The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. Its source is Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota and it flows south for 2,320 miles to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U. S. two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. The main stem is within the United States; the Mississippi ranks as the fifteenth-largest river by discharge in the world. The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana. Native Americans have lived along its tributaries for thousands of years. Most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies; the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the native way of life as first explorers settlers, ventured into the basin in increasing numbers.
The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, the early United States, as a vital transportation artery and communications link. In the 19th century, during the height of the ideology of manifest destiny, the Mississippi and several western tributaries, most notably the Missouri, formed pathways for the western expansion of the United States. Formed from thick layers of the river's silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile regions of the United States. During the American Civil War, the Mississippi's capture by Union forces marked a turning point towards victory, due to the river's strategic importance to the Confederate war effort; because of substantial growth of cities and the larger ships and barges that replaced steamboats, the first decades of the 20th century saw the construction of massive engineering works such as levees and dams built in combination. A major focus of this work has been to prevent the lower Mississippi from shifting into the channel of the Atchafalaya River and bypassing New Orleans.
Since the 20th century, the Mississippi River has experienced major pollution and environmental problems – most notably elevated nutrient and chemical levels from agricultural runoff, the primary contributor to the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. The word Mississippi itself comes from Misi zipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, Misi-ziibi. In the 18th century, the river was the primary western boundary of the young United States, since the country's expansion westward, the Mississippi River has been considered a convenient if approximate dividing line between the Eastern and Midwestern United States, the Western United States; this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St. Louis and the phrase "Trans-Mississippi" as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, it is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, such as "the highest peak east of the Mississippi" or "the oldest city west of the Mississippi". The FCC uses it as the dividing line for broadcast call-signs, which begin with W to the east and K to the west, mixing together in media markets along the river.
The Mississippi River can be divided into three sections: the Upper Mississippi, the river from its headwaters to the confluence with the Missouri River. The Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri, it is divided into two sections: The headwaters, 493 miles from the source to Saint Anthony Falls in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca, 1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, Minnesota; the name "Itasca" was chosen to designate the "true head" of the Mississippi River as a combination of the last four letters of the Latin word for truth and the first two letters of the Latin word for head. However, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, the waterway's flow is moderated by 43 dams. Fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation.
The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all contain locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper river. Taken as a whole, these 43 dams shape the geography and influence the ecology of the upper river. Beginning just below Saint Paul and continuing throughout the upper and lower river, the Mississippi is further controlled by thousands of wing dikes that moderate the river's flow in order to maintain an open navigation channel and prevent the river from eroding its banks; the head of navigation on the Mississippi is the Coon Rapids Dam in Minnesota. Before it was built in 1913, steamboats could go upstream as far as Saint Cloud, depending on river conditions; the uppermost lock and dam on the Upper Mississippi River is the Upper St. Anthony Falls Lock an
Louise Marie Adélaïde Eugénie d'Orléans was a French princess, one of the twin daughters of Philippe d'Orléans, known as Philippe Égalité during the French Revolution, Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon. She was titled Mademoiselle de Chartres at birth, Mademoiselle d'Orléans at the death of her twin sister in 1782, Madame Adélaïde; as a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, she was a princesse. Adélaïde was raised according to the liberal principles of her governess, Madame de Genlis, principles which became her own political conviction, she received an excellent but very hard and strenuous education. She was attached to her governess, her mother's demand that de Genlis be replaced, though without success, was a cause of great worry for her, she was considered for marriage to the Duke of Angoulême, but the plans were prevented by queen Marie Antoinette. On, she was considered for marriage to the Duke of Berry, which did not materialise either. During the French Revolution, de Genlis on at least one occasion took her to the radical Cordelieres Club.
In 1791, her father asked de Genlis to take her to England for her safety. The year after, he summoned them back to prevent Adelaide's name from being placed on the list of emigrees; when they arrived, however, de Genlis discovered that Adélaïde was on the list and that her father, whose political situation had deteriorated, asked her to take Adélaïde out of the country again. Adelaide received painting lessons from Pierre-Joseph Redouté and produced some highly-regarded botanical studies as a result. In 1792, she left France with de Genlis to the Austrian Netherlands and to Switzerland, where she was placed in a convent in Bremgarten. During the Terror her father was guillotined, her mother was banished to Spain. Sometime in the spring of 1794, Adélaïde moved to the home of the Princess of Conti, they moved to Bavaria in 1798 and thereafter to Bratislava, in 1801, she joined her mother in Barcelona in Spain. Her relationship with her mother was not good, as she disapproved of her mother's relationship with chancellor de Folmont.
On 25 November 1809, she and her mother attended the wedding of her brother Louis Philippe to Maria Amalia of Naples and Sicily in Palermo on Sicily. After the wedding, she did not return with her mother to Spain, but preferred to live with her brother and sister-in-law at Palazzo Orléans in Palermo, she was described as devoted to her brother and his family: united with her sister-in-law in their mutual love and concern for him, a second mother to his children. After the fall of Napoleon in 1814, she returned with her brother and his family to Paris and settled with them in Palais-Royal. During the Bourbon Restoration, Palais-Royal was described as a center of high society social life in the capital, despite the fact that custom dictated that she as an unmarried "spinster" was expected to live in the background, it was she rather than her more reserved sister-in-law who took the role of hostess, she was described as firm and frank, she was a leading force in the family councils of the House of Orléans.
Her loyalty to her brother has been described as due to the fact that, early separated from her family, she was treated with reserve during her exile because of the political actions of her father during the revolution, her brother was the first person she could lavish her affection upon. Louis Philippe, in turn, relied upon her intelligence and loyalty, made her his confidant and listened to her advice, she came to exert great political influence upon him. Being brought up a liberal, she supported the idea of a constitutional monarchy and a representative government, she was not on good terms with the reigning Bourbon family. Adélaïde rather than her brother are described as the active head of the Orléans fraction, she had the active desire and ambition to make him monarch. In her apartment at Palais-Royal, she hosted a salon which became the center of liberal opposition toward the regime, by use of her great personal fortune, she supported the liberal press and various political actors, artists and influential figures to gather support for her brother, among them Talleyrand.
When Louis-Philippe became King of the French in the reign known as the July Monarchy, she was known as Madame Adélaïde. All her life, she was his loyal advisor or, in 19th century parlance, his "Egeria", it was she who encouraged him to accept the crown during the July revolution, her influence continued undisturbed during his reign. When tumult followed the publication of the Ordinances in 1830 and erupted in the July revolution in Paris, the Orléans family was at the country estate Neuilly. Adélaïde convinced Louis-Philippe that the moment was right for him to place himself as the leader of the opposition against the absolute monarchy of Charles X, present himself as the candidate of a constitutional monarchy, in between the unpopular absolute monarchy and the republicanism. In this, she defeated the view of her sister-in-law Maria Amalia, loyal to the reigning older branch; when rumors arrived that the royalists were going to arrest Louis-Philippe, he evacuated to Raincy and the children were sent to Villiers-Coterets, but Adélaïde and Maria Amalia remained at Neuilly.
When a delegation reached Neuilly and offered Louis-Philippe the crown, Maria Amalia refused the offer on behalf of herself and her spo
Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden
Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden was the ruling Margrave of Baden-Baden in Germany and chief commander of the Imperial army. He was known as Türkenlouis for his many defeats of Turkish armies. After his death in 1707, his wife, Sibylle of Saxe-Lauenburg, acted as regent of Baden-Baden during the minority of his eldest son, who succeeded him as Margrave of Baden-Baden. Born in Paris, Louis was a son of Hereditary Prince Ferdinand Maximilian of Baden-Baden and his French wife, Louise of Savoy, his godfather was Louis XIV of France. His father was the elder son of Wilhelm, Margrave of Baden-Baden, whom he pre-deceased, leaving Louis to succeed as reigning Margrave of Baden-Baden and head of the Catholic branch of the House of Zähringen, his mother's brother was the Count of Soissons, father of the renowned general Prince Eugene of Savoy, in whose military shadow Louis would live and fight, although the cousins would be allied in service to the Holy Roman Emperor against the French. His parents being estranged, he was kidnapped as a child from his mother's home in Paris and re-patriated to Germany, where he was raised by his paternal step-grandmother.
Louis William served first under Raimondo Montecuccoli against Turenne, under the duke of Lorraine. At the siege of Vienna by the Turks, in 1683, he threw his forces into the city, by a brilliant sally effected a junction with Jan III Sobieski and the Duke of Lorraine, who had come to its relief. In 1689 he defeated the Turks at Niš. Louis came to be called the shield of the empire; the Turks called him the red king, because his red uniform jacket made him visible on the battlefield. He was known as a defender of Europe against the Turks; as a military commander in the service of the Holy Roman Empire, in 1689 he was made chief commander of the Imperial army in Hungary, where he scored a resounding victory against the Ottomans at Slankamen in 1691. Louis saw Osijek as a location of exceptional strategic importance in the war against the Ottomans, he urged the repair of the city walls, proposed construction of a new fort called Tvrđa, according to Vauban's principles of military engineering. Shortly afterward he was sent to head the army of the Rhine in the War of the Grand Alliance.
In 1701, he built the Bühl-Stollhofen Line, a line of defensive earthworks designed to protect northern Baden from French attack. He led the imperial army in the War of the Spanish Succession where he concluded the Siege of Landau in September 1702, but soon had to withdraw across the Rhine and was defeated by the French under the Duke of Villars at Friedlingen. In 1704 however, he participated in the successful German campaign of Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy, he distinguished himself in the Battle of Schellenberg and besieged and conquered Ingolstadt and Landau, thus drawing Bavarian troops away from the decisive Battle of Blenheim. He died in at his unfinished Schloss Rastatt in 1707, his wife took up a regency for Louis George. He took over his own government in October 1727; the Emperor gave him a young heiress to wed, Sibylle of Saxe-Lauenburg. They had the following children: Leopold William of Baden-Baden Hereditary Prince of Baden-Baden, died in infancy. Augustus George Simpert of Baden-Baden, Margrave of Baden-Baden, married Marie Victoire d'Arenberg, no male issue.
His descendant through this marriage became King Louis Philippe of the French in 1830. After the death of Louis, his widow built Schloss Favorite castle as a summer residence in memory of her husband, he was buried at the Stiftskirche in Baden-Baden. Francis Lieber. "Baden-Baden margrave of". Encyclopædia Americana. Pp. 519–520. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter "Baden-Baden, Ludwig Wilhelm I. margrave of". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. "Louis William I.". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Philippe II, Duke of Orléans
Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, was a member of the royal family of France and served as Regent of the Kingdom from 1715 to 1723. Born at his father's palace at Saint-Cloud, he was known from birth under the title of Duke of Chartres, his father was Louis XIV's younger brother Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, his mother was Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate. In 1692, Philippe married his first cousin, Françoise Marie de Bourbon - the youngest legitimised daughter of Philippe's uncle Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan. Named regent of France for Louis XV until Louis attained his majority on 15 February 1723, the period of his de facto rule was known as the Regency, he died at Versailles in 1723. He is referred to as le Régent. In March 1661, his father married his first cousin Princess Henrietta Anne of England, known as Madame at court; the marriage was stormy. Nonetheless, the marriage produced three children: Marie Louise d'Orléans, future queen of Spain, who left France in 1679 when Philippe was just five.
Madame Henriette died at Saint-Cloud in 1670. In the following year, the Duke of Orléans wed Princess Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, only daughter of Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine and Landgravine Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel; the new Duchess of Orléans, who had converted from Protestantism to Catholicism just before entering France, was popular at court upon her arrival in 1671 and became the mother of Alexandre Louis d'Orléans in 1673, another short-lived Duke of Valois. The next year, the duchess gave birth to another son, Philippe Charles d'Orléans. Philippe Charles d'Orléans was born at the Château de Saint-Cloud, some ten kilometers west of Paris; as the grandson of King Louis XIII of France, Philippe was a petit-fils de France. This entitled him to the style of Royal Highness from birth, as well as the right to be seated in an armchair in the king's presence. At his birth, he was titled Duke of Chartres and was formally addressed as Monseigneur le duc de Chartres; as the second living son of his parents, his birth was not greeted with the enthusiasm the Duke of Valois had received in 1673.
Philippe was born fourth in line to the throne, coming after Louis, Dauphin of France, his own father, his older brother. When Philippe was born, his uncle Louis XIV was at the height of his power. In 1676, the Duke of Valois died at the Palais-Royal in Paris, making Philippe the new heir to the House of Orléans, his distraught mother was pregnant at the time with Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans, future Duchess and regent of Lorraine. Élisabeth Charlotte and Philippe would always remain close. The Duke of Chartres grew up at his father's "private" court held at Saint-Cloud, in Paris at the Palais-Royal, the Parisian residence of the Orléans family until the arrest of Philippe Égalité in April 1793 during the French Revolution; the Palais-Royal was frequented by, among others, Marie Anne Mancini, Duchess of Bouillon, part of Philippe's father's libertine circle. A program of how best to educate a prince was drawn up for him by Guillaume Dubois, his preceptor. Dubois had entered Philippe's household in 1683 as his "under-preceptor".
Philippe's education was carried out by the respected instructor Nicholas-François Parisot de Saint-Laurent until 1687. Each course of study taught the duc de Chartres "elements" of a subject; some of the best historians, genealogists and artists in the kingdom participated in this educational experiment, which started around 1689. For example, Philippe learned mathematics from Joseph Sauveur. Chartres was reared alongside Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon famous for his memoirs and defense of the rights of the peerage of France. Next, collaborating to link physics and music and Loulié demonstrated vibrating strings and the Galilean pendulum, how the mathematical principles on which these devices depend are related to music. In 1693 the prince studied composition with Marc-Antoine Charpentier. With Charpentier's help, he composed an opera, Philomèle, performed at his residence in 1694. In the late 1690s Chartres studied the viol with Antoine Forqueray the elder. Meanwhile, he was riding, as preparations for a military career.
In May 1685 the duc de Chartres just ten years old, made his first public appearance at Versailles. Chartres was put on a stage with his uncle and father. On 2 June 1686 Chartres was invested with the Order of the Holy Spirit at Versailles.
Antoine, Duke of Montpensier
Antoine d'Orléans was a member of the French royal family in the House of Orléans. He was the youngest son of King Louis Philippe of France and his wife Maria Amelia Teresa of the Two Sicilies, he was styled as the Duke of Montpensier. He was born on 31 July 1824 at the château de Neuilly and died 4 February 1890 at Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Spain. On 10 October 1846 at Madrid, Spain, he married Infanta Luisa Fernanda of Spain, the daughter of King Ferdinand VII of Spain and his wife Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies, they had ten children: Maria Isabel, who married her first cousin Philippe, comte de Paris, the French claimant, became known as Marie Isabelle, comtesse de Paris. She had several children. Maria Amelia Maria Cristina Maria de la Regla Fernando Mercedes, otherwise Princess Marie des Graces d'Orleans-Montpensier, who married her first cousin Alfonso XII and is known as Mercedes of Orleans, queen of Spain. No children. Felipe Raimundo Maria Antonio, became Duke of Galliera in Italy, he married his first cousin Infanta Eulalia of Spain, daughter of Isabella II, had two sons.
Luis Maria Felipe Antonio Antoine de Montpensier lived in Spain from 1848 when he and his family had to leave France after the Revolution of 1848. During the Spanish revolution of 1868, he supported the insurgents under Juan Prim against Queen Isabel II, his own sister-in-law. In 1870 he fought a duel against Infante Enrique, Duke of Seville, the brother of King Francisco, killed him. Antoine was sentenced to one month in prison. On 16 November 1870 the Cortes chose Amadeo of Savoy with 191 votes. Antoine only received 27 votes, left Spain, only to return in 1874, his ambitions were fulfilled by his daughter Mercedes, who became Queen of Spain after her marriage to Alfonso XII, son of Isabella II. However, she died at the age of 18 without issue. / France 31 July 1824 – 21 September 1824: His Serene Highness Prince Antoine d'Orléans 21 September 1824 – 9 August 1830: His Royal Highness Prince Antoine d'Orléans 9 August 1830 – 16 August 1830: His Royal Highness The Prince Antoine 16 August 1830 – 5 February 1890: His Royal Highness The Duke of Montpensier Spain 10 October 1846 – 10 October 1859: His Royal Highness The Duke of Montpensier 10 October 1859 – 5 February 1890: His Royal Highness Infante Don Antonio, Duke of MontpensierThe Duke's complete style in Spain, after his rise to the rank of Infante, was: Su Alteza Real el Serenísmo y Egregio Señor Infante Don Antonio María de Orleans, Duque de Montpensier.: Grand Cordon in the Order of Leopold, in 1844.: Knight Grand Cross of the Légion d'Honneur, in 1845.: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword: Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, in 1846.
Knight Collar of the Royal and Distinguished Spanish Order of Charles III Prince Antoine did not have a personal coat of arms. He used the traditional arms of the House of Orléans, consisting of: Azure, three fleur-de-lis Or and a label Argent This coat of arms was first used by Philippe d'Orléans and son in law of King Louis XIV of France; as cadets of the French royal family, they bore the arms of France differenced by a label argent. Heraldry of Antoine, Duke of Montpensier
Louis Philippe I
Louis Philippe I was King of the French from 1830 to 1848. His father Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans had taken the name "Philippe Égalité" because he supported the French Revolution. However, following the deposition and execution of his cousin King Louis XVI, Louis Philippe fled the country, his father denounced his actions and voted for his death, but was imprisoned and executed that same year. Louis Philippe spent the next 21 years in exile before returning during the Bourbon Restoration, he was proclaimed king in 1830 after his cousin Charles X was forced to abdicate by the July Revolution. The reign of Louis Philippe is known as the July Monarchy and was dominated by wealthy industrialists and bankers, he followed conservative policies under the influence of French statesman François Guizot during the period 1840–48. He promoted friendship with Britain and sponsored colonial expansion, notably the French conquest of Algeria, his popularity faded as economic conditions in France deteriorated in 1847, he was forced to abdicate after the outbreak of the French Revolution of 1848.
He lived out his life in exile in the United Kingdom. His supporters were known as Orléanists, as opposed to Legitimists who supported the main line of the House of Bourbon. Louis Philippe was born in the Palais Royal, the residence of the Orléans family in Paris, to Louis Philippe, Duke of Chartres, Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon; as a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a Prince of the Blood, which entitled him the use of the style "Serene Highness". His mother was an wealthy heiress, descended from Louis XIV of France through a legitimized line. Louis Philippe was the eldest of three sons and a daughter, a family, to have erratic fortunes from the beginning of the French Revolution to the Bourbon Restoration; the elder branch of the House of Bourbon, to which the kings of France belonged distrusted the intentions of the cadet branch, which would succeed to the throne of France should the senior branch die out. Louis Philippe's father was exiled from the royal court, the Orléans confined themselves to studies of the literature and sciences emerging from the Enlightenment.
Louis Philippe was tutored by the Countess of Genlis, beginning in 1782. She instilled in him a fondness for liberal thought; when Louis Philippe's grandfather died in 1785, his father succeeded him as Duke of Orléans and Louis Philippe succeeded his father as Duke of Chartres. In 1788, with the Revolution looming, the young Louis Philippe showed his liberal sympathies when he helped break down the door of a prison cell in Mont Saint-Michel, during a visit there with the Countess of Genlis. From October 1788 to October 1789, the Palais Royal was a meeting-place for the revolutionaries. Louis Philippe grew up in a period that changed Europe as a whole and, following his father's strong support for the Revolution, he involved himself in those changes. In his diary, he reports that he himself took the initiative to join the Jacobin Club, a move that his father supported. In June 1791, Louis Philippe got his first opportunity to become involved in the affairs of France. In 1785, he had been given the hereditary appointment of Colonel of the Chartres Dragoons.
With war imminent in 1791, all proprietary colonels were ordered to join their regiments. Louis Philippe showed himself to be a model officer, he demonstrated his personal bravery in two famous instances. First, three days after Louis XVI's flight to Varennes, a quarrel between two local priests and one of the new constitutional vicars became heated, a crowd surrounded the inn where the priests were staying, demanding blood; the young colonel broke through the crowd and extricated the two priests, who fled. At a river crossing on the same day, another crowd threatened to harm the priests. Louis Philippe put himself between a peasant armed with a carbine and the priests, saving their lives; the next day, Louis Philippe dove into a river to save a drowning local engineer. For this action, he received a civic crown from the local municipality, his regiment was moved north to Flanders at the end of 1791 after the August 27, 1791 Declaration of Pillnitz. Louis Philippe served under his father's crony, Armand Louis de Gontaut the Duke of Biron, along with several officers who gained distinction in Napoleon's empire and afterwards.
These included Lieutenant Colonel Alexandre de Beauharnais. After war was declared by the Kingdom of France on the Habsburg Monarchy on April 20, 1792, Louis Philippe saw his first exchanges of fire of the French Revolutionary Wars within the invaded by France Austrian Netherlands at Boussu, Walloon, on about April 28, 1792, at Quaregnon, Walloon, on about April 29, 1792, at Quiévrain, near Jemappes, Walloon, on about April 30, 1792, where he was instrumental in rallying a unit of retreating soldiers after the victorious Battle of Quiévrain only two days earlier on April 28th of 1792. Biron wrote to War Minister de Grave, praising the young colonel, promoted to brigadier, commanding a brigade of cavalry in Lückner's Army of the North. In the Army of the North, Louis Philippe served with four future Marshals of France: Macdonald, Mortier and Oudinot. Dumouriez was appointed to command the Army of the North in August 1792. Louis Philippe commanded a division under him in the Valmy campaign. At the September 20, 1792 Battle of Va
The Palais-Royal called the Palais-Cardinal, is a former royal palace located in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France. The screened entrance court faces the Place du Palais-Royal, opposite the Louvre. In 1830 the larger inner courtyard of the palace, the Cour d'Honneur, was enclosed to the north by what was the most famous of Paris's covered arcades, the Galerie d'Orléans. Demolished in the 1930s, its flanking rows of columns still stand between the Cour d'Honneur and the popular Palais-Royal Gardens; the Palais-Royal now serves as the seat of the Ministry of the Constitutional Council. Called the Palais-Cardinal, the palace was the personal residence of Cardinal Richelieu; the architect Jacques Lemercier began his design in 1629. Upon Richelieu's death in 1642 the palace became the property of the King and acquired the new name Palais-Royal. After Louis XIII died the following year, it became the home of the Queen Mother Anne of Austria and her young sons Louis XIV and Philippe, duc d'Anjou, along with her advisor Cardinal Mazarin.
From 1649, the palace was the residence of the exiled Henrietta Maria and Henrietta Anne Stuart and daughter of the deposed King Charles I of England. The two had escaped England in the midst of the English Civil War and were sheltered by Henrietta Maria's nephew, King Louis XIV. Henrietta Anne was married to Louis' younger brother, Philippe de France, duc d'Orléans in the palace chapel on 31 March 1661; the following year the new duchesse d'Orléans gave birth to a daughter, Marie Louise d'Orléans, inside the palace. After their marriage, the palace became the main residence of the House of Orléans; the Duchess created the ornamental gardens of the palace, which were said to be among the most beautiful in Paris. Under the new ducal couple, the Palais-Royal would become the social center of the capital; the court gatherings at the Palais-Royal were famed all around the capital as well as all of France. It was at these parties that the crème de la crème of French society came to be seen. Guests included the main members of the royal family like Anne of Austria.
Philippe's favourites were frequent visitors. The palace was redecorated and new apartments were created for the Duchess's maids and staff. Several of the women who came to be favourites to King Louis XIV were from her household: Louise de La Vallière, who gave birth there to two sons of the king, in 1663 and 1665. After Henrietta Anne died in 1670 the Duke took a second wife, the Princess Palatine, who preferred to live in the Château de Saint-Cloud. Saint-Cloud thus became the main residence of her eldest son and the heir to the House of Orléans, Philippe Charles d'Orléans known as the duc de Chartres. In 1692, on the occasion of the marriage of the duc de Chartres to Françoise Marie de Bourbon, Mademoiselle de Blois, a legitimised daughter of Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan, the King deeded the Palais-Royal to his brother. For the convenience of the bride, new apartments were built and furnished in the wing facing east on the rue de Richelieu, it was at this time that Philippe commissioned the gallery for his famous Orleans Collection of paintings, accessible to the public.
The architect was Jules Hardouin-Mansart, the cost of this reconstruction was totaled to be 400,000 livres. Hardouin-Mansart's assistant, François d'Orbay, prepared a general site plan, showing the Palais-Royal before these alterations were made; the garden shown on the plan was designed by André Lenôtre. After the dismissal of Madame de Montespan and the arrival of her successor, Madame de Maintenon, who forbade any lavish entertainment at Versailles, the Palais-Royal was again a social highlight; when the Duke of Orléans died in 1701, his son became the head of the House of Orléans. The new Duke and Duchess of Orléans took up residence at the Palais-Royal. Two of their daughters, Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans the Duchess of Modena, Louise Diane d'Orléans the Princess of Conti, were born there. Over a decade or so, sections of the Palais were transformed into shopping arcades that became the centre of 18th-century Parisian social and social life. Inspired by the souks of Arabia, the Galerie de Bois, a series of wooden shops linking the ends of the Palais Royal, was first opened in 1786.
For Parisians, who lived in the virtual absence of pavements, the streets were dirty. Thus, the Palais-Royal began what the architect, Bertrand Lemoine, describes as l’Ère des passages couverts, which transformed European shopping habits between 1786 and 1935. Designed to attract the genteel middle class, the Palais-Royal sold luxury goods at high prices. However, prices were never a deterrent, as these new arcades came to be the place to shop and to be seen. Arcades offered shoppers the promise of an enclosed space away from the chaos that characterised the noisy, dirty streets. Promenading in the arcades became a popular eighteenth century pastime for the emerging middle classes. Within a decade, new arcades were opened at the Palais site, it was transformed into a complex of gardens and entertainment venues situated on the external perimeter of the grounds, under the original colonnades; the area bo