Goalkeeper (association football)
The goalkeeper shortened to keeper or goalie, is one of the major positions of association football. It is the most specialised position in the sport; the goalkeeper's primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring. This is accomplished by the goalkeeper moving into the path of the ball and either catching it or directing it away from the vicinity of the goal line. Within the penalty area goalkeepers are able to use their hands, making them the only players on the field permitted to handle the ball; the special status of goalkeepers is indicated by them wearing different coloured kits from their teammates. The back-pass rule prevents goalkeepers handling direct passes back to them from teammates. Goalkeepers perform goal kicks, give commands to their defense during corner kicks and indirect free kicks, marking. Goalkeepers play an important role in directing on field strategy as they have an unrestricted view of the entire pitch, giving them a unique perspective on play development.
The goalkeeper is the only required position of a team. If they are injured or sent off, a substitute goalkeeper has to take their place, otherwise an outfield player must take the ejected keeper's place in goal. In order to replace a goalkeeper, sent off, a team substitutes an outfield player for the backup keeper, they play the remainder of the match with nine outfield players. If a team does not have a substitute goalkeeper, or they have used all of their permitted substitutions for the match, an outfield player has to take the dismissed goalkeeper's place and wear the goalkeeper shirt; the squad number for a first choice goalkeeper is number 1, although they may wear any jersey number between 1 and 99. Association football, like many sports, has experienced many changes in tactics resulting in the generation and elimination of different positions. Goalkeeper is the only position, certain to have existed since the codification of the sport. In the early days of organised football, when systems were limited or non-existent and the main idea was for all players to attack and defend, teams had a designated member to play as the goalkeeper.
The earliest account of football teams with player positions comes from Richard Mulcaster in 1581 and does not specify goalkeepers. The earliest specific reference to keeping goal comes from Cornish Hurling in 1602. According to Carew: "they pitch two bushes in the ground, some eight or ten foot asunder. One of these is appointed by lots, to the one side, the other to his adverse party. There is assigned for their guard, a couple of their best stopping Hurlers". Other references to scoring goals begin in English literature in the early 16th century. In a 1613 poem, Michael Drayton refers to "when the Ball to throw, And drive it to the Gole, in squadrons forth they goe", it seems inevitable that wherever a game has evolved goals, some form of goalkeeping must be developed. David Wedderburn refers to what has been translated from Latin as to "keep goal" in 1633, though this does not imply a fixed goalkeeper position; the word "goal-keeper" is used in the novel Tom Brown's School Days. The author is here referring to an early form of rugby football: You will see in the first place, that the sixth-form boy, who has the charge of goal, has spread his force so as to occupy the whole space behind the goal-posts, at distances of about five yards apart.
The word "goal-keeper" appeared in the Sheffield Rules of 1867, but the term did not refer to a designated player, but rather to "that player on the defending side who for the time being is nearest to his own goal". The goal-keeper, thus defined, did not enjoy any special handling privileges; the FA's first Laws of the Game of 1863 did not make any special provision for a goalkeeper, with any player being allowed to catch or knock-on the ball. Handling the ball was forbidden in 1870; the next year, 1871, the laws were amended to introduce the goalkeeper and specify that the keeper was allowed to handle the ball "for the protection of his goal". The restrictions on the ability of the goalkeeper to handle the ball were changed several times in subsequent revisions of the laws: 1871: the keeper may handle the ball only "for the protection of his goal". 1873: the keeper may not "carry" the ball. 1883: the keeper may not carry the ball for more than two steps. 1887: the keeper may not handle the ball in the opposition's half.
1901: the keeper may handle the ball for any purpose. 1912: the keeper may handle the ball only in the penalty area. 1931: the keeper may take up to four steps while carrying the ball. 1992: the keeper may not handle the ball after it has been deliberately kicked to him/her by a team-mate. 1997: the keeper may not handle the ball for more than six seconds. Goalkeepers played between the goalposts and had limited mobility, except when trying to save opposition shots. Throughout the years, the role of the goalkeeper has evolved, due to the changes in systems of play, to become more active; the goalkeeper is the only player in association football allowed to use their han
Harald Anton Schumacher known as Toni Schumacher, is a former football goalkeeper for 1. FC Köln and the West German national football team. With his club he won three DFB-Pokal titles. With his country he won the 1980 European Championship, lost two World Cup finals, in 1982 and 1986. In the 1982 FIFA World Cup semi-final he controversially collided with and injured French defender Patrick Battiston, he was voted Footballer of the Year in Germany in 1984 and 1986. Since April 2012, he has served as vice president at 1. FC Köln. Schumacher made his first-team debut with 1. FC Köln at the age of 19, he played for the club from 1972 to 1987, including in 213 consecutive Bundesliga matches from 1977 to 1983. For most of those years, until well into the mid-1980s, he was considered one of the world's top goalkeepers, he was the automatic first-choice goalkeeper for his country, he backstopped Köln to the double in 1978, winning the DFB-Pokal. The year before he had led Köln to a DFB-Pokal victory, the club's first major trophy win in nine years.
He appeared in two other DFB-Pokal finals, in 1980 and 1983. Schumacher was voted the West German Footballer of the Year twice, in 1984 and 1986, by the nation's football journalists. Schumacher played 76 international matches for West Germany between 1979 and 1986, including 15 World Cup qualifying matches and 14 World Cup matches, he won the 1980 European Championship and lost two World Cup finals, in 1982 and 1986. In the 1982 tournament, in the controversial semi-final against France, he saved two penalty kicks in the post-extra time shootout, which West Germany won. In the 1986 quarter-final against tournament hosts, Mexico, he saved two of the three shootout penalties he faced, enabling West Germany to advance. Schumacher was involved in a collision with a French defender, substitute Patrick Battiston, in the semi-final of the 1982 World Cup. Battiston and Schumacher were both sprinting towards a long through ball pass from Michel Platini. Battiston managed to reach the ball first and flicked it up and to the side of the approaching Schumacher.
Schumacher leapt into the air as the ball sailed past him wide of the goal. Schumacher, still in the air, collided with Battiston; the resulting contact left Battiston unconscious slipping into a coma. Schumacher has always denied any foul intention regarding the incident, saying that he was going for the ball, as a goalkeeper is entitled to do. Others have alleged. Battiston lost two teeth and had three cracked ribs, he received oxygen on the pitch. Michel Platini said that he thought Battiston had died, because "he had no pulse and looked pale"; the Dutch referee Charles Corver did not award a free kick for the incident. Schumacher proceeded to play resumed. West Germany would go on to win the game on penalty kicks after the match was tied at 3–3. Schumacher caused more controversy after the game with his response to news that Battiston had lost two teeth: "If that's all that's wrong, tell him I'll pay for the crowns."Schumacher did visit Battiston in the hospital, though the Frenchman felt his apology at the time as insincere, Battiston admitted that he had forgiven him by the time the two countries faced each other four years in yet another World Cup semifinal.
That match ended in a 2–0 victory for West Germany. A French newspaper poll asked, the least popular man in France, Schumacher beat Adolf Hitler into second; when West Germany and France met again in World Cup 1986, Battiston said that the incident was "forgiven and forgotten". However, he said that he was wary of getting "close to Schumacher" and said that he would hold a distance of at least 40 meters from the German goalkeeper. Schumacher would refrain from commenting on the incident; as coach of SC Fortuna Köln he was sacked at half time by club chairman Jean Löring when his club was 0–2 behind against Waldhof Mannheim in December 1999. In 1987, Schumacher's autobiography, was published in various countries, including France. There was much interest in Schumacher's comments on the Battiston incident. Schumacher maintained that his actions did not constitute a foul and that he was only trying to get the ball, he said that he did not go over to check on Battiston's condition because several French players were standing around Battiston and making threatening gestures in his direction.
The book included accounts of alleged improprieties by German football players, including substance abuse. This resulted in Schumacher's exclusion from the German national team and his long-term Bundesliga club, 1. FC Köln, he has a daughter. He has a son and daughter, from his previous marriage to Marlies Schumacher. 1. FC KölnBundesliga: 1977–78 DFB-Pokal: 1976–77, 1977–78, 1982–83Borussia DortmundBundesliga: 1995–96Fenerbahçe1. Lig: 1988–89GermanyFIFA World Cup Runner-up: 1982, 1986 UEFA European Champion: 1980IndividualFootballer of the Year in Germany: 1984, 1986 UEFA European Championship Team of the Tournament: 1984 FIFA World Cup Silver Ball: 1986 Turkish Footballer of the Year: 1988, 1989 Detail of international matches, by RSSSF Leverkusen who's who Interview with the German magazine "STERN"
1. FC Köln
1. Fußball-Club Köln 01/07 e. V. known as 1. FC Köln or FC Cologne in English, is a German association football club based in Cologne, it was formed in 1948 as a merger of the clubs Kölner Ballspiel-Club 1901 and SpVgg Sülz 07. Köln played in the Bundesliga, however were relegated to 2. Bundesliga after the 2017–18 season; the club's nickname Die Geißböcke refers to the club's mascot, a male goat named Hennes after the veteran FC player and manager Hennes Weisweiler. The first Hennes was donated by a circus entrepreneur as a Cologne carnival joke; the current mascot is Hennes VIII, has been since 24 July 2006. Another nickname for the club, more common locally due to its ambiguity, is FC, a common German abbreviation for football clubs. Characteristic for the dialect spoken around Cologne, this is pronounced "EF-tsay", in contrast to the Standard German pronunciation of the abbreviation where the second syllable is emphasized. Like many of Germany's other professional football clubs, 1. FC Köln is part of a larger sports club with teams in other sports like handball, table tennis and gymnastics.
1. FC Köln has over 100,000 members. Kölner BC was formed on 6 June 1901 by a group of young men who were unhappy as part of the gymnastics club FC Borussia Köln and far more interested in football. BC was a competitive side in the Zehnerliga West in the years before World War I who took the Westdeutsche championship in 1912 and advanced to the preliminary rounds of the national finals, their next best result was a losing appearance in the 1920 league final, where they lost a 1–3 to Borussia Mönchengladbach. Spielvereinigung 1907 Köln-Sülz was established in 1907 as Sülzer Sportverein and on 1 January 1919 merged with Fußball Club 1908 Hertha Sülz to form SpVgg, they won the Westdeutscher title in 1928 and they too went out in the early rounds of the national finals in their turn on that stage. They went on to play as a top flight club in the Gauliga Mittelrhein, one of sixteen premier level divisions established in 1933 in the re-organization of German football under the Third Reich; the side earned good results through the 1930s – including a divisional championship in 1939 – but faltered in the early 1940s.
After the 1941 season the Gauliga Mittlerhein was split into two new divisions: the Gauliga Köln-Aachen and the Gauliga Moselland, which included clubs from occupied Luxembourg. Sülz struggled until they were united with VfL Köln 1899 for the 1943–44 season to form the combined wartime side Kriegspielgemeinschaft VfL 99/Sülz 07 which promptly won the Gauliga Köln-Aachen title by a single point over SG Düren 99 in a close race; the club did not play the next campaign. After the union of these two predecessor sides, 1. FC Köln began play in the tough Oberliga West in the 1949–50 season and by 1954 had won their first divisional championship; that same year they lost the DFB-Pokal final 1–0 to VfB Stuttgart. Die Geißböcke won their second divisional championship in 1960 and appeared in the national final against Hamburger SV, where they went down to a 2–3 defeat, they went on to finish first in the Oberliga West in each of the next three seasons and again played their way to the national final in 1962 and 1963.
They won the'62 match 4–0 over 1. FC Nürnberg resulting in entry to the 1962–63 European Cup where they were one of the favourites to win the trophy. In the first round Köln visited Dundee F. C. of Scotland and lost 1–8, despite winning the second leg back in Germany by 4–0 they were out of the tournament. In the following year's national final they lost 1–3 to Borussia Dortmund. In 1963, FC Köln was selected as one of the original 16 teams to play in the Bundesliga, Germany's new professional football league. Köln continued their winning ways by becoming the first Bundesliga champion in the league's inaugural 1963–64 season; as German champions, Köln entered the 1964–65 European Cup where it met England's Liverpool at the quarter-final stage. After two 0–0 draws, a third game was played, a stalemate, this time 2–2; as the penalty shootout had not yet been introduced as the means of deciding a tie, Köln went out of the competition on the toss of a coin. Enough, there was the need for a second coin toss because the first time the coin stuck vertically in the ground.
The club became the first Bundesliga side to field a Brazilian player when it signed Zézé for a club record fee of DM 150,000. Domestically, Köln recorded a second-place finish in the 1964–65 Bundesliga season and won its first DFB-Pokal in 1967–68. At the start of the 1970s, Köln reached three DFB-Pokal finals in four seasons; the team achieved another second place Bundesliga finish in 1973 before reaching another DFB-Pokal final in 1977, beating Hertha BSC over two legs to win the trophy for the second time. In 1977–78, FC Köln enjoyed its most successful season, winning the Bundesliga title, its third national title overall, retaining the DFB-Pokal; this makes Köln one of only four clubs to have won the double in the Bundesliga era. Köln had another losing DFB-Pokal final appearance in 1980, before winning the competition for a fourth time in 1983. In 1986, the club appeared in its first European final, losing 5–3 on aggregate to Real Madrid in the UEFA Cup Final. Two second place Bundesliga finishes, in 1988–89 and 1989–90, another DFB-Pokal final loss in 1991, marked the end of a glorious thirty-year period for FC Köln.
In recent years, the club's performance has been mixed. The FC holds the dubious distinction of the worst goal d
The Bundesliga is a professional association football league in Germany and the football league with the highest average stadium attendance worldwide. At the top of the German football league system, the Bundesliga is Germany's primary football competition; the Bundesliga comprises 18 teams and operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the 2. Bundesliga. Seasons run from August to May. Most games are played with a few games played on weekdays. All of the Bundesliga clubs qualify for the DFB-Pokal; the winner of the Bundesliga qualifies for the DFL-Supercup. 54 clubs have competed in the Bundesliga since its founding. Bayern Munich has won the Bundesliga the most, winning the title 27 times. However, the Bundesliga has seen other champions with Borussia Dortmund, Hamburger SV, Werder Bremen, Borussia Mönchengladbach and VfB Stuttgart most prominent among them; the Bundesliga is one of the top national leagues, ranked fourth in Europe according to UEFA's league coefficient ranking for the 2017–18 season, based on performances in European competitions over the past five seasons.
The Bundesliga is the number-one football league in the world in terms of average attendance. The Bundesliga is broadcast on television in over 200 countries; the Bundesliga was founded in 1962 in Dortmund and the first season started in 1963. The structure and organisation of the Bundesliga along with Germany's other football leagues have undergone frequent changes; the Bundesliga was founded by the Deutscher Fußball-Bund, but is now operated by the Deutsche Fußball Liga. The Bundesliga is composed of two divisions: the 1. Bundesliga, below that, the 2. Bundesliga, the second tier of German football since 1974; the Bundesligen are professional leagues. Since 2008, the 3. Liga in Germany has been a professional league, but may not be called Bundesliga because the league is run by the German Football Association and not, as are the two Bundesligen, by the German Football League. Below the level of the 3. Liga, leagues are subdivided on a regional basis. For example, the Regionalligen are made up of Nord, Nordost, Süd, Südwest and West divisions.
Below this are thirteen parallel divisions, most of which are called Oberligen which represent federal states or large urban and geographical areas. The levels below the Oberligen differ between the local areas; the league structure has changed and reflects the degree of participation in the sport in various parts of the country. In the early 1990s, changes were driven by the reunification of Germany and the subsequent integration of the national league of East Germany; every team in the two Bundesligen must have a licence to play in the league, or else they are relegated into the regional leagues. To obtain a licence, teams must be financially healthy and meet certain standards of conduct as organisations; as in other national leagues, there are significant benefits to being in the top division: A greater share of television broadcast licence revenues goes to 1. Bundesliga sides. 1. Bundesliga teams draw greater levels of fan support. Average attendance in the first league is 42,673 per game — more than twice the average of the 2.
Bundesliga. Greater exposure through television and higher attendance levels helps 1. Bundesliga teams attract the most lucrative sponsorships. 1. Bundesliga teams develop substantial financial muscle through the combination of television and gate revenues and marketing of their team brands; this allows them to attract and retain skilled players from domestic and international sources and to construct first-class stadium facilities. The 1. Bundesliga is financially strong, the 2. Bundesliga has begun to evolve in a similar direction, becoming more stable organizationally and financially, reflecting an higher standard of professional play. Internationally, the most well-known German clubs include Bayern Munich, Borussia Dortmund, Schalke 04, Hamburger SV, VfB Stuttgart, Borussia Mönchengladbach, Werder Bremen and Bayer Leverkusen. Hamburger SV was the only club to have played continuously in the Bundesliga since its foundation until 12 May 2018, when the club was relegated for the first time. In the 2008–09 season, the Bundesliga reinstated an earlier German system of promotion and relegation, in use from 1981 until 1991: The bottom two finishers in the Bundesliga are automatically relegated to the 2.
Bundesliga, with the top two finishers in the 2. Bundesliga taking their places; the third-from-bottom club in the Bundesliga will play a two-legged tie with the third-place team from the 2. Bundesliga, with the winner taking up the final place in the following season's Bundesliga. From 1992 until 2008, a different system had been used in which the bottom three finishers of the Bundesliga had been automatically relegated, to be replaced by the top three finishers in the 2. Bundesliga. From 1963 until 1981 two, or three, teams had been relegated from the Bundesliga automatically, while promotion had been decided either or in promotion play-offs; the season starts in early August and lasts until late May, with a winter break of six weeks (mid-December through to the end of
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000. About 24 km south-southeast of Cologne, Bonn is in the southernmost part of the Rhine-Ruhr region, Germany's largest metropolitan area, with over 11 million inhabitants, it is famously known as the birthplace of Ludwig van Beethoven in 1770. Beethoven spent his childhood and teenage years in Bonn; because of a political compromise following German reunification, the German federal government maintains a substantial presence in Bonn, the city is considered a second, capital of the country. Bonn is the secondary seat of the President, the Chancellor, the Bundesrat and the primary seat of six federal government ministries and twenty federal authorities; the unique title of Federal City reflects its important political status within Germany. As the city of Weimar in eastern Germany has given its name to Germany's interwar period democracy, the Weimar Republic, so too has Bonn given its name to the historical name of the Bonn Republic for the Cold War era Federal Republic of Germany.
Founded in the 1st century BC as a Roman settlement, Bonn is one of Germany's oldest cities. From 1597 to 1794, Bonn was the capital of the Electorate of Cologne, residence of the Archbishops and Prince-electors of Cologne. From 1949 to 1990, Bonn was the capital of West Germany, Germany's present constitution, the Basic Law, was declared in the city in 1949. Berlin was re-affirmed by the Bundestag in Bonn as the capital of Germany, though due to the country's division a seat of government was maintained there by the German Democratic Republic, only in the eastern half. From 1990 to 1999, Bonn served as the seat of government – but no longer capital – of reunited Germany; the headquarters of Deutsche Post DHL and Deutsche Telekom, both DAX-listed corporations, are in Bonn. The city is home to the University of Bonn and a total of 20 United Nations institutions, including headquarters for Secretariat of the UN Framework Convention Climate Change, the Secretariat of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification, the UN Volunteers programme.
Situated in the southernmost part of the Rhine-Ruhr region, Germany's largest metropolitan area with over 11 million inhabitants, Bonn lies within the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, close to the border with Rhineland-Palatinate. Spanning an area of more 141.2 km2 on both sides of the river Rhine three quarters of the city lie on the river's left bank. To the south and to the west, Bonn is bordering the Eifel region which encompasses the Rhineland Nature Park. To the north, Bonn borders the Cologne Lowland. Natural borders are constituted by the river Sieg to the north-east and by the Siebengebirge to the east; the largest extension of the city in north-south dimensions is 15 km and 12.5 km in west-east dimensions. The city borders have a total length of 61 km; the geographical centre of Bonn is the Bundeskanzlerplatz in Bonn-Gronau. The German state of North Rhine-Westphalia is divided into five governmental districts, Bonn is part of the governmental district of Cologne. Within this governmental district, the city of Bonn is an urban district in its own right.
The urban district of Bonn is again divided into four administrative municipal districts. These are Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Bonn-Beuel and Bonn-Hardtberg. In 1969, the independent towns of Bad Godesberg and Beuel as well as several villages were incorporated into Bonn, resulting in a city more than twice as large as before. Bonn has an oceanic climate. In the south of the Cologne lowland in the Rhine valley, Bonn is in one of Germany's warmest regions; the history of the city dates back to Roman times. In about 12 BC, the Roman army appears to have stationed a small unit in what is presently the historical centre of the city. Earlier, the army had resettled members of a Germanic tribal group allied with Rome, the Ubii, in Bonn; the Latin name for that settlement, "Bonna", may stem from the original population of this and many other settlements in the area, the Eburoni. The Eburoni were members of a large tribal coalition wiped out during the final phase of Caesar's War in Gaul. After several decades, the army gave up the small camp linked to the Ubii-settlement.
During the 1st century AD, the army chose a site to the north of the emerging town in what is now the section of Bonn-Castell to build a large military installation dubbed Castra Bonnensis, i.e. "Fort Bonn". Built from wood, the fort was rebuilt in stone. With additions and new construction, the fort remained in use by the army into the waning days of the Western Roman Empire the mid-5th century; the structures themselves remained standing well into the Middle Ages, when they were called the Bonnburg. They were used by Frankish kings. Much of the building materials seem to have been re-used in the construction of Bonn's 13th-century city wall; the Sterntor in the city center is a reconstruction using the last remnants of the medieval city wall. To date, Bonn's Roman fort remains the largest fort of its type known from the ancient world, i.e. a fort built to accommodate a full-strength Imperial Legion and its auxiliaries. The fort covered an area of 250,000 square metres. Between its walls it contained a dense grid of streets and a multitude of buildings, ranging from spacious headquarters and large officers' quarters to barracks, stables and a military jail.