, has been a long-time supporter of Sinn Fein and Irish reunification. David Morley, Galloway's biographer, writes that people who knew both father and son have said that they shared similar Marxist opinions, common in the local Labour movement of the time, he grew up in Charleston and attended Charleston Primary and Harris Academy, a non-denominational school, playing for the school football team as well as for West End United U12s, Lochee Boys Club U16s and St Columbus U18s.
According to Galloway, he grew a moustache at the age of fifteen, refused to shave it off when his headmaster objected. He decided, at the age of eighteen. Galloway joined the Labour Party Young Socialists aged just 13 and was still a teenager when he became secretary of the Dundee Labour Party, he recalled in 2007: "As a teenager, I fell in love with the example of Che Guevara," the Argentinian revolutionary. Galloway wrote in the same year. Galloway became Vice-Chairman of the Labour Party in the City of Dundee and a member of the Scottish Executive Committee in 1975. On 5 May 1977, he contested his first election campaign in the Scottish district elections, but failed to hold the safe Labour Gillburn ward in Dundee being defeated by the Independent Bunty Turley, he became the secretary organiser of the Dundee Labour Party in 1977 and was the youngest Chairman of the Scottish Labour Party in March 1981, at 26 years old, after holding the vice-chairman post over the previous year. After a trip to Beirut, Lebanon during 1977, Galloway became a passionate supporter of Palestine, stating during his libel case against The Daily Telegraph in 2004 that "barely a week after my return I made a pledge, in the Tavern Bar in Dundee's Hawkhill District, to devote the rest of my life to the Palestinian and Arab cause."
He supported Dundee City Council when it flew the Palestinian flag over the City Chambers building, was involved in the twinning of Dundee with the Palestinian West Bank town of Nablus in 1980. "Unbelievably controversial, I did it without preparing people properly for the storm", he recalled more than thirty years later. In late 1981, Galloway was interviewed for the Scottish Marxist in which Galloway supported the affiliation of the Communist Party of Great Britain to the Labour Party, in the same way as the Fabian Society does. Believing that a deficiency in political theory was being filled by the entryist infiltration of the
The tradition that 613 commandments is the number of mitzvot in the Torah, began in the 3rd century CE, when Rabbi Simlai mentioned it in a sermon, recorded in Talmud Makkot 23b. Although there have been a lot of attempts to codify and enumerate the commandments contained in the Torah, the most traditional enumeration is Maimonides'; the 613 commandments include "positive commandments", to perform an act, "negative commandments", to abstain from certain acts. The negative commandments number 365, which coincides with the number of days in the solar year, the positive commandments number 248, a number ascribed to the number of bones and main organs in the human body. Though the number 613 is mentioned in the Talmud, its real significance increased in medieval rabbinic literature, including many works listing or arranged by the mitzvot. Three types of negative commandments fall under the self-sacrificial principle yehareg ve'al ya'avor, meaning "One should let oneself be killed rather than violate it".
These are murder and forbidden sexual relations. The 613 mitzvot have been divided into three general categories: mishpatim. Mishpatim include commandments that are deemed to be self-evident, such as not to murder and not to steal. Edot commemorate important events in Jewish history. For example, the Shabbat is said to testify to the story that Hashem created the world in six days and rested on the seventh day and declared it holy. Chukim are commandments with no known rationale, are perceived as pure manifestations of the Divine will. Many of the mitzvot cannot be observed now, following the destruction of the Second Temple, although they still retain religious significance. According to one standard reckoning, there are 77 positive and 194 negative commandments that can be observed today, of which there are 26 commands that apply only within the Land of Israel. Furthermore, there are some time-related commandments; some depend on the special status of a person in Judaism, while others apply only to men or only to women.
According to the Talmud, Deut. 33:04 is to be interpreted to mean that Moses transmitted the "Torah" from God to the Israelites: "Moses commanded us the Torah as an inheritance for the community of Jacob". The Talmud notes that the Hebrew numerical value of the word "Torah" is 611, combining Moses's 611 commandments with the first two of the Ten Commandments which were the only ones heard directly from God, adds up to 613; the Talmud attributes the number 613 to Rabbi Simlai, but other classical sages who hold this view include Rabbi Simeon ben Azzai and Rabbi Eleazar ben Yose the Galilean. It is quoted in Midrash Shemot Rabbah 33:7, Bamidbar Rabbah 13:15–16. Many Jewish philosophical and mystical works find allusions and inspirational calculations relating to the number of commandments; the tzitzit of the tallit are connected to the 613 commandments by interpretation: principal Torah commentator Rashi bases the number of knots on a gematria: the word tzitzit has the value 600. Each tassel has eight threads and five sets of knots, totalling 13.
The sum of all numbers is 613. This reflects the concept that donning a garment with tzitzit reminds its wearer of all Torah commandments. Rabbinic support for the number of commandments being 613 is not without dissent and as the number gained acceptance, difficulties arose in elucidating the list; some rabbis declared that this count was not an authentic tradition, or that it was not logically possible to come up with a systematic count. No early work of Jewish law or Biblical commentary depended on the 613 system, no early systems of Jewish principles of faith made acceptance of this Aggadah normative; the classical Biblical commentator and grammarian Rabbi Abraham ibn Ezra denied that this was an authentic rabbinic tradition. Ibn Ezra writes "Some sages enumerate 613 mitzvot in many diverse ways but in truth there is no end to the number of mitzvot and if we were to count only the root principles the number of mitzvot would not reach 613". Nahmanides held that this particular counting was a matter of rabbinic controversy, that rabbinic opinion on this is not unanimous.
Nonetheless, he concedes that "this total has proliferated throughout the aggadic literature... we ought to say that it was a tradition from Moses at Mount Sinai". Rabbi Simeon ben Zemah Duran rejected the dogma of the 613 as being the sum of the Law, saying that "perhaps the agreement that the number of mitzvot is 613... is just Rabbi Simlai's opinion, following his own explication of the mitzvot. And we need not rely on his explication when we come to determine the Law, but rather on the Talmudic discussions"; when rabbis attempted to compile a list of the 613 commandments, they were faced with a number of difficulties: Which statements were to be included amongst the 613 commandments? Every one of God's commands to any individual or to the entire people of Israel? Would an order from God be counted as a commandment, for the purposes of such a list, if it could only be complied with in one place and time? Else, would such an order only count as a commandment if it could be followed at all times?
Matthew 5 is the fifth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament. It contains the first portion of the Sermon on the Mount, which will take up chapter 6, chapter 7. Portions are similar to the Sermon on the Plain in Luke 6. In John Wesley's division of the Sermon, chapter five outlines the ethical principles of the religious, it is one of the most analyzed chapters of the New Testament. Kissinger reports that among Early Christians no chapter was more cited by early scholars; the same is true in modern scholarship. In the Middle Ages an interpretation was developed that the chapter only applied to a select group, not to the general populace. Martin Luther, in a discussion of this chapter, was critical of the Catholic view, he wrote that "there have fallen upon this chapter the vulgar hogs and asses and sophists, the right hand of the pope and his Mamelukes."The source of Matthew 5 is uncertain. It contains only a handful of parallels with Mark, but does have a number of loose parallels with Luke's Sermon on the Plain.
For those who believe in the two-source hypothesis, it indicates that much of this text came from Q. However, Harvey King McArthur notes that the parallels in Luke tend to be loose, far further away than most areas they overlap. There are a considerable number of verses that have no parallel in Luke. McArthur thus theorizes that there was an extra step between the sources Matthew and Luke used than usual; the original text is written in Koine Greek. This chapter is divided into 48 verses; some of the most ancient manuscripts containing this chapter are: Papyrus 64 Codex Vaticanus Codex Sinaiticus Papyrus 86 Codex Bezae Codex Washingtonianus Codex Alexandrinus Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus The New King James Version organises this chapter as follows: Matthew 5:1–12 – The Beatitudes Matthew 5:13–16 – Believers are salt and light Matthew 5:17–20 – Christ affirms the Law Matthew 5:21–26 – Murder begins in the heart Matthew 5:27–30 – Adultery in the heart Matthew 5:31–32 – Marriage is sacred and binding Matthew 5:33–37 – Jesus forbids oaths Matthew 5:38–42 – Go the second mile Matthew 5:43–48 – Love your enemies After a brief introduction the chapter contains the section known as the Beatitudes, which includes some of Jesus' more famous teachings.
Theologian Robert H. Gundry suggests; the first group outlines the persecuted nature of Jesus' disciples, the rewards they will receive for enduring this condition. The second four lists their righteous behaviour. Most scholars feel the ninth Beatitude at Matthew 5:11 is separate from the first eight, as demonstrated by its shift to the second person. Four of the Beatitudes seem to be in Luke, the rest are only found in Matthew; the English word used to show the positive nature of the Beatitudes is blessed. A number of scholars note that this is not an ideal translation as in modern English, blessed means "blessed by God", a meaning not implied by the Greek. William F. Albright and C. S. Mann use the more general word fortunate instead of blessed. R. T. France feels that it should be read as "worthy of congratulation". Lapide supports the New American Bible usage of happy. After the Beatitudes there are a series of metaphors, called Salt and Light, that are seen as commentaries upon them; these include a number of famous phrases such as salt of the city on a hill.
Verse 17 – Jesus states that he has not come to "abolish the law" but to "fulfill" it. Verse 18 – Jesus declares the law to be valid until "Heaven and Earth pass away" and "all things are accomplished". Verse 19 – Shows a direct correlation between the act of adhering to the Biblical Code, the righteousness of the individual. Verse 20 – Jesus identifies Greater Righteousness as a condition for inclusion in the Kingdom of Heaven; the NIV translation entitles Matthew 5:17–20 "The Fulfillment of the Law", the NRSV translation entitles it "The Law and the Prophets", the United Bible Societies' "The Greek New Testament", edited by Kurt Aland, Bruce Metzger and others, entitles it the "Teaching about the Law." This pericope is at the core of the argument about the relationship between the views attributed to Jesus, such as Gospel, New Covenant, New Commandment, Law of Christ, those attributed to Moses or the Mosaic Law, hence on the relationship between the New Testament and Old Testament, Christian views on the old covenant and Gospel, as a basis of Christian ethics.
The reason for this argument is a disagreement about the proper interpretation of the word "fulfillment". This continues until today. Many modern scholars now consider these four verses to be a prelude to the Antitheses, but this position is not universally accepted, many continue to interpret Matthew 5:17–20 independent of its textual neighbors; the sermon moves to a structured discussion of the "Law and Prophets" or Old Covenant. This section is traditionally referred to as the Antitheses, or the Six Antitheses. Gundry disputes this title: "The sayings are traditionally called'the Antitheses', but this designation seems to imply that after stoutly affirming the Law in Matthew 5:17–20, Jesus contradicts it". Instead Gundry argues that Jesus escalates the Law towards "the goal toward which it was headed, so that w
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, they emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than by good works, the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church. Protestantism is popularly considered to have begun in Germany in 1517 when Martin Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church, which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers.
However, the term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider and modern movement. In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, Latvia and Iceland. Reformed denominations spread in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, John Knox; the political separation of the Church of England from the pope under King Henry VIII began Anglicanism, bringing England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement. Protestants have developed their own culture, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, many other fields. Protestantism is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or Oriental Orthodoxy.
Without structural unity or central human authority, Protestants developed the concept of an invisible church, in contrast to the Roman Catholic view of the Catholic Church as the visible one true Church founded by Jesus Christ. Some denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of Protestant denominational families: Adventists, Anglicans, Reformed, Lutherans and Pentecostals. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Proponents of the branch theory consider Protestantism one of the three major divisions of Christendom, together with the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodoxy. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest against the edict of the Diet of Speyer, were the first individuals to be called Protestants; the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier.
The term protestant, though purely political in nature acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. However, it is misused to mean any church outside the Roman and Eastern Orthodox communions. Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i.e. Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. During the Reformation, the term protestant was hardly used outside of German politics. People who were involved in the religious movement used the word evangelical. For further details, see the section below. Protestant became a general term, meaning any adherent of the Reformation in the German-speaking area, it was somewhat taken up by Lutherans though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ. French and Swiss Protestants instead preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists.
The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was used for those involved in the religious movement in the German-speaking area beginning in 1517. Nowadays, evangelical is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and United Protestant traditions in Europe, those with strong ties to them. Above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany. In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Calvinist, or a United Protestant; the German word evangelisch means Protestant, is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical refers to evangelical Protestant churches, therefore to a certain part of Protestantism rather than to Protestantism as a whole; the English word traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, was brought to the United States. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term evangelical, derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "gospel".
The followers of
Battle of Salamis
The Battle of Salamis was a naval battle fought between an alliance of Greek city-states under Themistocles and the Persian Empire under King Xerxes in 480 BC which resulted in a decisive victory for the outnumbered Greeks. The battle was fought in the straits between the mainland and Salamis, an island in the Saronic Gulf near Athens, marked the high-point of the second Persian invasion of Greece. To block the Persian advance, a small force of Greeks blocked the pass of Thermopylae, while an Athenian-dominated Allied navy engaged the Persian fleet in the nearby straits of Artemisium. In the resulting Battle of Thermopylae, the rearguard of the Greek force was annihilated, whilst in the Battle of Artemisium the Greeks had heavy losses and retreated after the loss at Thermopylae; this allowed the Persians to conquer Phocis, Boeotia and Euboea. The Allies prepared to defend the Isthmus of Corinth while the fleet was withdrawn to nearby Salamis Island. Although outnumbered, the Greek Allies were persuaded by the Athenian general Themistocles to bring the Persian fleet to battle again, in the hope that a victory would prevent naval operations against the Peloponnese.
The Persian king Xerxes was eager for a decisive battle. As a result of subterfuge on the part of Themistocles, the Persian navy rowed into the Straits of Salamis and tried to block both entrances. In the cramped conditions of the Straits, the great Persian numbers were an active hindrance, as ships struggled to maneuver and became disorganized. Seizing the opportunity, the Greek fleet scored a decisive victory. Xerxes retreated to Asia with much of his army, leaving Mardonius to complete the conquest of Greece. However, the following year, the remainder of the Persian army was decisively beaten at the Battle of Plataea and the Persian navy at the Battle of Mycale; the Persians made no further attempts to conquer the Greek mainland. These battles of Salamis and Plataea thus mark a turning point in the course of the Greco-Persian wars as a whole. A number of historians believe that a Persian victory would have hamstrung the development of Ancient Greece, by extension western civilization, this has led them to argue that Salamis is one of the most significant battles in human history.
The main source for the Greco-Persian Wars is the Greek historian Herodotus. Herodotus, called the'Father of History', was born in 484 BC in Halicarnassus, Asia Minor, he wrote his Enquiries around 440–430 BC, trying to trace the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars, which would still have been recent history. Herodotus's approach was novel, at least in Western society, he does seem to have invented "history" as we know it; as Holland has it: "For the first time, a chronicler set himself to trace the origins of a conflict not to a past so remote so as to be utterly fabulous, nor to the whims and wishes of some god, nor to a people's claim to manifest destiny, but rather explanations he could verify personally."Some subsequent ancient historians, despite following in his footsteps, criticised Herodotus, starting with Thucydides. Thucydides chose to begin his history where Herodotus left off, therefore evidently felt that Herodotus's history was accurate enough not to need re-writing or correcting.
Plutarch criticised Herodotus in his essay "On the Malignity of Herodotus", describing Herodotus as "Philobarbaros", for not being pro-Greek enough, which suggests that Herodotus might have done a reasonable job of being even-handed. A negative view of Herodotus was passed on to Renaissance Europe. However, since the 19th century his reputation has been rehabilitated by archaeological finds which have confirmed his version of events; the prevailing modern view is that Herodotus did a remarkable job in his Historia, but that some of his specific details should be viewed with skepticism. There are still some historians who believe Herodotus made up much of his story; the Sicilian historian Diodorus Siculus, writing in the 1st century BC in his Bibliotheca Historica provides an account of the Greco-Persian wars derived from the earlier Greek historian Ephorus. This account is consistent with Herodotus's; the Greco-Persian wars are described in less detail by a number of other ancient historians including Plutarch, Ctesias of Cnidus, are alluded by other authors, such as the playwright Aeschylus.
Archaeological evidence, such as the Serpent Column supports some of Herodotus's specific claims. The Greek city-states of Athens and Eretria had supported the unsuccessful Ionian Revolt against the Persian Empire of Darius I in 499-494 BC, led by the satrap of Miletus, Aristagoras; the Persian Empire was still young, prone to revolts amongst its subject peoples. Moreover, Darius was a usurper, had spent considerable time extinguishing revolts against his rule; the Ionian revolt threatened the integrity of his empire, Darius thus vowed to punish those involved. Darius saw the opportunity to expand his empire into the fractious world of Ancient Greece. A preliminary expedition under Mardonius, in 492 BC, to secure the land approaches to Greece ended with the re-conquest of Thrace and forced Macedon to become a client kingdom of Persia. In 491 BC, Darius sent emissaries to all the Greek city-states, asking for a gift of'earth and water' in token of th
Abū-Muhammad Muslih al-Dīn bin Abdallāh Shīrāzī, better known by his pen-name Saadi known as Saadi of Shiraz, was a major Persian poet and prose writer of the medieval period. He is recognized for the depth of his social and moral thoughts. Saadi is recognized as one of the greatest poets of the classical literary tradition, earning him the nickname "Master of Speech" or "The Master" among Persian scholars, he has been quoted in the Western traditions as well. Bustan is considered one of the 100 greatest books of all time according to The Guardian. Saadi was born in Shiraz, according to some, shortly after 1200, according to others sometime between 1213 and 1219. In the Golestan, composed in 1258, he says in lines evidently addressed to himself, "O you who have lived fifty years and are still asleep", it seems. He narrates memories of going out with his father as a child during festivities. After leaving Shiraz he enrolled at the Nizamiyya University in Baghdad, where he studied Islamic sciences, governance, Arabic literature, Islamic theology.
In the Golestan, he tells us. In the Bustan and Golestan Saadi tells many colourful anecdotes of his travels, although some of these, such as his supposed visit to the remote eastern city of Kashgar in 1213, may be fictional; the unsettled conditions following the Mongol invasion of Khwarezm and Iran led him to wander for thirty years abroad through Anatolia, Syria and Iraq. In his writings he mentions the qadis, muftis of Al-Azhar, the grand bazaar and art. At Halab, Saadi joins a group of Sufis. Saadi was captured by Crusaders at Acre where he spent seven years as a slave digging trenches outside its fortress, he was released after the Mamluks paid ransom for Muslim prisoners being held in Crusader dungeons. Saadi visited Jerusalem and set out on a pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina, it is believed that he may have visited Oman and other lands in the south of the Arabian Peninsula. Because of the Mongol invasions he was forced to live in desolate areas and met caravans fearing for their lives on once-lively silk trade routes.
Saadi lived in isolated refugee camps where he met bandits, men who owned great wealth or commanded armies and ordinary people. While Mongol and European sources gravitated to the potentates and courtly life of Ilkhanate rule, Saadi mingled with the ordinary survivors of the war-torn region, he sat in remote tea houses late into the night and exchanged views with merchants, preachers, wayfarers and Sufi mendicants. For twenty years or more, he continued the same schedule of preaching and learning, honing his sermons to reflect the wisdom and foibles of his people. Saadi's works reflect upon the lives of ordinary Iranians suffering displacement and conflict during the turbulent times of the Mongol invasion. Saadi mentions honey-gatherers in Azarbaijan, fearful of Mongol plunder, he returns to Persia where he meets his childhood companions in Isfahan and other cities. At Khorasan Saadi befriends a Turkic Emir named Tughral. Saadi joins him and his men on their journey to Sindh where he meets Pir Puttur, a follower of the Persian Sufi grand master Shaikh Usman Marvandvi.
He refers in his writings about his travels with a Turkic Amir named Tughral in Sindh and Central Asia. Tughral hires Hindu sentinels. Tughral enters service of the wealthy Delhi Sultanate, Saadi is invited to Delhi and visits the Vizier of Gujarat. During his stay in Gujarat, Saadi learns more about the Hindus and visits the large temple of Somnath, from which he flees due to an unpleasant encounter with the Brahmans. Katouzian calls this story "almost fictitious". Saadi came back to Shiraz before 1257 CE / 655 AH. Saadi mourned in his poetry the fall of Abbasid Caliphate and Baghdad's destruction by Mongol invaders led by Hulagu in February 1258; when he reappeared in his native Shiraz, he might have been in his late forties. Shiraz, under Atabak Abubakr ibn Sa'd ibn Zangi, the Salghurid ruler of Fars, was enjoying an era of relative tranquility. Saadi was not only welcomed to the city but was shown great respect by the ruler and held to be among the greats of the province; some scholars believe that Saadi took his nom de plume from the name of Abubakr's son, Sa'd, to whom he dedicated the Golestan.
Some of Saadi's most famous panegyrics were composed as a gesture of gratitude in praise of the ruling house and placed at the beginning of his Bustan. The remainder of Saadi's life seems to have been spent in Shiraz; the traditional date for Saadi's death is between 1291 an