Louis Charles Joseph Blériot was a French aviator and engineer. He developed the first practical headlamp for cars and established a profitable business manufacturing them, using much of the money he made to finance his attempts to build a successful aircraft. Blériot was the first to use a combination of hand/arm-operated joystick and foot-operated rudder control, in use to the present day, for the basic format of aerodynamic aircraft control systems. Blériot was the first to make a working, piloted monoplane. In 1909 he became world-famous for making the first airplane flight across the English Channel, winning the prize of £1,000 offered by the Daily Mail newspaper, he was the founder of a successful aircraft manufacturing company. Born at No.17h rue de l'Arbre à Poires in Cambrai, Louis was the first of five children born to Clémence and Charles Blériot. In 1882, aged 10, Blériot was sent as a boarder to the Institut Notre Dame in Cambrai, where he won class prizes, including one for engineering drawing.
When he was 15, he moved on to the Lycée at Amiens. After passing the exams for his baccalaureate in science and German, he determined to try to enter the prestigious École Centrale in Paris. Entrance was by a demanding exam for which special tuition was necessary: Blériot spent a year at the Collège Sainte-Barbe in Paris, he passed the exam, placing 74th among the 243 successful candidates, doing well in the tests of engineering drawing ability. After three years of demanding study at the École Centrale, Blériot graduated 113th of 203 in his graduating class, he embarked on a term of compulsory military service, spent a year as a sub-lieutenant in the 24th Artillery Regiment, stationed in Tarbes in the Pyrenees. He got a job with an electrical engineering company in Paris, he left the company after developing the world's first practical headlamp for automobiles, using a compact integral acetylene generator. In 1897, Blériot opened a showroom for headlamps at 41 rue de Richlieu in Paris; the business was successful, soon he was supplying his lamps to both Renault and Panhard-Levassor, two of the foremost automobile manufacturers of the day.
In October 1900 Blériot was lunching in his usual restaurant near his showroom when his eye was caught by a young woman lunching with her parents. That evening, he told his mother. I will marry her, or I will marry no one." A bribe to a waiter secured details of her identity. Blériot set about courting her with the same determination that he would bring to his aviation experiments, on 21 February 1901 the couple were married. Blériot had become interested in aviation while at the Ecole Centrale, but his serious experimentation was sparked by seeing Clément Ader's Avion III at the 1900 Exposition Universelle. By his headlamp business was doing well enough for Blériot to be able to devote both time and money to experimentation, his first experiments were with a series of ornithopters. In April 1905, Blériot met Gabriel Voisin employed by Ernest Archdeacon to assist with his experimental gliders. Blériot was a spectator at Voisin's first trials of the floatplane glider he had built on 8 June 1905.
Cine photography was among Blériot's hobbies, the film footage of this flight was shot by him. The success of these trials prompted him to commission a similar machine from Voisin, the Blériot II glider. On 18 July an attempt to fly this aircraft was made, ending in a crash in which Voisin nearly drowned, but this did not deter Blériot. Indeed, he suggested that Voisin should stop working for Archdeacon and enter into partnership with him. Voisin accepted the proposal, the two men established the Ateliers d' Aviation Edouard Surcouf, Blériot et Voisin. Active between 1905 and 1906, the company built two unsuccessful powered aircraft, the Blériot III and the Blériot IV a rebuild of its predecessor. Both these aircraft were powered with the lightweight Antoinette engines being developed by Léon Levavasseur. Blériot became a shareholder in the company, in May 1906, joined the board of directors; the Blériot IV was damaged in a taxiing accident at Bagatelle on 12 November 1906. The disappointment of the failure of his aircraft was compounded by the success of Alberto Santos Dumont that day, when he managed to fly his 14-bis a distance of 220 m, winning the Aéro Club de France prize for the first flight of over 100 metres.
This took place at Bagatelle, was witnessed by Blériot. The partnership with Voisin was dissolved and Blériot established his own business, Recherches Aéronautiques Louis Blériot, where he started creating his own aircraft, experimenting with various configurations and creating the world's first successful powered monoplane; the first of these, the canard configuration Blériot V, was first tried on 21 March 1907, when Blériot limited his experiments to ground runs, which resulted in damage to the undercarriage. Two further ground trials damaging the aircraft, were undertaken, followed by another attempt on 5 April; the flight was only of around 6 m, after which he cut his engine and landed damaging the undercarriage. More trials followed, the last on 19 April when, travelling at a speed of around 50 kph, the aircraft left the ground, Blériot over-responded when the nose began to rise, the machine hit the ground nose–first, somersaulted; the aircraft was destroyed, but Blériot was, by great good fortune, unhurt.
The engine of the aircraft was behind his seat, he was lucky not to have been crushed by it. This
Marie Marvingt was a French athlete, mountaineer and journalist. She won numerous prizes for her sporting achievements including those of swimming, mountain climbing, winter sports, flying, gymnastics, rifle shooting and fencing, she was the first woman to climb many of the peaks in the French and Swiss Alps. She was a record-breaking balloonist, an aviator and during World War I became the first woman to fly missions during conflict as a pilot, she was a qualified surgical nurse, was the first trained and certified Flight Nurse in the world, worked for the establishment of air ambulance services throughout the world. According to a French source, it was M. de Château-Thierry de Beaumanoir who, in 1903, named Marie Marvingt as "La fiancée du danger." She herself used the epithet for an autobiographical publication in 1948. It is included on the commemorative plaque on the façade of the house where she lived at 8 Place de la Carrière, Nancy. Marie Félicie Élisabeth Marvingt was born at 6.30 p.m on February 20, 1875, in Aurillac, the prefecture of the French department of Cantal.
Her father was Félix Constant Marvingt, a senior postmaster, her mother was Elisabeth Brusquin. They had married in Metz on 16 July 1861 when he was 48 and she was 32. Before Marie was born, the couple had lost three sons in infancy; the family, including younger brother Eugène, lived in Metz, at that time part of Germany, from 1880 to 1889. When Marie's mother died in 1889, the fourteen-year-old found herself in charge of the household, the family moved to Nancy, where she remained for the rest of her life. Félix Marvingt was a dedicated sports fan. With his only son in fragile health, he shared his love of sports with Marie and encouraged her apparent abilities. By the age of four, she could swim 4 kilometers, she grew to enjoy many other sports: mountaineering, gymnastics, horseback riding, tennis, luging, ice skating, martial arts, golf and football. In 1890, at the age of 15, she canoed over 400 kilometers from Nancy to Germany, she had learned a number of circus skills, obtained a driver's license by 1899.
Marvingt became a world-class athlete who won numerous prizes in swimming, riflery, skiing, speed skating and bobsledding. She was a skilled mountaineer and between 1903 and 1910 she became the first woman to climb most of the peaks in the French and Swiss Alps – including the Aiguille des Grands Charmoz and the Grépon Pass from Chamonix in a single day. In 1905 she became the first Frenchwoman to swim the length of the Seine through Paris; the newspapers nicknamed her "the red amphibian" from the color of her swimming costume. In 1907 she won an international military shooting competition using a French army carbine and became the only woman awarded the palms du Premier Tireur by a French Minister of War, she dominated the 1908 to 1910 winter sports seasons at Chamonix, Gérardmer, Ballon d'Alsace, where she achieved first place on more than 20 occasions. On January 26, 1910, she won the Leon Auscher Cup in the women's bobsledding world championship, she rode from Nancy, France, to Naples, Italy, to see a volcanic eruption.
In 1908 she was refused permission to participate in the Tour de France because the race was open only to men. Marvingt chose riding some distance behind the entrants, she completed the grueling ride, a feat which only 36 of 114 male riders had managed that year. On March 15, 1910 the French Academy of Sports awarded her a gold medal "for all sports," the only multi-sport medal they have awarded. Marie Marvingt ascended as a passenger in a free-flight balloon for the first time in 1901. On July 19, 1907, she piloted one. In September 1909, she made her first solo flight as a balloon pilot. On October 26, 1909, Marvingt became the first woman to pilot a balloon across the North Sea and English Channel from Europe to England. For this flight, her balloon was called L'Étoile filante, she won prizes for ballooning in 1909 and 1910. She earned her balloon pilot's certificate from the Aero-Club Stella in 1910. In September 1909, Marie Marvingt experienced her first flight as a passenger in an aeroplane piloted by Roger Sommer.
During 1910, she studied fixed-wing aviation with Hubert Latham, the Anglo-French rival of Louis Blériot, in an Antoinette aeroplane. She piloted and flew solo in this monoplane, the first woman to do so – she was the second to be licensed in a monoplane, the first being Marthe Niel. Marie Marvingt received a pilot's licence from the Aéro-Club de France on November 8, 1910. Licensed No. 281, she was the third Frenchwoman to be registered after Raymonde de Marthe Niel. She was the only woman licensed in the difficult-to-fly Antoinette monoplane. In her first 900 flights she never "broke wood" in a crash, a record unequaled at that time. Once licensed, Marie Marvingt competed on a number of occasions for the Coupe Femina. On 3 December 1910, the Illustrated London News featured Marie Marvingt on its "Portraits and World's News" page. A head-and-shoulders portrait is carried in a circular frame at the top of the page, she wears her leather flying helmet, with goggles pushed up. A fulsome report below states.
"The flight was made for a cup offered by the Paris newspaper Femina." She had beaten "Madame Laroche's record", with a flight of 27 miles in 53 minutes, piloting an Antoinette. This took place at Mourmelon-le-grand, it was believe
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he
A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings stacked one above the other. The first powered, controlled aeroplane to fly, the Wright Flyer, used a biplane wing arrangement, as did many aircraft in the early years of aviation. While a biplane wing structure has a structural advantage over a monoplane, it produces more drag than a similar unbraced or cantilever monoplane wing. Improved structural techniques, better materials and the quest for greater speed made the biplane configuration obsolete for most purposes by the late 1930s. Biplanes offer several advantages over conventional cantilever monoplane designs: they permit lighter wing structures, low wing loading and smaller span for a given wing area. However, interference between the airflow over each wing increases drag and biplanes need extensive bracing, which causes additional drag. Biplanes are distinguished from tandem wing arrangements, where the wings are placed forward and aft, instead of above and below; the term is occasionally used in biology, to describe the wings of some flying animals.
In a biplane aircraft, two wings are placed one above the other. Each provides part of the lift, although they are not able to produce twice as much lift as a single wing of similar size and shape because the upper and the lower are working on nearly the same portion of the atmosphere and thus interfere with each other's behaviour. For example, in a wing of aspect ratio 6, a wing separation distance of one chord length, the biplane configuration will only produce about 20 percent more lift than a single wing of the same planform; the lower wing is attached to the fuselage, while the upper wing is raised above the fuselage with an arrangement of cabane struts, although other arrangements have been used. Either or both of the main wings can support ailerons, while flaps are more positioned on the lower wing. Bracing is nearly always added between the upper and lower wings, in the form of wires and/or slender interplane struts positioned symmetrically on either side of the fuselage; the primary advantage of the biplane over a monoplane is to combine great stiffness with light weight.
Stiffness requires structural depth and, where early monoplanes had to have this added with complicated extra bracing, the box kite or biplane has a deep structure and is therefore easier to make both light and strong. A braced monoplane wing must support itself while the two wings of a biplane help to stiffen each other; the biplane is therefore inherently stiffer than the monoplane. The structural forces in the spars of a biplane wing tend to be lower, so the wing can use less material to obtain the same overall strength and is therefore much lighter. A disadvantage of the biplane was the need for extra struts to space the wings apart, although the bracing required by early monoplanes reduced this disadvantage; the low power supplied by the engines available in the first years of aviation meant that aeroplanes could only fly slowly. This required an lower stalling speed, which in turn required a low wing loading, combining both large wing area with light weight. A biplane wing of a given span and chord has twice the area of a monoplane the same size and so can fly more or for a given flight speed can lift more weight.
Alternatively, a biplane wing of the same area as a monoplane has lower span and chord, reducing the structural forces and allowing it to be lighter. Biplanes suffer aerodynamic interference between the two planes; this means that a biplane does not in practice obtain twice the lift of the similarly-sized monoplane. The farther apart the wings are spaced the less the interference, but the spacing struts must be longer. Given the low speed and power of early aircraft, the drag penalty of the wires and struts and the mutual interference of airflows were minor and acceptable factors; as engine power rose after World War One, the thick-winged cantilever monoplane became practicable and, with its inherently lower drag and higher speed, from around 1918 it began to replace the biplane in most fields of aviation. The smaller biplane wing allows greater maneuverability. During World War One, this further enhanced the dominance of the biplane and, despite the need for speed, military aircraft were among the last to abandon the biplane form.
Specialist sports aerobatic biplanes are still made. Biplanes were designed with the wings positioned directly one above the other. Moving the upper wing forward relative to the lower one is called positive stagger or, more simply stagger, it can help increase lift and reduce drag by reducing the aerodynamic interference effects between the two wings, makes access to the cockpit easier. Many biplanes have staggered wings. Common examples from the 1930s include the de Havilland Tiger Moth, Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann and Travel Air 2000, it is possible to place the lower wing's leading edge ahead of the upper wing, giving negative stagger. This is done in a given design for practical engineering reasons. Examples of negative stagger include Breguet 14 and Beechcraft Staggerwing. However, positive stagger is more common; the space enclosed by a set of interplane struts is called a bay, hence a biplane or triplane with one set of such struts connecting the wings on each side of the aircraft is a single-bay biplane.
This provided sufficient strength for smaller aircraft such as the First World War-era Fokker D. VII fighter and the Second World War de Havilland Tiger Moth basic trainer; the larger two-seat Curtiss JN-4 Jenny is a two bay biplane, the extra bay being necessary as overlong bays are prone to flexing and can fail. The SPAD S. XIII fighter, while appearing to be a two bay bip
Belmont Park is a major Thoroughbred horse racing facility in the northeastern United States, located in Elmont, New York, just east of the New York City limits. Opened 114 years ago on May 4, 1905, it is operated by the non-profit New York Racing Association, as are Aqueduct and Saratoga Race Course; the group was formed in 1955 as the Greater New York Association to assume the assets of the individual associations that ran Belmont, Aqueduct and the now-defunct Jamaica Race Course. Belmont Park is open for racing from late April through mid-July, again from mid-September through late October, it is widely-known as the home of the Belmont Stakes in early June, regarded as the "Test of the Champion", the third leg of the Triple Crown. Along with Saratoga Race Course in Upstate New York and Churchill Downs in Kentucky, Del Mar and Santa Anita in California, Belmont is considered one of the elite racetracks in North America; the race park's main dirt track has earned the nickname, "the Big Sandy," given its prominent overall dimensions and the deep, sometimes tiring surface.
Belmont is sometimes known as "The Championship Track" because every major champion in racing history since the early 20th century has competed on the racecourse – including all of the Triple Crown winners. Belmont hosted its largest crowd in 2004, when 120,139 saw Smarty Jones upset by Birdstone in its Triple Crown bid. August Belmont Jr. and William Collins Whitney, along with other investors, built the original Belmont race track which opened on May 4, 1905. In its first 15 or so years, Belmont Park featured racing clockwise, in the "English fashion"—allowing the upper-class members of the racing association and their guests to have the races finish in front of the clubhouse, just to the west of the grandstand.. The original finish line was located at the top of the present-day homestretch. In his 1925 book, "The Big Town", Ring W. Lardner refers to the then-recent directional change, when he has a character at Belmont say "At that time, they run the wrong way of the track, like you would deal cards".
A innovation was created by Joseph E. Widener, who took over track leadership when August Belmont II died in 1924: the Widener Chute, it was a straightaway of just under 7 furlongs that cut diagonally through Belmont's training and main tracks, hitting near the quarter-pole of the main track. There are presently two features of Old Belmont Park remaining today. First is the display of four stone pillars on Hempstead Turnpike, a gift from the mayor and park commissioners of Charleston, South Carolina; the pillars had stood at the entrance of the Washington Course of the South Carolina Jockey Club in Charleston, which operated from 1792 to 1882. The stone pillars are now found at the clubhouse entrance. Lesser known-but more visible-are the racing motif iron railings seen bordering the walking ring; the railings, used as decoration on the south side of the old Belmont grandstand, were salvaged during the 1963 demolition. The original Belmont Park was not only unprecedented in its size, but had the then-new innovation of a Long Island Rail Road extension from the Queens Village station, running along the property, tunneling under Hempstead Turnpike terminating on the south side of the property.
The train terminal was moved to its present location north of the turnpike after the 1956 season. Near the railroad terminal was yet another track—Belmont Park Terminal, a steeplechase course operated by United Hunts until 1927. In addition to racing history, Belmont Park made history in another industry native to the Hempstead Plains – aviation; some 150,000 people were drawn to the track in 1910 on October 30, at the climax of a Wright Brothers-staged international aerial tournament, which had started eight years earlier. The event came at the beginning of a period. Eight years Belmont and aviation were reunited when the racetrack served as the northern point of the first U. S. air mail route, between the New York area and Washington, D. C. Today, two displays in the clubhouse of the current Belmont Park commemorate the history of the racetrack: a long mural by Pierre Bellocq featuring the dominant jockeys and racing personalities of the track's history; the last race at the old Belmont Park was run in October 1962.
The following spring, NYRA Chairman James Cox Brady announced that two separate engineering surveys found the grandstand/clubhouse was unsafe due to age-induced structural defects and needed to be rebuilt. The book Belmont Park: A Century of Champions noted the comment of NYRA President Edward T. Dickinson: "When you sighted down the stands, you could see some of the beams were twisted, they were in something of an S-shape."The old structure was demolished in 1963. The new grandstand was built 1964–1968; the Belmont race meetings were moved to Aqueduct Racetrack in South Ozone Park, during that time. The new $30.7 million Belmont Park grandstand, designed by Arthur Froehlich, was opened May 20, 1968 and is the largest in Thoroughbred racing. It has a total attendance capacity of more than 100,000, with the adjoining backyard being able to accommodate more than 10,000; the seating portion totals nearly 33,000. Unlike Churchill and Pimlico, Belmont does not allo
A monoplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with a single main wing plane, in contrast to a biplane or other multiplane, each of which has multiple planes. A monoplane has inherently the highest efficiency and lowest drag of any wing configuration and is the simplest to build. However, during the early years of flight, these advantages were offset by its greater weight and lower manoeuvrability, making it rare until the 1930s. Since the monoplane has been the most common form for a fixed-wing aircraft; the inherent efficiency of the monoplane can best be realized in the unbraced cantilever wing, which carries all structural forces internally. By contrast, a braced wing has additional drag from the exposed bracing struts or wires, lowering aerodynamic efficiency. On the other hand, the braced wing can be made much lighter; this in turn means that for a wing of a given size, bracing allows it to fly slower with a lower-powered engine, while a heavy cantilever wing needs a more powerful engine and can fly faster.
Besides the general variations in wing configuration such as tail position and use of bracing, the main distinction between types of monoplane is how high up the wings are mounted in relation to the fuselage. A low wing is one, located on or near the base of the fuselage. Placing the wing low down allows good visibility upwards and frees up the central fuselage from the wing spar carry-through. By reducing pendulum stability, it makes the aircraft more manoeuvrable, as on the Spitfire. A feature of the low wing position is its significant ground effect, giving the plane a tendency to float further before landing. Conversely, this ground effect permits shorter takeoffs. A mid wing is mounted midway up the fuselage; the carry-through spar structure can reduce the useful fuselage volume near its centre of gravity, where space is in most demand. A shoulder wing is a configuration whereby the wing is mounted near the top of the fuselage but not on the top, it is so called because it sits on the "shoulder" of the fuselage, rather than on the pilot's shoulder.
Shoulder-wings and high-wings share some characteristics, namely: they support a pendulous fuselage which requires no wing dihedral for stability. Compared to a low-wing, shoulder-wing and high-wing configurations give increased propeller clearance on multi-engined aircraft. On a large aircraft, there is little practical difference between a high wing. On a light aircraft, the shoulder-wing may need to be swept forward to maintain correct center of gravity. Examples of light aircraft with shoulder wings include the ARV Super2, the Bölkow Junior, Saab Safari and the Barber Snark. A high wing has its upper surface above the top of the fuselage, it shares many advantages and disadvantages with the shoulder wing, but on a light aircraft, the high wing has poorer upwards visibility. On light aircraft such as the Cessna 152, the wing is located on top of the pilot's cabin, so that the centre of lift broadly coincides with the centre of gravity. A parasol wing aircraft is a biplane without the lower pair of wings.
The parasol wing is not directly attached to the fuselage, but is held above it, supported either by cabane struts or by a single pylon. Additional bracing may be provided by struts extending from the fuselage sides; some early gliders had a parasol wing mounted on a pylon. The parasol wing was popular only during the interwar transition years between biplanes and monoplanes. Compared to a biplane, a parasol wing has lower drag. Although the first successful aircraft were biplanes, the first attempts at heavier-than-air flying machines were monoplanes, many pioneers continued to develop monoplane designs. For example, the first aeroplane to be put into production was the 1907 Santos-Dumont Demoiselle, while the Blériot XI flew across the English Channel in 1909. Throughout 1909–1910, Hubert Latham set multiple altitude records in his Antoinette IV monoplane reaching 1,384 m; the equivalent German language term is Eindecker, as in the mid-wing Fokker Eindecker fighter of 1915 which for a time dominated the skies in what became known as the "Fokker scourge".
The German military Idflieg aircraft designation system prior to 1918 prefixed monoplane type designations with an E, until the approval of the Fokker D. VIII fighter from its former "E. V" designation. However, the success of the Fokker was short-lived, World War I was dominated by biplanes. Towards the end of the war, the parasol monoplane became popular and successful designs were produced into the 1920s. Nonetheless few monoplane types were built between 1914 and the late 1920s, compared with the number of biplanes; the reasons for this were practical. With the low engine powers and airspeeds available, the wings of a monoplane needed to be large in order to create enough lift while a biplane could have two smaller wings and so be made smaller and lighter. Towards the end of the First World War, the inherent high drag of the biplane was beginning to restrict performance. Engines were not yet powerful enough to make the heavy cantilever-wing monoplane viable, the braced parasol wing became popular on fighter aircraft, alth
Air medical services
Air medical services is a comprehensive term covering the use of air transportation, airplane or helicopter, to move patients to and from healthcare facilities and accident scenes. Personnel provide comprehensive prehospital and emergency and critical care to all types of patients during aeromedical evacuation or rescue operations aboard helicopter and propeller aircraft or jet aircraft; the use of air transport to provide medical evacuation on the battlefield dates to World War I, but its role was expanded during the Korean and Vietnam wars. On, aircraft began to be used for the civilian emergency medical services. Helicopters can bring specialist care to the scene and transport patients to specialist hospitals for major trauma cases. Fixed-wing aircraft are used for long-distance transport. In some remote areas, air medical services deliver non-emergency healthcare such as general practitioner appointments. An example of this is the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia, who provide emergency care.
Air medical services can operate in a wider coverage area than a land ambulance. This makes them useful in sparsely-populated rural areas. Air medical services have a particular advantage for major trauma injuries; the well-established theory of the golden hour suggests that major trauma patients should be transported as as possible to a specialist trauma center. Therefore, medical responders in a helicopter can provide both a higher level of care at the scene of a trauma and faster transport to a trauma center, they can provide critical care when transporting patients from community hospitals to trauma centers. Effective use of helicopter services for trauma depends on the ground responder's ability to determine whether the patient's condition warrants air medical transport. Protocols and training must be developed to ensure. Excessively stringent criteria can prevent rapid transport of trauma victims. Crew and patient safety is the single most important factor to be considered when deciding whether to transport a patient by helicopter.
Weather, air traffic patterns, distances must be considered. Another reason for cancelling a flight is based on the comfort of the flight crew with the flight; the general rule of safety is upon the crew, when there is one pilot and two medical crew is: "3 to go, 1 to say'NO'". If one flight member is not comfortable with the flight for whatever reason, the flight is cancelled; some have questioned the safety of air medical services. While the number of crashes may be increasing, the number of programs and use of services has increased. Factors associated with fatal crashes of medical transport helicopters include flying at night and during bad weather, postcrash fires. An air ambulance is a specially outfitted helicopter or fixed-wing aircraft that transports injured or sick people in a medical emergency or over distances or terrain impractical for a conventional ground ambulance. Fixed-wing aircraft are more used to move patients over long distances and for repatriation from foreign countries.
These and related operations are called aeromedical. In some circumstances, the same aircraft may be used to search for wanted people. Like ground ambulances, air ambulances are equipped with medical equipment vital to monitoring and treating injured or ill patients. Common equipment for air ambulances includes medications, ventilators, ECGs and monitoring units, CPR equipment, stretchers. A medically staffed and equipped air ambulance provides medical care in flight—while a non-medically equipped and staffed aircraft transports patients without care in flight. Military organizations and NATO refer to the former as medical evacuation and to the latter as casualty evacuation. Air Traffic Control grants special treatment to air ambulance operations, much like a ground ambulance using lights and a siren, only when they are operating with a patient; when this happens, air ambulance aircraft take the call sign MEDEVAC and receive priority handling in the air and on the ground. As with many Emergency Medical Service innovations, treating patients in flight originated in the military.
The concept of using aircraft as ambulances is as old as powered flight itself. Although balloons were not used to evacuate wounded soldiers at the Siege of Paris in 1870, air evacuation was experimented with during the First World War; the first recorded British ambulance flight took place in 1917 in Turkey when a soldier in the Camel Corps, shot in the ankle was flown to hospital in a de Havilland DH9 in 45 minutes. The same journey by land would have taken some 3 days to complete. In the 1920s several services, both official and unofficial, started up in various parts of the world. Aircraft were still primitive at the time, with limited capabilities, the effort received mixed reviews. Exploration of the idea continued and France and the United Kingdom used organized air ambulance services during the African and Middle Eastern Colonial Wars of the 1920s. In 1920, the British, while suppressing the "Mad Mullah" in Somalialand, used an Airco DH.9A fitted out as an air ambulance. It carried a single stretcher under a fairing behind the pilot.
The French evacuated over 7,000 casualties during that period. By 1936, an organized military air ambulance service evacuated wounded from the Spanish