Keith Lofstrom is an American electrical engineer. He has a MSEE from University of California, Berkeley, he is more known in the space advocacy community for a ground-based space launcher design, the Launch Loop, for which he has been credited by name in several works of science fiction. Frederik Pohl, who used the idea in several of his stories, once wrote that, of all the non-rocket spacelaunch concepts, he liked the Lofstrom Loop "best of all."As an electrical engineer, Lofstrom specializes in mixed-signal integrated circuit design. A paper he wrote on boundary scan methods was one of two to receive an Honorable Mention at the 1997 IEEE International Test Conference. One of his 9 patents is for a way to read an individual digital ID for integrated circuits that arises from random atomic variations inherent in the semiconductor device fabrication process. One of his more recent efforts in speculative space systems is Server Sky, a large satellite constellation in Earth orbit using thin-film solar cells to power data center computers integrated into the same wafers as the PV cells.
Lofstrom loop Personal website KLIC - IC design consultancy
Stichtsche Cricket en Hockey Club known as SCHC, is a Dutch sports club based in Bilthoven, Utrecht. The club was founded on 22 November 1906; the club is best known for its field hockey department but it has a rugby union and a cricket section. The first men's hockey team plays in de the second division called the Promotieklasse after being relegated in the 2018–19 season. While the women's team has played on the highest level since 2004. National title: 1 1958–59Dutch national title indoor hockey: 2 2000, 2019 EuroHockey Club Cup: 1 2015 Netherlands ArgentinaLucas Cammareri Matias Cammareri Pedro Ibarra IrelandMichael Darling Conor Harte David Harte Michael Watt SpainAlbert Sala Netherlands ArgentinaSoledad Garcia Mariana González Oliva Delfina Merino England/ Great BritainBeth Storry Maddie Hinch BrazilInge Vermeulen Official website of SCHC
Local elections were held in Muntinlupa City on May 9, 2016 within the Philippine general election. The voters elected for the elective local posts in the city: the mayor, vice mayor, the congressman, the 16 councilors, eight each in the two local legislative districts of Muntinlupa. Incumbent Jaime Fresnedi is running for a fifth nonconsecutive term as Mayor of Muntinlupa, he was a former City Legal Officer before elected Vice Mayor from 1988 until he was elected Mayor in 1998. He ran for Mayor in 2010, however, he was defeated by incumbent Aldrin San Pedro, he won in the 2013 elections. His opponents are incumbent Vice Mayor Artemio Simundac. San Pedro was a former Sangguniang Kabataan Chairman and City Councilor in 1995 and was elected Vice Mayor in 2004. In 2007, he won as Mayor of Muntinlupa defeating Lor Fresnedi, wife of Mayor Jaime Fresnedi. In 2010, he defeated Fresnedi however lost for his third and final term in 2013. Simundac was a former Barangay Captain of Cupang and ABC President and was elected Vice Mayor in 2007.
Former Customs commissioner and son of incumbent representative of the city, Rodolfo "Ruffy" Biazon, former Optical Media Board chairman Ronnie Ricketts will face each other in the congressional election. Team Fresnedi Partido San Pedro Bagong Muntinlupa
Marco Borciani is a retired Italian motorcycle racer, now motorcycle racing team owner and manager. Borciani started racing in the Italian Sport Production Championship, gaining eighth place in 1994, fourth in 1995, he moved to the Italian Honda GP 125 championship in 1996, while still continuing with rounds of the Sport Production series. In 1997 he debuted in the European 125cc Championship, took part in the final round of the 125 cc World Championship. Throughout the 1998 season he competed for the European 125 cc title against Marco Melandri, but after an accident and resultant damage to his hand, his season ended early with three rounds to complete. In 1999 he raced in the World Supersport Championship, competing on a Honda CBR600F4, gaining a single point at the Nürburgring. From 2000 to 2007, he competed in the Superbike World Championship: 2000: Team Pedercini, Ducati 996RS, 46th 2001: Team Pedercini, Ducati 996RS, 27th 2002: Team Pedercini, Ducati 998RS, 15th 2003: Team DFXtreme, Ducati 998RS, 10th 2004: Team DFXtreme/Sterilgarda, Ducati 998RS, 10th 2005: Team DFXtreme/Sterilgarda, Yamaha YZF-R1/Ducati 999RS, 27th 2006: Team Sterilgarda-Berik, Ducati 999 F05, 25th 2007: Team Sterilgarda, Ducati 999 F06, 20thFrom the 2003 season, he raced in part of the Italian-national CIV Superbike championship, coming tenth in both 2003 and 2004.
He returned to CIV Superbike from the 2006 season. In the 2005 season, Borciani had started his own BRC Racing team, managing other riders competing in series from junior Italian-based series, through WSBK and Superstock. Having been released from the CIV Superbike Ducati-works team, he raced his own privateer Ducati in the 2008 series coming eighth, the 2009 series, coming fourth. 2006: Team Sterilgarda-Berik, Borciani/Rubén Xaus, Ducati 999 F05 2007: Team Sterilgarda, Borciani/Xaus, Ducati 999 F06 2008: Team Sterilgarda, Ducati 1098 2009: Team Sterilgarda, Shane Byrne, Ducati 1098Due to the 2008 global financial crisis, for the 2010 season the team merged with Guandalini Racing to create PATA B&G Racing. Personal website
Computer cooling is required to remove the waste heat produced by computer components, to keep components within permissible operating temperature limits. Components that are susceptible to temporary malfunction or permanent failure if overheated include integrated circuits such as central processing units, graphics cards, hard disk drives. Components are designed to generate as little heat as possible, computers and operating systems may be designed to reduce power consumption and consequent heating according to workload, but more heat may still be produced than can be removed without attention to cooling. Use of heatsinks cooled by airflow reduces the temperature rise produced by a given amount of heat. Attention to patterns of airflow can prevent the development of hotspots. Computer fans are used along with heatsink fans to reduce temperature by exhausting hot air. There are more exotic cooling techniques, such as liquid cooling. All modern day processors are designed to cut out or reduce their voltage or clock speed if the internal temperature of the processor exceeds a specified limit.
Cooling may be designed to reduce the ambient temperature within the case of a computer, such as by exhausting hot air, or to cool a single component or small area. Components individually cooled include the CPU, graphics processing unit and the northbridge. Integrated circuits are the main generators of heat in modern computers. Heat generation can be reduced by efficient design and selection of operating parameters such as voltage and frequency, but acceptable performance can only be achieved by managing significant heat generation. In operation, the temperature of a computer's components will rise until the heat transferred to the surroundings is equal to the heat produced by the component, that is, when thermal equilibrium is reached. For reliable operation, the temperature must never exceed a specified maximum permissible value unique to each component. For semiconductors, instantaneous junction temperature, rather than component case, heatsink, or ambient temperature is critical. Cooling can be changed by: Dust acting as a thermal insulator and impeding airflow, thereby reducing heat sink and fan performance.
Poor airflow including turbulence due to friction against impeding components such as ribbon cables, or incorrect orientation of fans, can reduce the amount of air flowing through a case and create localized whirlpools of hot air in the case. In some cases of equipment with bad thermal design, cooling air can flow out through "cooling" holes before passing over hot components. Poor heat transfer cooling devices; this can be improved by the use of thermal compounds to out surface imperfections, or by lapping. Because high temperatures can reduce life span or cause permanent damage to components, the heat output of components can sometimes exceed the computer's cooling capacity, manufacturers take additional precautions to ensure that temperatures remain within safe limits. A computer with thermal sensors integrated in the CPU, chipset, or GPU can shut itself down when high temperatures are detected to prevent permanent damage, although this may not guarantee long-term safe operation. Before an overheating component reaches this point, it may be "throttled" until temperatures fall below a safe point using dynamic frequency scaling technology.
Throttling reduces the operating frequency and voltage of an integrated circuit or disables non-essential features of the chip to reduce heat output at the cost of or reduced performance. For desktop and notebook computers, throttling is controlled at the BIOS level. Throttling is commonly used to manage temperatures in smartphones and tablets, where components are packed together with little to no active cooling, with additional heat transferred from the hand of the user; as electronic computers became larger and more complex, cooling of the active components became a critical factor for reliable operation. Early vacuum-tube computers, with large cabinets, could rely on natural or forced air circulation for cooling. However, solid state devices were packed much more densely and had lower allowable operating temperatures. Starting in 1965, IBM and other manufacturers of mainframe computers sponsored intensive research into the physics of cooling densely packed integrated circuits. Many air and liquid cooling systems were devised and investigated, using methods such as natural and forced convection, direct air impingement, direct liquid immersion and forced convection, pool boiling, falling films, flow boiling, liquid jet impingement.
Mathematical analysis was used to predict temperature rises of components for each possible cooling system geometry. IBM developed three generations of the Thermal Conduction Module which used a water-cooled cold plate in direct thermal contact with integrated circuit packages; each package had a thermally conductive pin pressed onto it, helium gas surrounded chips and heat conducting pins. The design could remove up to 27 watts from a chip and up to 2000 watts per module, while maintaining chip package temperatures around 50 °C. Systems using TCMs were the 3081 family, ES/3090 and some models of the ES/9000. In the IBM 3081 processor, TCMs allowed up to 2700 watts on a single printed circuit board while maintaining chip temperature at 69 °C. Thermal conduction modules using water cooling were used in mainframe systems manufactured by other companies including Mitsubishi and Fujit