Nancy is the capital of the north-eastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine, the French province of the same name. The metropolitan area of Nancy had a population of 434,565 inhabitants at the 2011 census, making it the 20th largest urban area in France; the population of the city of Nancy proper was 104,321 in 2014. The motto of the city is Non inultus premor, Latin for "I'm not touched with impunity"—a reference to the thistle, a symbol of Lorraine. Place Stanislas, a large square built between March 1752 and November 1755 by Stanislaus I of Poland to link the medieval old town of Nancy and the new town built under Charles III in the 17th century, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the first place in France and in the top four in the world; the earliest signs of human settlement in the area date to 800 BC. Early settlers were attracted by mined iron ore and a ford in the Meurthe River. A small fortified town named Nanciacum was built by Gérard, Duke of Lorraine around 1050.
Nancy was burned in 1218 at the end of the War of Succession of Champagne, conquered by Emperor Frederick II. It was rebuilt in stone over the next few centuries as it grew in importance as the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine. Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Nancy in 1477. Following the failure of both Emperor Joseph I and Emperor Charles VI to produce a son and heir, the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 left the throne to the latter's next child; this turned out to be Maria Theresa of Austria. In 1736 Emperor Charles arranged her marriage to Duke François of Lorraine, who reluctantly agreed to exchange his ancestral lands for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany; the exiled Polish king Stanislaus Leszczyński, father-in-law of the French king Louis XV, was given the vacant duchy of Lorraine. Under his nominal rule, Nancy experienced growth and a flowering of Baroque culture and architecture. Stanislaus oversaw the construction of Place Stanislaus, a major square and development connecting the old medieval with a newer part of the city.
After Stanislaus' death in 1766, the duchy of Lorraine returned to the status of a regular French province. Nancy lost its position as a residential capital city with patronage; as unrest surfaced within the French armed forces during the French Revolution, a full-scale mutiny, known as the Nancy affair, took place in Nancy in the latter part of summer 1790. A few units loyal to the government shot or imprisoned the mutineers. In 1871, Nancy remained French; the flow of refugees reaching Nancy doubled its population in three decades. Artistic, academic and industrial excellence flourished, establishing what is still the Capital of Lorraine's trademark to this day. Nancy and other areas of France were occupied by German forces from 1940. During the Lorraine Campaign of World War II, Nancy was liberated from Nazi Germany by the U. S. Third Army in September 1944, at the Battle of Nancy. In 1988, Pope John Paul II visited Nancy. In 2005, French President Jacques Chirac, German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, Polish President Aleksander Kwaśniewski inaugurated the renovated Place Stanislas.
It is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Nancy is situated on the left bank of the river Meurthe, about 10 km upstream from its confluence with the Moselle; the Marne–Rhine Canal runs through the city, parallel to the Meurthe. Nancy is surrounded by hills that are about 150 m higher than the city center, situated at 200 m above mean sea level; the area of Nancy proper is small: 15 km2. Its built-up area is continuous with those of its adjacent suburbs; the neighboring communes of Nancy are: Jarville-la-Malgrange, Malzéville, Maxéville, Saint-Max, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy and Villers-lès-Nancy. The oldest part of Nancy is the quarter Vieille Ville – Léopold, which contains the 14th century Porte de la Craffe, the Palace of the Dukes of Lorraine, the Porte Désilles and the 19th century St-Epvre basilica. Adjacent to its south is the quarter Charles III – Centre Ville, the 16th–18th century "new town"; this quarter contains the famous Place Stanislas, the Nancy Cathedral, the Opéra national de Lorraine and the main railway station.
The population of the city proper experienced a small decrease in population from 2009 to 2014, placing it behind Metz as the second largest city in the Lorraine. However, the urban area of Metz experienced population decline from 1990 to 2010 while the urban area of Nancy grew over the same period, becoming the largest urban area in Lorraine and second largest in the "Grand Est" region of northeastern France. Within the Nancy metropolitan area in recent years, the city population declined at the same time as a small increase in the population of its urban area. Nancy has an oceanic climate, although a bit more extreme than most of the larger French cities. By the standards of France it is a "continental" climate with a certain degree of maritimy; the temperatures have a distinct variation of the temperate zone, both during the day and between seasons but without being different. Winters are dry in freezing climates. Summers are not warm enough. Mists are frequent in autumn and the winds are light and not too violent.
Precipitation tends to be less abundant than in the west of the country. Sunshine hours are identical to Paris and the snowy days are the same as Stra
Battle of Wagram
The Battle of Wagram was a military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars that ended in a costly but decisive victory for Emperor Napoleon I's French and allied army against the Austrian army under the command of Archduke Charles of Austria-Teschen. The battle led to the breakup of the Fifth Coalition, the Austrian and British-led alliance against France. In 1809, the French military presence in Germany was diminished as Napoleon transferred a number of soldiers to fight in the Peninsular War; as a result, the Austrian Empire saw its chance to recover some of its former sphere of influence and invaded the Kingdom of Bavaria, a French ally. Recovering from his initial surprise, Napoleon beat the Austrian forces and occupied Vienna at the beginning of May 1809. Despite the string of sharp defeats and the loss of the empire's capital, Archduke Charles salvaged an army, with which he retreated north of the Danube; this allowed the Austrians to continue the war. Towards the end of May, Napoleon resumed the offensive, suffering a surprise defeat at the Battle of Aspern-Essling.
It took Napoleon six weeks to prepare his next offensive, for which he amassed a 165,000-man French and Italian army in the vicinity of Vienna. The Battle of Wagram began after Napoleon crossed the Danube with the bulk of these forces during the night of 4 July and attacked the 145,000-man strong Austrian army. Having crossed the river, Napoleon attempted an early breakthrough and launched a series of evening attacks against the Austrian army; the Austrians were thinly spread in a wide semicircle, but held a strong position. After the attackers enjoyed some initial success, the defenders regained the upper hand and the attacks failed. Bolstered by his success, the next day at dawn Archduke Charles launched a series of attacks along the entire battle line, seeking to take the opposing army in a double envelopment; the offensive nearly broke Napoleon's left. However, the Emperor countered by launching a cavalry charge, which temporarily halted the Austrian advance, he redeployed IV Corps to stabilise his left, while setting up a grand battery, which pounded the Austrian right and centre.
The tide of battle turned and the Emperor launched an offensive along the entire line, while Maréchal Louis-Nicolas Davout drove an offensive, which turned the Austrian left, rendered Charles's position untenable. Towards mid-afternoon on 6 July, Charles admitted defeat and led a retreat, frustrating enemy attempts to pursue. After the battle, Charles decided to retreat to Bohemia. However, the Grande Armée caught up with him and scored a victory at the Battle of Znaim. With the battle still raging, Charles decided to ask for an armistice ending the war. With 80,000 casualties, the two-day battle of Wagram was bloody due to the use of 1,000 artillery pieces and the expenditure of over 180,000 rounds of artillery ammunition on a flat battlefield packed with some 300,000 men. Although Napoleon was the uncontested winner, he failed to secure an overwhelming victory and the Austrian casualties were only greater than those of the French and allies. Nonetheless, the defeat was serious enough to shatter the morale of the Austrians, who could no longer find the will to continue the struggle.
The resulting Treaty of Schönbrunn meant the loss of one sixth of the Austrian Empire's subjects, along with some territories, rendering it landlocked until the German Campaign of 1813. After the battle, Emperor Napoleon bestowed to Louis-Alexandre Berthier, his Marshal, Chief of Staff and Vice-Constable of the Empire, the victory title of 1st Prince of Wagram, making him an official member of the French nobility. Berthier had been granted the title of Sovereign Prince of Neuchâtel and the Prince of Valangin in 1806; this allowed his descendants to carry the titles of Princess of Wagram. In 1809, the First French Empire held a dominant position on the European continent. Resounding victories during the 1805 to 1807 wars against the Third and Fourth coalitions had ensured undisputed continental hegemony, to such an extent that no other European power could challenge the might of Napoleon's empire. However, despite having defeated Austria, forced Russia into an uneasy alliance and reduced Prussia to the rank of a second-rate power, Napoleon did not manage to force the United Kingdom to make peace.
With the British in complete control of the seas, Napoleon thus opted for an economic war, imposing the Continental System against the British Isles, in a bid to dry up vital British commercial relations with the continent. To ensure the effectiveness of the Continental System, he sought to force Portugal, a traditional British trading partner, to observe it. In a move that would prove to be both uninspired and ill-handled, Napoleon opted to change the ruling dynasty of Spain, replacing King Charles IV with his own brother, who became King José I of Spain; the new king was, not well received by the population and much of the country's ruling elite, which triggered a bloody guerrilla war throughout the country. The French position in the peninsula was rendered untenable after the Battle of Bailen, a rare and resounding defeat for the French forces and an event that encouraged the Austrian war party. With Napoleon forced to intervene and commit significant forces to the Spanish, the French military position in central Europe was weakened.
In addition, Franco-Russian relations had deteriorated and, althou
Louis XVIII of France
Louis XVIII, known as "the Desired", was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days. He spent twenty-three years in exile, from 1791 to 1814, during the French Revolution and the First French Empire, again in 1815, during the period of the Hundred Days, upon the return of Napoleon I from Elba; until his accession to the throne of France, he held the title of Count of Provence as brother of King Louis XVI. On 21 September 1792, the National Convention abolished the monarchy and deposed Louis XVI, executed by guillotine; when his young nephew Louis XVII died in prison in June 1795, the Count of Provence succeeded as king Louis XVIII. Following the French Revolution and during the Napoleonic era, Louis XVIII lived in exile in Prussia and Russia; when the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, Louis XVIII was placed in what he, the French royalists, considered his rightful position. However, Napoleon restored his French Empire.
Louis XVIII fled, a Seventh Coalition declared war on the French Empire, defeated Napoleon again, again restored Louis XVIII to the French throne. Louis XVIII ruled as king for less than a decade; the government of the Bourbon Restoration was a constitutional monarchy, unlike the Ancien Régime, absolutist. As a constitutional monarch, Louis XVIII's royal prerogative was reduced by the Charter of 1814, France's new constitution. Louis had no children, so upon his death the crown passed to his brother, Charles X. Louis XVIII was the last French monarch to die while still reigning, as Charles X abdicated and both Louis Philippe I and Napoleon III were deposed. Louis Stanislas Xavier, styled Count of Provence from birth, was born on 17 November 1755 in the Palace of Versailles, a younger son of Louis, Dauphin of France, his wife Maria Josepha of Saxony, he was the grandson of the reigning King Louis XV. As a son of the Dauphin, he was a Fils de France, he was christened Louis Stanislas Xavier six months after his birth, in accordance with Bourbon family tradition, being nameless before his baptism.
By this act, he became a Knight of the Order of the Holy Spirit. The name of Louis was bestowed. At the time of his birth, Louis Stanislas was fourth in line to the throne of France, behind his father and his two elder brothers: Louis Joseph Xavier, Duke of Burgundy, Louis Auguste, Duke of Berry; the former died in 1761, leaving Louis Auguste as heir to their father until the Dauphin's own premature death in 1765. The two deaths elevated Louis Stanislas to second in the line of succession, while his brother Louis Auguste acquired the title of Dauphin. Louis Stanislas found comfort in his governess, Madame de Marsan, Governess of the Children of France, as he was her favourite among his siblings. Louis Stanislas was taken away from his governess when he turned seven, the age at which the education of boys of royal blood and of the nobility was turned over to men. Antoine de Quélen de Stuer de Caussade, Duke of La Vauguyon, a friend of his father, was named as his governor. Louis Stanislas was an intelligent boy.
His education was of the same quality and consistency as that of his older brother, Louis Auguste, despite the fact that Louis Auguste was heir and Louis Stanislas was not. Louis Stanislas's education was quite religious in nature. La Vauguyon drilled into young Louis Stanislas and his brothers the way he thought princes should "know how to withdraw themselves, to like to work," and "to know how to reason correctly". In April 1771, when he was 15, Louis Stanislas's education was formally concluded, his own independent household was established, which astounded contemporaries with its extravagance: in 1773, the number of his servants reached 390. In the same month his household was founded, Louis was granted several titles by his grandfather, Louis XV: Duke of Anjou, Count of Maine, Count of Perche, Count of Senoches. During this period of his life he was known by the title Count of Provence. On 17 December 1773, he was inaugurated as a Grand Master of the Order of St. Lazarus. On 14 May 1771, Louis Stanislas married Princess Maria Giuseppina of Savoy.
Marie Joséphine was a daughter of Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy, his wife Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain. A luxurious ball followed the wedding on 20 May. Louis Stanislas found his wife repulsive; the marriage remained unconsummated for years. Biographers disagree about the reason; the most common theories propose Louis Stanislas' alleged impotence or his unwillingness to sleep with his wife due to her poor personal hygiene. She never plucked her eyebrows, or used any perfumes. At the time of his marriage, Louis Stanislas was waddled instead of walked, he never continued to eat enormous amounts of food. Despite the fact that Louis Stanislas was not infatuated with his wife, he boasted that the two enjoyed vigorous conjugal relations – but such declarations were held in low esteem by courtiers at Versaill
The Hundred Days marked the period between Napoleon's return from exile on the island of Elba to Paris on 20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815. This period saw the War of the Seventh Coalition, includes the Waterloo Campaign, the Neapolitan War as well as several other minor campaigns; the phrase les Cent Jours was first used by the prefect of Paris, comte de Chabrol, in his speech welcoming the king back to Paris on 8 July. Napoleon returned. On 13 March, seven days before Napoleon reached Paris, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared him an outlaw, on 25 March Austria, Prussia and the United Kingdom, members of the Seventh Coalition, bound themselves to put 150,000 men each into the field to end his rule; this set the stage for the last conflict in the Napoleonic Wars, the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, the second restoration of the French kingdom, the permanent exile of Napoleon to the distant island of Saint Helena, where he died in May 1821.
The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars pitted France against various coalitions of other European nations nearly continuously from 1792 onward. The overthrow and subsequent public execution of Louis XVI in France had disturbed other European leaders, who vowed to crush the French Republic. Rather than leading to France's defeat, the wars allowed the revolutionary regime to expand beyond its borders and create client republics; the success of the French forces made a hero out of Napoleon Bonaparte. In 1799, Napoleon staged a successful coup d'état and became First Consul of the new French Consulate. Five years he crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I; the rise of Napoleon troubled the other European powers as much as the earlier revolutionary regime had. Despite the formation of new coalitions against him, Napoleon's forces continued to conquer much of Europe; the tide of war began to turn after a disastrous French invasion of Russia in 1812 that resulted in the loss of much of Napoleon's army.
The following year, during the War of the Sixth Coalition, Coalition forces defeated the French in the Battle of Leipzig. Following its victory at Leipzig, the Coalition vowed to depose Napoleon. In the last week of February 1814, Prussian Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher advanced on Paris. After multiple attacks and reinforcements on both sides, Blücher won the Battle of Laon in early March 1814; the Battle of Reims went to Napoleon, but this victory was followed by successive defeats from overwhelming odds. Coalition forces entered Paris after the Battle of Montmartre on 30 March 1814. On 6 April 1814, Napoleon abdicated his throne, leading to the accession of Louis XVIII and the first Bourbon Restoration a month later; the defeated Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba off the coast of Tuscany, while the victorious Coalition sought to redraw the map of Europe at the Congress of Vienna. Napoleon spent only nine months and 21 days in uneasy retirement on Elba, watching events in France with great interest as the Congress of Vienna gathered.
He had been escorted to Elba by Sir Neil Campbell, who remained in residence there while performing other duties in Italy, but was not Napoleon's jailer. As he foresaw, the shrinkage of the great Empire into the realm of old France caused intense dissatisfaction among the French, a feeling fed by stories of the tactless way in which the Bourbon princes treated veterans of the Grande Armée and the returning royalist nobility treated the people at large. Threatening was the general situation in Europe, stressed and exhausted during the previous decades of near constant warfare; the conflicting demands of major powers were for a time so exorbitant as to bring the Powers at the Congress of Vienna to the verge of war with each other. Thus every scrap of news reaching remote Elba looked favourable to Napoleon to retake power as he reasoned the news of his return would cause a popular rising as he approached, he reasoned that the return of French prisoners from Russia, Germany and Spain would furnish him with a trained and patriotic army far larger than that which had won renown in the years before 1814.
So threatening were the symptoms that the royalists at Paris and the plenipotentiaries at Vienna talked of deporting him to the Azores or to Saint Helena, while others hinted at assassination. At the Congress of Vienna the various participating nations had different and conflicting goals. Tsar Alexander of Russia had expected to absorb much of Poland and to leave a Polish puppet state, the Duchy of Warsaw, as a buffer against further invasion from Europe; the renewed Prussian state demanded all of the Kingdom of Saxony. Austria wanted to allow neither of these things, while it expected to regain control of northern Italy. Castlereagh, of the United Kingdom, supported France and Austria and was at variance with his own Parliament; this caused a war to break out, when the Tsar pointed out to Castlereagh that Russia had 450,000 men near Poland and Saxony and he was welcome to try to remove them. Indeed, Alexander stated "I shall be the King of Poland and the King of Prussia will be the King of Saxony".
Castlereagh approached King Frederick William III of Prussia to offer him British and Austrian support for Prussia's annexation of Saxony in return for Prussia's support of an independent Poland. The Prussian king repeated this offer in public, offending Alexander so that he chal
Battle of Borodino
The Battle of Borodino was a battle fought on 7 September 1812 in the Napoleonic Wars during the French invasion of Russia. The fighting involved around 250,000 troops and left at least 70,000 casualties, making Borodino the deadliest day of the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon's Grande Armée launched an attack against the Russian army, driving it back from its initial positions but failing to gain a decisive victory. Both armies were exhausted after the battle and the Russians withdrew from the field the following day. Borodino represented the last Russian effort at stopping the French advance on Moscow, which fell a week later. However, the French had no clear way of forcing Tsar Alexander to capitulate because the Russian army was not decisively defeated, resulting in the ultimate defeat of the French invasion following the retreat from Moscow in October. After a series of Russian retreats at the beginning of the campaign, the nobility grew alarmed about the advancing French troops and forced the Tsar to dismiss the army's commander, Barclay de Tolly.
Mikhail Kutuzov was appointed as his replacement. In a final attempt to save Moscow, the Russians made a stand near the village of Borodino, west of the town of Mozhaysk, they waited for the French to attack. The Russian right wing occupied ideal defensive terrain, so the French tried to press the Russian left for much of the battle; the highlight of the fighting became the bloody struggle for the large Raevsky redoubt near the village of Borodino. The French managed to capture this redoubt late into the day forcing the rest of the Russian army to pull back as well; the Russians suffered terrible casualties during the fighting. French losses were heavy, exacerbating the logistical difficulties that Napoleon encountered in the campaign; the exhaustion of the French forces, the lack of information on the condition of the Russian army, persuaded Napoleon to remain on the battlefield with his army instead of ordering the kind of vigorous pursuit reminiscent of previous campaigns. Napoleon's Imperial Guard, the only unit on the battlefield that saw no fighting, was available to swing into action at a moment's notice.
In refusing to commit the Guard, some historians believe, he lost his one chance to destroy the Russian army and to win the campaign. The capture of Moscow proved a pyrrhic victory, since the Russians had no intention of negotiating with Napoleon for peace; the French evacuated Russia's spiritual capital in October and conducted a difficult retreat that lasted until December, by which point the remainder of the Grande Armée had unraveled. Historical reports of the battle differed depending on whether they originated from supporters of the French or Russian side. Factional fighting among senior officers within each army led to conflicting accounts and disagreements over the roles of particular officers; the French Grande Armée began its invasion of Russia on 16 June 1812. In response, Emperor Alexander I prepared to face the French. According to the plan of German general Karl Ludwig von Phull, the Russian troops under the command of Count Michael Barclay de Tolly had to face the Grande Armée in the Vilnius region.
However, Phull's plan soon proved to be a serious mistake, as the enormous Grande Armée was more than enough to separate and crush both Russian armies at the same time. Furthermore, the participation of Tsar Alexander I as commander caused more chaos in the Russian army; the Russian forces which were massed along the Polish frontier were obliged to fall back in the face of the swift French advance. Napoleon advanced from Vitebsk, hoping to catch the Russian army in the open where he could annihilate it; the French army was not positioned well for an extended overland campaign. French supply lines were vulnerable and Cossacks, light cavalry, guerrilla forces and French deserters attacked and depleted French supply columns; the central French force under Napoleon's direct command had crossed the Niemen with 286,000 men but by the time of the battle was reduced to 161,475 through starvation and disease. Nonetheless, the prospect of a decisive battle lured Napoleon deeper into Russia and further stretched his supply lines.
Infighting between Barclay's subordinates prevented the Russian commander from committing his forces to battle. Barclay's fellow generals and the Russian court viewed the constant retreat as a reluctance to fight. Although the 67-year-old General Kutuzov was not seen by his contemporaries as the equal of Napoleon, he possessed the ability to muster a good defence, he was favoured over Barclay because he was Russian whereas Barclay was of Scottish descent and officers subordinate to Barclay could accept Kutuzov, thereby uniting the army. On 18 August Kutuzov arrived at Tsaryovo-Zaymishche to greet the army. After taking over the army, Kutuzov organized a strong rearguard under the command of General Konovnytsyn and ordered the army to prepare for battle. Kutuzov understood that Barclay's decision to retreat was correct, but the Russian troops could not accept further retreat. A battle had to occur; the new commander had still not managed to establish a defensive position when the armies were within 125 kilometres of Moscow.
He ordered another retreat to Gzhatsk on 30 August, by which time the ra
Édouard Mortier, Duke of Trévise
Adolphe Édouard Casimir Joseph Mortier, 1st Duc de Trévise was a French general and Marshal of France under Napoleon I. He was one of 18 people killed in 1835 during Giuseppe Marco Fieschi's assassination attempt on King Louis Philippe I. Mortier was born at Le Cateau-Cambrésis on 13 February 1768, son of Charles Mortier and wife Marie Anne Joseph Bonnaire, entered the army as a sub-lieutenant in 1791, he served in the French Revolutionary Wars in the campaigns of 1792 and 1793 on the north-eastern frontier and in the Netherlands, subsequently on the Meuse and the Rhine. Mortier was tasked by Hatry to negotiate the surrender of the Fortress of Mainz, which he completed and returned to Paris. In the war against the Second Coalition in 1799, he was promoted successively general of brigade and général de division. During the Second Battle of Zurich, he led a force of 8,000 in the attack from Dieticon on Zurich, his conduct of the French occupation of Hanover, bringing about the Convention of Artlenburg, led Napoleon to include Mortier in the first list of marshals created in 1804.
He commanded a corps of the Grande Armée in the Ulm campaign. In the campaign of the middle Danube, which culminated in the Battle of Austerlitz, Napoleon placed him in command of a newly formed VIII. Corps, composed of divisions from the other Corps. Mortier over-extended his line of march on the north shore of the Danube and failed to heed Napoleon's advice to protect his north flank. A combined force of Russians and Austrians, under over-all command of Mikhail Kutuzov enticed Mortier to send Théodore Maxime Gazan's 2nd Division into a trap and French troops were caught in a valley between two Russian columns, they were rescued by the timely arrival of a second division, under command of Pierre Dupont de l'Étang's 1st Division, which covered a day's march in a half-day. The Battle of Dürrenstein extended well into the night. Both sides claimed victory, the French lost more than a third of the participants, Gazan's division experienced over 40 percent losses; the Austrians and Russians had heavy losses—close to 16 percent.
After Austerlitz, Napoleon dispersed the Corps and Gazan received the Legion of Honor, but Mortier was reassigned. When the War of the Fourth Coalition broke out in 1806, Napoleon ordered Mortier to assume command of the newly-formed VIII Corps on 1 October, he was to coordinate his operations with Louis Bonaparte's Franco-Dutch troops. On 16 October, two days after his crushing victory over Prussia at Jena-Auerstedt, Napoleon ordered Mortier and Louis to conquer the Electorate of Hesse. Mortier was to occupy Fulda and the capital city Kassel, rule as military governor and imprison the Elector of Hesse, William I; every Hessian officer above the rank of lieutenant would be arrested and Napoleon stated his intention to "wipe the house of Hesse-Kassel from the map". Mortier knew this constituted a violation of Hessian neutrality and boasted on 17 October that its neutrality made it easy to conquer. On 1 November, the French looted Kassel, discovering that William had fled. Mortier issued a proclamation in which he claimed to have come to avenge Prussian violation of Hessian neutrality but accused them of being Prussian allies.
Mortier left a division to hold Hesse-Kassel, while the rest of his corps was directed to mopping-up operations in Prussia. Hamelin capitulated on 22 November, along with a garrison of 10,000 Prussian troops. Nienburg fell on 29 November, with 2,911 Prussian soldiers marching into captivity. In 1807, he served in the Friedland campaign, in the siege of Stralsund, in the siege of Kolberg. In 1808, Napoleon created him duke of Treviso a duché grand-fief in his own Kingdom of Italy, shortly after he commanded an army corps in Napoleon's campaign for the recapture of Madrid. Mortier remained in Spain for two campaigns, winning the victory of Ocaña in November 1809. In 1812 and 1813 he commanded the Imperial Guard, in the defensive campaign of 1814 he rendered brilliant services in command of rearguards and covering detachments. In 1815, after the flight of Bourbon king Louis XVIII of France, he rejoined Napoleon during the Cent Jours and was given command of the Imperial Guard, but at the opening of the Battle of Waterloo he was unable to continue due to severe sciatica.
After the second Bourbon Restoration he was for a time in disgrace, but in 1819 he was readmitted to the Chamber of Peers and in 1825 received the Order of the Holy Spirit, the kingdom's highest. In 1830–1831 he was Ambassador of France to Russia at St Petersburg, in 1834–1835 minister of war and president of the council of ministers. On 28 July 1835, Mortier was one of those accompanying King Louis-Philippe of France to a review of the Paris National Guard, an annual event that commemorated the July Revolution that brought Louis-Phillipe to power in 1830. In the Boulevard du Temple the royal party was hit by a volley of gunfire from the upstairs window of a house. Eighteen were killed, including Mortier, 22 injured; the King received a minor wound. The weapon used was a home-made volley gun and fired by Giuseppe Marco Fieschi for the purpose of assassinating Louis-Philippe. Fieschi had fixed twenty-five musket barrels to a wooden frame, arranged that they could be fired simultaneously. Four of the barrels burst when Fieschi was badly wounded.
He was captured and tried with two co-conspirators. The three went to the guillotine in February 1836. Mortier married Eve Anne Hymmès, by whom he had issue: Caroline Mortier de Trevise: mar
An aide-de-camp is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank a senior military, police or government officer, or to a member of a royal family or a head of state. An aide-de-camp may participate at ceremonial functions, the first aide-de-camp is the foremost personal aide; this is not to be confused with an adjutant, the senior administrator of a military unit. The badge of office for an aide-de-camp is the aiguillette, a braided cord in gold or other colours, worn on the shoulder of a uniform. Whether it is worn on the left or the right shoulder is dictated by protocol. In some countries, aide-de-camp is considered to be a title of honour, which confers the post-nominal letters ADC or A de C. In Argentina, three officers, are appointed as aide-de-camp to the president of the republic and three others to the minister of defense, these six being the only ones to be called "edecán", one Spanish translation for aide-de-camp. A controversy was raised in 2006, when president Néstor Kirchner decided to promote his army aide-de-camp, Lieutenant Colonel Graham to colonel, one year ahead of his class.
Upon taking office, former president Cristina Kirchner decided to have, for the first time, female officers as her aides-de-camp. In each of the armed forces, the chief of staff and other senior officers have their own adjutants of the rank of major or lieutenant colonel, or its equivalent. At unit level, the unit S-1 doubles as the unit commander's adjutant, although in recent times in many units this practice has been left only for ceremonial purposes, while for everyday duties a senior NCO performs the adjutant's activities. An aiguillette is worn on the right shoulder by aides-de-camp and adjutants as a symbol of their position, the colour of the aiguillette depending of the rank of the person they are serving. In Belgium the title of honorary aide-de-camp to the King can be granted by the royal court for services rendered. Notable people include Major General Baron Édouard Empain, Count Charles John d'Oultremont, Lieutenant General Baron Albert du Roy de Blicquy. An aide-de-camp, according to an 1816 military dictionary, was defined as an officer appointed to attend a general officer, was traditionally under the grade of captain: "The King may appoint for himself as many as he pleases, which appointment gives the rank of colonel in the army.
Generals being field marshals, have four, lieutenant generals two, major generals one". In British colonies and modern-day British overseas territories, an aide-de-camp is appointed to serve the governor and the governor general; these aides were from military branches or native auxiliaries. They were entitled to use letters A de C after their names; the emblem of the office is the aiguillette worn on their uniform. Australian Defence Force officers serve as aides-de-camp to specific senior appointments, such as the Queen, Governor-General, state governors, Chief of the Defence Force, other specified Army and Air Force command appointments. Honorary aides-de-camp to the Governor-General or state governors are entitled to the post-nominal ADC during their appointment. Officers of and above the ranks of rear admiral, major general, air vice marshal in designated command appointments are entitled to an aide de camp with the army rank of captain. Within the navy, an aide-de-camp is called a "flag lieutenant".
In 1973, the Governor of Bermuda, Sir Richard Sharples, his aide-de-camp, Captain Hugh Sayers, were murdered on the grounds of Government House. Aides-de-camp in Canada are appointed to the Queen and some members of the royal family, the governor general, lieutenant governors, to certain other appointments. In addition to the military officers appointed as full-time aides-de-camp to the governor general, several other flag/general and senior officers are appointed ex officio as honorary aides-de-camp to the governor general or Members of the Royal Family including: The Chief of the Defence Staff The commandant of the Royal Military College of Canada A senior officer of the Quebec-based Royal 22e Régiment Commanding officer, The Governor General's Horse Guards Commanding officer, Governor General's Foot Guards Commanding officer, The Canadian Grenadier Guards Commanding officer, The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada The commanding officers of Naval Reserve divisionsMost aides-de-camp wear a gold pattern aiguillette when acting in their official capacity.
All aides-de-camp wear the cypher or badge of the principal to whom they are appointed. Honorary appointees to the Queen, to the Duke of Edinburgh, or the Prince of Wales, wear the appropriate cypher on their uniform epaulette and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters ADC for the duration of their appointment. Aides-de-camp to the governor general wear the governor general's badge and aides-de-camp to a lieutenant governor wear the lieutenant governor's badge