Juan Nepomuceno Seguín was a Tejano political and military figure of the Texas Revolution who helped to establish the independence of Texas and signed its declaration of independence. Numerous places and institutions are named in his honor, including the county seat of Seguin in Guadalupe County, the Juan N. Seguin Memorial Interchange in Houston, Juan Seguin Monument in Seguin, World War II Liberty Ship SS Juan N. Seguin, Seguin High School in Arlington. Juan Nepomuceno Seguin was born on October 27, 1806, in San Antonio de Bexar, Province of Texas, Viceroyalty of New Spain, to Juan José María Erasmo Seguin and Maria Josefa Becerra; as the son of a postmaster, he assisted his mother in the business, while his father was off writing the Mexican Constitution of 1824. In 1825, he married María Gertrudis Flores de Abrego, they had ten children. He was elected an alderman in December, 1828 and served on numerous electoral boards before becoming the San Antonio alcalde in December 1833, he served as political chief of Bexar in 1834, when the previous chief became ill.
In 1835, he led a relief force to Monclova. As a teenager in Mexico, he had a strong interest in politics. While Antonio López de Santa Anna repealed the Mexican Constitution of 1824, Seguín was critical of his contemporary Mexican leader. Years Seguín gladly joined the Texas Revolution to rid the area of Santa Anna's rule. In 1835 -- 1836, Seguín commanded troops for the Texian Army, he was commissioned a captain by Stephen F. Austin in October 1835 and was tasked with supplying the Texian troops with food and provisions. Seguín sent out scouting parties to the Missions of San Antonio in search of a suitable base camp for the Texians and participated in the early successful Battle of Concepcion. Martín Perfecto de Cos was appointed as military governor over Texas by his brother-in-law Antonio López de Santa Anna, established his headquarters in San Antonio on October 9, 1835. Upwards of 160 rancheros and other Tejanos under Seguín, José Carbajal, Plácido Benavides, Salvador Flores and Manuel Leal joined Austin and 400 Texians at the Siege of Béxar.
After a two-month battle, Cos surrendered on December 9. In January 1836, Seguín was commissioned as a Captain in the regular Texas army. Upon the return of Santa Anna's army, Seguín joined William B. Travis on February 23, in the Battle of the Alamo. Although serving at the Alamo during the thirteen-day siege, he did not participate in the final battle of the Alamo He was chosen to carry the Alamo message through enemy lines, that the Texans "shall never surrender or retreat." Seguín got that message through to the other soldiers on the Texian side. He returned with men to reinforce the Alamo, but it had fallen to Santa Anna's army. After the Alamo, he re-formed cavalry companies at Gonzales and acted as the rear guard, providing protection for fleeing Texas families during the Runaway Scrape His company, with Captain Moseley Baker's company, blocked the Mexican army from crossing the Brazos river, preventing them from overtaking the Texians, his cavalry command, participating as infantry with Sherman's company, fought in the victorious Battle of San Jacinto.
In May 1836, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel. On June 4, as a representative of the Republic of Texas, he accepted the formal surrender of the Mexican forces in the Alamo. After Texas became a Republic, he was the head of the San Antonio military, commanding a force to defend the western frontier. Texas army Brigadier General Felix Huston ordered Seguín in early 1837 to arrange for burial of the Alamo defenders' remains, left where they were burned. Ashes were collected at three unrecorded sites. Prior to the February 25 funeral, the casket lay in "the parish church". An account provided by Seguin, in the March 28, 1837 issue of the Telegraph and Texas Register, states they were buried where the majority of ashes had been found, but was not specific about the location, he told historian Reuben Potter in 1861. Twenty-eight years in correspondence with Hamilton P. Bee, Seguín remembered placing the remains in a tomb inside the "Cathedral of San Antonio". Remains believed to be those of the Alamo defenders were discovered at the Cathedral of San Fernando in 1936, the battle's centennial.
Time had decayed their original container, they were re-interred in a marble sarcophagus. Purported to hold the ashes of Travis and Crockett, some have doubted it can be proven whose remains are entombed there. Seguín was elected as a Texas Senator from 1837 to 1840 and worked with Congressman José Antonio Navarro to ensure legislation that would be in the best interest of the citizenry of Texas, who were becoming the political minority. In 1839, Seguín, captain of a Texas force of about fifty-four men, again protected the colonists in the Henry Karnes campaign against the hostile Comanche Indians. In 1839, at a town thirty miles east of San Antonio, he was honored by celebration. In 1840, he resigned his congressional seat in order to join a controversial campaign against the Centralist government in Mexico City, he became mayor of San Antonio in 1841. Texas became flooded with adventurous and land-hungry North Americans who were unfamiliar with the native Texans' history and their loyal support of Texas.
Seguin's leadership and loyalty was challenged by these newcomers. Refusing to burn San Antonio to the ground by order of the new head of the Texas military was just the beginning. In 1842, San Antonio was overrun by Santa Anna's forces. During March 1842, Colonel Seguin and
Spanish Texas was one of the interior provinces of the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1690 until 1821. Spain had claimed ownership of the territory in 1519, which comprised part of the present-day U. S. state of Texas, including the land north of the Medina and Nueces Rivers, but did not attempt to colonize the area until after locating evidence of the failed French colony of Fort Saint Louis in 1689. In 1690 Alonso de León escorted several Catholic missionaries to east Texas, where they established the first mission in Texas; when native tribes resisted the Spanish invasion of their homeland, the missionaries returned to Mexico, abandoning Texas for the next two decades. The Spanish returned to southeastern Texas in 1716, establishing several missions and a presidio to maintain a buffer between Spanish territory and the French colonial Louisiana district of New France. Two years in 1718, the first civilian settlement in Texas, San Antonio, originated as a way station between the missions and the next-nearest existing settlement.
The new town soon became a target for raids by the Lipan Apache. The raids continued periodically for three decades, until Spanish settlers and the Lipan Apache peoples made peace in 1749, but the treaty angered the enemies of the Apache, resulted in raids on Spanish settlements by the Comanche and Hasinai tribes. Fear of Indian attacks and the remoteness of the area from the rest of the Viceroyalty discouraged European settlers from moving to Texas, it remained one of the provinces least-populated by immigrants. The threat of attacks did not decrease until 1785, when Spain and the Comanche peoples made a peace agreement; the Comanche tribe assisted in defeating the Lipan Apache and Karankawa tribes, who had continued to cause difficulties for settlers. An increase in the number of missions in the province allowed for peaceful Indian reductions of other tribes, by the end of the 18th century only a few of the nomadic hunting and gathering tribes in the area had not converted to Roman Catholicism.
France formally relinquished its claim to its region of Texas in 1762, when it ceded French Louisiana to the Spanish Empire. The inclusion of Spanish Louisiana into New Spain meant that Tejas lost its significance as a buffer province; the easternmost Texas settlements were disbanded, with the population relocating to San Antonio. However, in 1799 Spain gave Louisiana back to France, in 1803 Napoléon Bonaparte sold the territory to the United States of America as part of the Louisiana Purchase, U. S. President Thomas Jefferson insisted that the purchase included all land to the east of the Rocky Mountains and to the north of the Rio Grande, although its large southwestern expanse lay within New Spain; the territorial ambiguity remained unresolved until the Adams–Onís Treaty compromise in 1819, when Spain ceded Spanish Florida to the United States in return for recognition of the Sabine River as the eastern boundary of Spanish Texas and western boundary of the Missouri Territory. The United States relinquished their claims on the vast Spanish territories west of the Sabine River and extending into Santa Fe de Nuevo México province.
During the Mexican War of Independence of 1810 to 1821 Texas experienced much turmoil. Rebels overthrew the Spanish Governor Manuel María de Salcedo in 1810, but he persuaded his jailer to release him and to assist him in organizing a counter-coup. Three years the Republican Army of the North, consisting of Indians and of citizens of the United States, overthrew the Spanish government in Tejas and executed Salcedo in 1813; the Spanish responded brutally, by 1820 fewer than 2000 Hispanic citizens remained in Texas. The Mexican independence movement forced Spain to relinquish its control of New Spain in 1821, with Texas becoming in 1824 part of the state of Coahuila y Tejas within the newly-formed Mexico in the period in Texas history known as Mexican Texas; the Spanish left a deep mark on Texas. Their European livestock caused mesquite to spread inland, while farmers tilled and irrigated the land, changing the landscape forever; the Spanish language provided the names for many of the rivers and counties that exist, Spanish architectural concepts still flourish as of 2018.
Although Texas adopted much of the Anglo-American legal system, many Spanish legal practices survived, including the concepts of a homestead exemption and of community property. Spanish Texas was a colonial province within the northeastern mainland region of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. On its southern edge, Tejas was bordered by the province of Coahuila; the boundary between the provinces was set at the line formed by the Medina River and the Nueces River, 100 miles northeast of the Rio Grande. On the east, Texas bordered La Louisiane. Although Spain claimed that the Red River formed the boundary between the two, France insisted that the border was the Sabine River, 45 miles to the west. After Mexican independence from Spain, it was within Coahuila y Tejas from 1824 to 1835. Although Alonso Álvarez de Pineda claimed Texas for Spain in 1519, the area was ignored by Spain until the late seventeenth century. In 1685, the Spanish learned that France had established a colony in the area between New Spain and Florida.
Believing the French colony was a threat to Spanish mines and shipping routes, Spanish King Carlos II's Council of War recommended that "Spain needed swift action'to remove this thorn, thrust into the heart of America. The greater the delay the greater the difficulty of attainment.'" Having no idea where to find the French colony, the Spanish launched ten expeditions—both land and sea—over the next
Gonzales is a city in Gonzales County, United States. The population was 7,237 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat. Gonzales is one of the earliest Anglo-American settlements in Texas, the first west of the Colorado River, it was established by Empresario Green DeWitt as the capital of his colony in August 1825. DeWitt named the community for Rafael Gonzáles, governor of Coahuila y Tejas. Informally, the community was known as the DeWitt Colony; the original settlement was abandoned in 1826 after two Indian attacks. It was rebuilt nearby in 1827; the town remains today as it was surveyed. Gonzales is referred to as the "Lexington of Texas" because it was the site of the first skirmish of the Texas Revolution. In 1831, the Mexican government had granted Green DeWitt's request for a small cannon for protection against Indian attacks. At the outbreak of disputes between the Anglo settlers and the Mexican authorities in 1835, a contingent of more than 100 Mexican soldiers was sent from San Antonio to retrieve the cannon.
When the soldiers arrived, there were only 18 men in Gonzales, but they refused to return the cannon, soon men from the surrounding area joined them. Texians under the command of John Henry Moore confronted them. Sarah DeWitt and her daughter sewed a flag bearing the likeness of the cannon and the words "Come and Take It", flown when the first shots of Texan independence were fired on October 2, 1835; the Texians resisted the Mexican troops in what became known as the Battle of Gonzales. Gonzales contributed 32 men from the Gonzales Ranging Company to the defense of the Alamo, it was the only city to send aid to the Alamo, all 32 men lost their lives defending the site. It was to Gonzales that Susanna Dickinson, widow of one of the Alamo defenders, Joe, the slave of William B. Travis, fled with news of the Alamo massacre. General Sam Houston was there organizing the Texas forces, he anticipated the town would be the next target of General Antonio López de Santa Anna's Mexican army. Gathering the Texians at Peach Creek east of town, under the Sam Houston Oak, Houston ordered Gonzales burned, to deny it to the enemy.
He began a retreat toward the U. S. border. The widows and orphans of Gonzales and their neighbors were forced to flee, thus precipitating the Runaway Scrape; the town was derelict after the Texas Revolution, but was rebuilt on the original site in the early 1840s. By 1850, the town had a population of 300; the population rose to 1,703 by time of the 1860 census, 2,900 by the mid-1880s, 4,297 in 1900. Part of the growth of the late 19th century can be attributed to the arrival of various immigrants, among them Jews, many of whom became peddlers and merchants. Gonzales is located in central Gonzales County at 29°30′32″N 97°26′52″W, on the northeast side of the Guadalupe River, just east of the mouth of the San Marcos River. U. S. Route 183 passes through the west side of the city, leading south 32 miles to Cuero and northwest 18 miles to Luling. U. S. Route 90 Alternate passes through the northern side of the city, leading east 18 miles to Shiner and west 33 miles to Seguin. San Antonio is 69 miles to the west, Houston is 136 miles to the east.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Gonzales has a total area of 6.1 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,243 households in the city; the population density was 1,412.8 people per square mile. There were 2,869 housing units at an average density of 562.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 71.5% White, 7.40% African American, 1.00% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 21.15% from other races, 2.20% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 47.2% of the population. There were 2,571 households out of which 36.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.0% were married couples living together, 15.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.4% were non-families. 28.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.35. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.7% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,226, the median income for a family was $34,663. Males had a median income of $22,804 versus $18,217 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,866. About 14.8% of families and 20.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.5% of those under age 18 and 23.0% of those age 65 or over. During the 19th century, the town was a center for higher education in Texas. Construction began in 1851 and the college opened in 1853, with 50 students. An 1855 addition for the men's program was torn down during the Civil War. By 1857, the school granted bachelor of arts degrees to females, making it one of the earliest colleges in Texas to do so; the college was purchased in 1891, its building converted into a private residence by W. M. Atkinson; the city of Gonzales is served by the Gonzales Independent School District and is home to the Gonzales High School Apaches.
According to the University Interscholastic League of Texas, the Gonzales Apaches football team is in the 4A-1 Region IV District 15. The city of Gonzales a
Susanna Wilkerson Dickinson and her infant daughter, were among the few American survivors of 1836 Battle of the Alamo during the Texas Revolution. Her husband, Almaron Dickinson, 185 other Texian defenders were killed by the Mexican Army. Susanna was born in 1814 in Williamson County and never learned to read and write. On May 24, 1829, when she was 15, she married Almaron Dickinson. Two years they became DeWitt Colonists, obtaining property on the San Marcos River, where they opened a blacksmith shop and invested in a hat factory run by fellow colonist George Kimbell in Gonzales; as the Mexican government abandoned its federalist structure in favor of a more centralized government, Almaron Dickinson became one of the early proponents of war. He would join with other volunteers during the Battle of Gonzales, becoming one of the "Old Gonzales 18" in the battle which launched the Texas Revolution on October 2, 1835. By the end of the year, the Texian army had driven all Mexican soldiers from the territory.
Soon after, Susanna joined Almaron at the former Alamo Mission in San Antonio de Bexar shortly after his assignment to the garrison there. The Dickinson family lived outside the Alamo. In early 1836, Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna led troops into Texas, which arrived in San Antonio on February 23 and besieged the Alamo, it did not have food stocked inside the mission to withstand the siege. The men thus herded cattle into it and scrounged for food in the abandoned houses outside. Susanna and Angelina were among the families of garrison members. For the next twelve days, the Alamo lay under siege. Santa Anna planned an early morning assault for March 6. At 8:10 pm on March 5 the Mexican artillery ceased their bombardment; as Santa Anna had planned, the exhausted Texans soon fell into the first uninterrupted sleep many had had since the siege began. At 5:30 am Santa Anna gave the order to advance; as the Mexican soldiers began to yell and their buglers sounded, the Texan defenders awakened and rushed to their posts.
Susanna and most other noncombatants gathered in the chapel sacristy for safety. She mentioned that Davy Crockett stopped to pray before taking his assigned position; the Mexican soldiers soon breached the Alamo's outer walls. As planned, most of the Texians fell back to the barracks and the chapel. Almaron Dickinson slipped from his post manning a cannon in the chapel to join Susanna in the sacristy, he yelled "Great God, the Mexicans are inside our walls! If they spare you, save my child!" kissed her and returned to his cannon. It took an hour for the Mexican army to secure complete control of the Alamo. Among the last Texians to die were the 11 men, including Almaron, manning the two 12-pounder cannon in the chapel; the entrance had been barricaded with sandbags. However, a shot from the Mexican 18-pounder cannon destroyed the barricade, Mexican soldiers entered after an initial musket volley. Although Dickinson's crew fired their cannon from the apse into the Mexican soldiers, they had no time to reload.
Dickinson, Gregorio Esparza and the remaining Texians grabbed rifles and fired before being bayoneted to death. Texian Robert Evans, the master of ordnance, had been tasked with keeping the gunpowder from falling into Mexican hands. Wounded, he crawled towards the powder magazine but was killed by a musket ball with his torch only inches from the powder. If he had succeeded, the blast would have destroyed the chapel, killing Susanna and the other women and children hiding in it; as soldiers approached the sacristy, one of defender Anthony Wolf's sons stood to pull a blanket over his shoulders and was killed. The last Texian to die in battle was Jacob Walker, who attempted to hide behind Susanna and the other women. Another Texian, Brigido Guerrero, who had deserted from the Mexican Army in December 1835 sought refuge in the sacristy, was spared after convincing the soldiers he was a prisoner of the Texians. In the confusion, Susanna was wounded. On March 7, Santa Anna interviewed each of the survivors individually.
Impressed with Susanna, he have her educated in Mexico City. Susanna refused, not extended to fellow Alamo survivor Juana Navarro Alsbury for her son of similar age. Santa Anna ordered that the Tejano civilian survivors be allowed to return to their homes in San Antonio. Susanna and Joe, a Texian slave, were allowed to travel towards the Anglo settlements, escorted by Ben, a former American slave who served as Mexican Colonel Juan Almonte's cook; each woman received $2 and a blanket and was allowed to go free and spread the news of the destruction that awaited those who opposed the Mexican government. Before they departed, Santa Anna ordered that the surviving members of the Mexican army parade in a grand review, intending that Joe and Susanna would thus warn the remainder of the Texian forces that his army was unbeatable; when the small party of survivors arrived in Gonzales on March 13, they found Sam Houston, the commander of all Texian forces, waiting there with about 400 men. After Susanna and Joe related the details of the battle and the strength of Santa Anna's army, Houston advised all civilians to evacuate and ordered the army to retreat.
Thus began the Runaway Scrape, in which much of Texas' population, including the acting government, rushed eastward to escape the advancing Mexican army. Susanna reported, after the battle, the following about the siege and final fight: There were few casualties before the
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients. The degrees of Freemasonry retain the three grades of medieval craft guilds, those of Apprentice, Journeyman or fellow, Master Mason; the candidate of these three degrees is progressively taught the meanings of the symbols of Freemasonry, entrusted with grips and words to signify to other members that he has been so initiated. The initiations are part allegorical morality part lecture; the three degrees are offered by Craft Freemasonry. Members of these organisations are known as Masons. There are additional degrees, which vary with locality and jurisdiction, are administered by their own bodies; the basic, local organisational unit of Freemasonry is the Lodge. The Lodges are supervised and governed at the regional level by a Grand Lodge or Grand Orient.
There is no worldwide Grand Lodge that supervises all of Freemasonry. Modern Freemasonry broadly consists of two main recognition groups. Regular Freemasonry insists that a volume of scripture is open in a working lodge, that every member profess belief in a Supreme Being, that no women are admitted, that the discussion of religion and politics is banned. Continental Freemasonry is now the general term for the jurisdictions which have removed some, or all, of these restrictions; the Masonic lodge is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry. The Lodge meets to conduct the usual formal business of any small organisation. In addition to business, the meeting may perform a ceremony to confer a Masonic degree or receive a lecture, on some aspect of Masonic history or ritual. At the conclusion of the meeting, the Lodge might adjourn for a formal dinner, or festive board, sometimes involving toasting and song; the bulk of Masonic ritual consists of degree ceremonies. Candidates for Freemasonry are progressively initiated into Freemasonry, first in the degree of Entered Apprentice.
Some time in a separate ceremony, they will be passed to the degree of Fellowcraft, they will be raised to the degree of Master Mason. In all of these ceremonies, the candidate is entrusted with passwords and grips peculiar to his new rank. Another ceremony is officers of the Lodge. In some jurisdictions Installed Master is valued as a separate rank, with its own secrets to distinguish its members. In other jurisdictions, the grade is not recognised, no inner ceremony conveys new secrets during the installation of a new Master of the Lodge. Most Lodges have some sort of social calendar, allowing Masons and their partners to meet in a less ritualised environment. Coupled with these events is the obligation placed on every Mason to contribute to charity; this occurs at both Grand Lodge level. Masonic charities contribute to many fields, such as disaster relief; these private local Lodges form the backbone of Freemasonry, a Freemason will have been initiated into one of these. There exist specialist Lodges where Masons meet to celebrate events, such as sport or Masonic research.
The rank of Master Mason entitles a Freemason to explore Masonry further through other degrees, administered separately from the Craft, or "Blue Lodge" degrees described here, but having a similar format to their meetings. There is little consistency in Freemasonry; because each Masonic jurisdiction is independent, each sets its own procedures. The wording of the ritual, the number of officers present, the layout of the meeting room, etc. varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. The officers of the Lodge are appointed annually; every Masonic Lodge has two Wardens, a secretary and a treasurer. There is a Tyler, or outer guard, always present outside the door of a working Lodge. Other offices vary between jurisdictions; each Masonic Lodge exists and operates according to a set of ancient principles known as the Landmarks of Freemasonry. These principles have thus far eluded any universally accepted definition. Candidates for Freemasonry will have met most active members of the Lodge they are joining before they are initiated.
The process varies between jurisdictions, but the candidate will have been introduced by a friend at a Lodge social function, or at some form of open evening in the Lodge. In modern times, interested people track down a local Lodge through the Internet; the onus is on candidates to ask to join. Once the initial inquiry is made, an interview follows to determine the candidate's suitability. If the candidate decides to proceed from here, the Lodge ballots on the application before he can be accepted; the absolute minimum requirement of any body of Freemasons is that the candidate must be free, considered to be of good character. There is an age requirement, varying between Grand Lodges, capable of being overridden by a dispensation from the Grand Lodge; the underlying assumption is that the candidate should
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
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For the 17th-century English colonist in Massachusetts, see Samuel Maverick. Samuel Augustus Maverick was a Texas lawyer, land baron and signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence, his name is the source of the term "maverick," first cited in 1867, which means "independently minded." Various accounts of the origins of the term held that Maverick came to be considered independently minded by his fellow ranchers because he refused to brand his cattle, though it might have instead reflected a lack of interest in ranching. Unbranded cattle which were not part of the herd came to be labeled "mavericks", he was the grandfather of Texas politician Maury Maverick. Samuel Augustus Maverick was the oldest son of Samuel Maverick, a Charleston businessman, his wife Elizabeth Anderson, his Maverick ancestors had arrived in the New World in 1624, before emigrating to Barbados and to Charleston. After his paternal grandfather died, in 1793 his grandmother, Lydia Maverick, married American Revolutionary War general Robert Anderson.
In October 1802, his father married Anderson's daughter Elizabeth, nine months on July 23, 1803, Maverick was born at his family's summer home in Pendleton District, South Carolina. To his family, Maverick was known as "Gus". Over the next four years the family lived in Charleston, his mother bore four more children, one, of whom, lived less than a day. In September 1809, his sister Ann Caroline died of yellow fever, his father, having watched his ten siblings succumb to the same disease as children, moved his family permanently to Pendleton. For the rest of his life, the elder Samuel Maverick cautioned his children to always live in a healthful climate so that they would not fall victim to a tropical disease. While in Charleston, the elder Samuel had operated a successful business importing goods from England, the Netherlands, Germany and France. After moving to Pendleton he withdrew from his Charleston-based ventures and began to operate a small business in Pendleton. In 1814, the Maverick family expanded with the birth of another daughter, Lydia.
Four years when Maverick was fifteen, his mother died. It is that Maverick's early education took place at home. In early 1822, he traveled to Connecticut, to study under a tutor. In September of that year he was admitted to Yale University as a sophomore. At Yale, he was known as "Sam". After graduating in 1825, Maverick returned to Pendleton and apprenticed under his father to learn business affairs. For the next year, his father deeded him land, on February 4, 1826, he made his first land purchase, acquiring half a lot in Pendleton. In 1828, Maverick traveled to Virginia, to study law under Henry St. George Tucker, Sr.. He became licensed to practice law in Virginia on March 26, 1829, several weeks he received his license to practice in South Carolina, he soon established a law practice in Pendleton. The following year he ran for a seat in the South Carolina legislature, advocating for a peaceful resolution to the tariff problem and against nullification; this was not a popular strategy, Maverick placed 9th out of 13 candidates, gathering 1,628 votes.
Maverick relocated to Georgia in early 1833. He returned home at the end of the year. On January 24, 1834, he left Pendleton for Lauderdale County, taking 25 of his father's slaves to operate a plantation his father had given him, they arrived in March. That year his widowed sister, Mary Elizabeth, moved to Alabama to live near him with her three children. Maverick did not enjoy running a plantation because he did not like supervising slaves. On March 16, 1835, he left Alabama to go to Texas. Maverick took the brig Henry from New Orleans and arrived at Velasco, at the mouth of the Brazos River, in April 1835, his interest in Texas extended back ten years, as in 1826 he noted in his journal that Stephen F. Austin had received a land grant and that Mexico was being settled; when he arrived, there were fewer than 30,000 people living in the territory, part of Mexico. Maverick set out to buy land, making his first purchase on May 20. To transfer the title, Maverick had to go to San Felipe, he spent the next several months traveling up and down the Brazos River from San Felipe looking for more land to buy.
After recovering from a bout of malaria, Maverick journeyed to the drier climate of San Antonio, surrounded by large swaths of unclaimed land. Fifteen days after arriving in San Antonio he began buying large tracts of landAt this time there was much political unrest in Texas, as the colonists did not trust Mexican president Antonio López de Santa Anna to abide by the promises, made in the Mexican Constitution of 1824; the Mexican government believed that the colonists were preparing to revolt and hand Texas to the United States. After having been held in a Mexican prison for over 18 months, a newly released Austin returned to Texas with stories of what he had seen in the Mexican capital, on September 19, 1835, he issued a call to arms; the first shot of the Texas Revolution soon occurred at Gonzales. General Martín Perfecto de Cos, the commander of the Mexican army in San Antonio, was distrustful of the Anglos in the area, on October 16 he placed a guard at the door of the home where Maverick was staying.
Maverick, his host John Smith, another boarder, A. C. Holmes, were forbidden to leave the city; the Texan army soon arrived and, by October 24, had initiated the Siege of Bexar. Maverick had long kept a diary, which provided a "generally faithful eyewitness record of the eve