A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people to earn a profit. A merchant historically was anyone involved in business as long as industry, the status of the merchant has varied during different periods of history and among different societies. There are two types of merchant, A wholesale merchant is a wholesaler who operates in the chain between produce and retail merchant, typically dealing in large quantities of goods, some wholesale merchants only organize the movement of goods rather than move the goods themselves. A retail merchant or retailer, sells merchandise to end-users or consumers, a shop-keeper is a retail merchant. Merchants have existed as long as business, trade, a merchant class characterized many pre-modern societies. Open air, public markets were known in ancient Babylonia and Assyria, Egypt, India, Persia and these markets typically occupied a place in the towns centre. Surrounding the market, skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers and these artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but prepared goods for sale on market days.
In ancient Greece markets operated within the agora, and in ancient Rome the forum, the nature of direct selling centred around transactional exchange, where the goods were on open display, allowing buyers to evaluate quality directly through visual inspection. Relationships between merchant and consumer were minimal, the Phoenicians plied their ships across the Mediterranean, becoming a major trading power by 9th century BCE. The Phoenicians imported and exported wood, textiles and produce such as wine, dried fruit and their trading skills necessitated a network of colonies along the Mediterranean coast, stretching from modern day Crete through to Tangiers and onto Sardinia. The Phoenicians not only traded in goods, but were instrumental in transporting the trappings of culture. The Phoenicians extensive trade networks necessitated considerable book-keeping and correspondence, in around 1500 BCE, the Phoenicians developed a phonetic alphabet which was much easier to learn that the pictographic scripts used in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.
Phoenician traders and merchants were responsible for spreading their alphabet around the region. Phoenician inscriptions have been found in sites at a number of former Phoenician cities and colonies around the Mediterranean, such as Byblos. The Romans defined merchants or traders in a narrow sense. Merchants were those who bought and sold goods while landowners who sold their own produce were not considered to be merchants, being a landowner was a respectable occupation. On the other hand, the trade of merchant was not considered respectable, although they may have lacked high social standing, merchants in ancient Rome often made handsome profits. Umbricius Scauras, for example, was a manufacturer and trader of fish sauce in Pompeii and his villa, situated in one of the wealthier districts of Pompeii, was very large and ornately decorated in a show of substantial personal wealth
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
San Gabriel, California
San Gabriel is a city in Los Angeles County, California. It is named after the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, founded by Junípero Serra, the city grew outward from the mission and in 1852 became the original township of Los Angeles County. San Gabriel was incorporated in 1913, the citys motto is A city with a Mission and it is often called the Birthplace of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. At the 2010 census, the population was 39,718, prior to the arrival of the Spanish to Alta California, the area that is now San Gabriel was inhabited by the Tongva Native Americans, whom the Spanish called the Gabrieleño. The Tongva name for the San Gabriel region has been reconstructed as Shevaa and he was appointed as Californias governor twice, serving briefly in 1832 and again from 1845 through the Mexican-American War. Later in life, he was elected as a Los Angeles City councilman, the city of Pico Rivera was named to honor him as the last governor of California to be born in Mexico. In 1853, a company of Army Engineers, who included the geologist William P.
Blake, Blake observed that the once great vineyards had fallen into wild disarray. Fences were in disrepair, and animals roamed freely through the property, the mission bells were ringing, and the church was still in use. In the first United States census made in California in 1860,586 people lived in San Gabriel, by the time of General Law Incorporation on April 24,1913, the citys population had grown to 1,500. San Gabriel is located at 34°5′39″N 118°5′54″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.1 square miles, virtually all of it land. The city is bordered on the north by San Marino, on the east by Temple City and Rosemead, to the south by Rosemead and this region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, San Gabriel has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, the 2010 United States Census reported that San Gabriel had a population of 39,718. The population density was 9,581.5 people per square mile.
The racial makeup of San Gabriel was 24,091 Asian,10,076 White,388 African American,220 Native American,43 Pacific Islander,3,762 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10,189 persons. The Census reported that 39,266 people lived in households,34 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 481 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 76 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,121 households were made up of individuals and 800 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 3.13. There were 9,594 families, the family size was 3.47. The median age was 40.3 years, for every 100 females there were 93.2 males
Alta California, founded in 1769 by Gaspar de Portolà, was a polity of New Spain and after the Mexican War of Independence in 1822, a territory of Mexico. The region included all of the states of California and Utah. Large areas east of the Sierra Nevada and San Gabriel Mountains were claimed to be part of Alta California, to the southeast, beyond the deserts and the Colorado River, lay the Spanish settlements in Arizona. The areas formerly comprising Alta California were ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican–American War in 1848, two years later, California joined the union as the 31st state. Other parts of Alta California became all or part of the U. S. states of Arizona, Utah and Wyoming. The Spanish explored the area of Alta California by sea beginning in the 16th century. During the following two centuries there were plans to settle the area, none of which were effectively carried out. Ultimately, New Spain did not have the resources nor population to settle such a far northern outpost.
To ascertain the Russian threat a number of Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest were launched, the Spanish Crown funded the construction and subsidized the operation of the missions, with the goal that the relocation and enforced labor of Native people would bolster Spanish rule. The first Alta California mission and presidio were established by the Franciscan friar Junípero Serra, the following year,1770, the second mission and presidio were founded in Monterey. In 1773 a boundary between the Baja California missions and the Franciscan missions of Alta California was set by Francisco Palóu, the missionary effort coincided with the construction of presidios and pueblos, which were to be manned and populated by Hispanic people. The first pueblo founded was San José in 1777, followed by Los Ángeles in 1781, by law, mission land and property were to pass to the indigenous population after a period of about ten years, when the natives would become Spanish subjects. In the interim period, the Franciscans were to act as mission administrators who held the land in trust for the Native residents, the transfer of property never occurred under the Franciscans.
As the number of Spanish settlers grew in Alta California, the boundaries, conflicts between the Crown and the Church and between Natives and settlers arose. State and ecclesiastical bureaucrats debated over authority of the missions and they advocated that the Natives owned property and had the right to defend it. Governor Diego de Borica is credited with defining Alta and Baja Californias official borders, Mexico won independence in 1822, and Alta California became a territory of Mexico. The Spanish and Mexican governments rewarded retired soldados de cuera with large grants, known as ranchos, for the raising of cattle. Hides and tallow from the livestock were the primary exports of California until the mid-19th century, the construction and domestic work on these vast estates was primarily done by Native Americans, who had learned to speak Spanish and ride horses
Old Spanish Trail (trade route)
The Old Spanish Trail is an historical trade route that connected the northern New Mexico settlements of Santa Fe, New Mexico with those of Los Angeles and southern California. Approximately 700 mi long, the trail ran through areas of mountains, arid deserts. It is considered one of the most arduous of all trade routes established in the United States. Explored, in part, by Spanish explorers as early as the late 16th century, the name of the trail comes from the publication of John C. Frémont’s Report of his 1844 journey for the U. S. Topographical Corps, guided by Kit Carson, from California to New Mexico. The name acknowledges the fact that parts of the trail had been known to the Spanish since the 16th century, frémonts report named a trail that had already been in use for about 15 years. The trail is important to New Mexico history because it established an arduous, the trail is a combination of known trails that were established by Spanish explorers and traders with the Ute and other Indian tribes.
The eastern parts of what called the Old Spanish Trail, including southwest Colorado. The same trail was used by the first Americans to reach California by land, the Mojave desert section of the Mohave Trail is now a jeep trail called the Mojave Road. Upon the return of Antonio Armijo, the governor of New Mexico immediately announced the success to his superiors in Mexico City, as a reward, the governor officially named Armijo Commander for the Discovery of the Route to California. Armijos route was documented by him in a report to the governor, after this date, the route began to be used by traders for usually a single annual round trip. Word spread about the successful trade expedition and some commerce began between Santa Fe and Los Angeles. This route ran northwest to the Colorado and Green Rivers, crossed over to the Sevier River and it passed southward to the Santa Clara River, linking up with Armijos route to California. California had many horses and mules, many growing wild, with no local market, usually two blankets were traded for one horse, more blankets were usually required for a mule.
California had almost no wool processing industry and few weavers, so woven products were a welcome commodity, the trading party usually left New Mexico in early November to take advantage of winter rains to cross the deserts on the trail and would arrive in California in early February. The return party would usually leave California for New Mexico in early April to get over the trail before the water dried up. The return party often included several hundred to a few horses and mules. Low-scale emigration from New Mexico to California used parts of the trail in the late 1830s when the trade began to die