Belfast is the capital and largest city of Northern Ireland, the second largest on the island of Ireland, and the heart of the tenth largest Primary Urban Area in the United Kingdom. On the River Lagan, it had a population of 286,000 at the 2011 census and 333,871 after the 2015 council reform, Belfast was granted city status in 1888. Belfast played a key role in the Industrial Revolution, and was an industrial centre until the latter half of the 20th century. It has sustained a major aerospace and missiles industry since the mid 1930s, industrialisation and the inward migration it brought made Belfast Irelands biggest city at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, Belfast remains a centre for industry, as well as the arts, higher education and law, Belfast city centre has undergone considerable expansion and regeneration in recent years, notably around Victoria Square. Belfast is served by two airports, George Best Belfast City Airport in the city, and Belfast International Airport 15 miles west of the city.
Although the county borough of Belfast was created when it was granted city status by Queen Victoria in 1888, the site of Belfast has been occupied since the Bronze Age. The Giants Ring, a 5, 000-year-old henge, is located near the city, Belfast remained a small settlement of little importance during the Middle Ages. The ONeill clan had a presence in the area, in the 14th century, Cloinne Aodha Buidhe, descendants of Aodh Buidhe ONeill built Grey Castle at Castlereagh, now in the east of the city. Conn ONeill of the Clannaboy ONeills owned vast lands in the area and was the last inhabitant of Grey Castle, evidence of this period of Belfasts growth can still be seen in the oldest areas of the city, known as the Entries. Belfast blossomed as a commercial and industrial centre in the 18th and 19th centuries, industries thrived, including linen, rope-making, heavy engineering and shipbuilding, and at the end of the 19th century, Belfast briefly overtook Dublin as the largest city in Ireland. The Harland and Wolff shipyards became one of the largest shipbuilders in the world, in 1886 the city suffered intense riots over the issue of home rule, which had divided the city.
In 1920–22, Belfast became the capital of the new entity of Northern Ireland as the island of Ireland was partitioned, the accompanying conflict cost up to 500 lives in Belfast, the bloodiest sectarian strife in the city until the Troubles of the late 1960s onwards. Belfast was heavily bombed during World War II, in one raid, in 1941, German bombers killed around one thousand people and left tens of thousands homeless. Apart from London, this was the greatest loss of life in a raid during the Blitz. Belfast has been the capital of Northern Ireland since its establishment in 1921 following the Government of Ireland Act 1920 and it had been the scene of various episodes of sectarian conflict between its Catholic and Protestant populations. These opposing groups in conflict are now often termed republican and loyalist respectively. The most recent example of conflict was known as the Troubles – a civil conflict that raged from around 1969 to 1998
Galway is one of the few dual counties in Ireland, competing in a similar level in both hurling and gaelic football. The two sports are run by county boards in Galway, which is unusual, even for a dual county. Geographically the two games are quite separate in the county. Generally, football is the dominant game in Connemara, the Aran Islands, North Galway, meanwhile, is traditionally stronger in the South and East parts of Galway, with clubs such as Portumna and Gort each having multiple county titles. Galway city has teams in both codes, such as Castlegar in hurling and Salthill-Knocknacarra in football. There are exceptions to this rule of thumb, with hurling pockets in football areas, some parish clubs have fielded senior teams in hurling and football in the same season, such as Ballinasloe, Monivea Abbeyknockmoy and Moycullen. Galway GAA has jurisdiction over the area of the county of Galway. Galway GAA forms a part of the branch, Connacht GAA. Unlike other counties in Ireland, Gaelic games in Galway are run by two separate county boards, Gaelic football is organised by the Galway football board and hurling is organised by the Galway hurling board.
The boards in Galway organise the county championships in football and hurling for the clubs of Galway Galways traditional colours are maroon. In the early years of GAA competition, Galway teams wore the colours of the county champions in each sport, in 1936, the county adopted maroon as its primary colour. A crest was added to the jersey in the 1950s, with different crests coming into use for each sport, although the teams most often wear white shorts and maroon socks, the teams have worn all maroon kits in the past. Until 2013, the football and hurling boards of Galway both used their own separate county crests for their teams, the teams began using the same jerseys and crest in 2013, ahead of that years Football and Hurling National Leagues. This new crest was, for the most part, the same as the hurling crest with the most notable differences being the angle of the boat, the first sponsor of any Galway team was Tommy Vardens Catering service, in the mid to late 1980s. Sponsorship wasnt as open in the GAA at the time, Tommy Varden sponsorship of the footballers was followed by the Supermacs fast food chain sponsoring the hurlers.
In 2008, Tommy Varden ended the 25-year association with Galway football, after entering receivership, Aer Arann were forced to pull out of the sponsorship two years early, having sponsored the team in the 2008,2009 and 2010 seasons. In 2011, it was announced that the jersey would carry the logo of Cancer Care West. This made Galway the first GAA team to display the name of a charity on their county jersey rather than a corporate sponsor
Ulster Minor Hurling Championship
It is sponsored by the Electricity Supply Board and therefore officially known as the ESB Ulster GAA Hurling Minor Championship. The series of games are played during the months with the Ulster final currently being played on the last Sunday of June. The minor final provides the curtain-raiser to the senior final, the prize for the winning team is the Minor Hurling Cup. The Ulster Championship is a part of the wider All-Ireland Minor Hurling Championship, the winners of the Ulster final advance directly to the quarter-final stage of the All-Ireland series of games. Only a handful of teams participate in the Ulster Championship. Roll of Honour on gaainfo. com Complete Roll of Honour on Kilkenny GAA bible
Hurling, is an outdoor team game of ancient Gaelic and Irish origin, administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association. The game has prehistoric origins, and has played for 3,000 years. One of Irelands native Gaelic games, it shares a number of features with Gaelic football, such as the field and goals, the number of players, there is a similar game for women called camogie. It shares a common Gaelic root with the sport of shinty, the sliotar can be caught in the hand and carried for not more than four steps, struck in the air, or struck on the ground with the hurley. It can be kicked, or slapped with a hand for short-range passing. A player who wants to carry the ball for more than four steps has to bounce or balance the sliotar on the end of the stick, no protective padding is worn by players. A plastic protective helmet with a faceguard is mandatory for all age groups, including senior level, the game has been described as a bastion of humility, with player names absent from jerseys and a players number decided by his position on the field.
Hurling is played throughout the world, and is popular among members of the Irish diaspora in North America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Argentina, in many parts of Ireland, hurling is a fixture of life. It has featured regularly in art such as film, music. A team comprises 15 players, or hurlers, the hurley is generally 24 to 36 inches in length. The ball, known as a sliotar, has a cork centre, the goalkeepers hurley usually has a bas twice the size of other players hurleys to provide some advantage against the fast moving sliotar. A good strike with a hurley can propel the ball over 150 km/h in speed and 110 metres in distance, a ball hit over the bar is worth one point. A ball that is hit under the bar is called a goal and is three points. As of 2010, all players must wear a helmet, a hurling pitch is similar in some respects to a rugby pitch but larger. The grass pitch is rectangular, stretching 130–145 metres long and 80–90 m wide. There are H-shaped goalposts at each end, formed by two posts, which are usually 6–7 metres high, set 6.5 m apart, a net extending behind the goal is attached to the crossbar and lower goal posts.
The same pitch is used for Gaelic football, the GAA, lines are marked at distances of 14 yards,21 yards and 65 yards from each end-line. Shorter pitches and smaller goals are used by youth teams, teams consist of fifteen players, a goalkeeper, three full backs, three half backs, two midfielders, three half forwards and three full forwards
County Antrim ) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland and one of the nine counties of the province of Ulster, situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland. Adjoined to the north-east shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of 3,046 square kilometres and has a population of about 618,000, County Antrim has a population density of 203 people per square kilometer /526 people per square mile. The majority of Belfast, the city of Northern Ireland, is in County Antrim. It is currently one of two counties of Ireland to have a majority of the population from a Protestant background, according to the 2001 census. The other is County Down to the south, a large portion of Antrim is hilly, especially in the east, where the highest elevations are attained. The range runs north and south, following this direction, the most remarkable cliffs are those formed of perpendicular basaltic columns, extending for many miles, and most strikingly displayed in Fair Head and the celebrated Giants Causeway.
From the eastern coast the hills rise instantly but less abruptly, all are somewhat exposed to the easterly winds prevalent in spring. It is partially arable, and supports a small population, islandmagee is a peninsula separating Larne Lough from the North Channel. The valleys of the Bann and Lagan, with the shores of Lough Neagh. These two rivers, both rising in County Down, are the ones of importance. The latter flows to Belfast Lough, the former drains Lough Neagh, the fisheries of the Bann and of Lough Neagh are of value both commercially and to sportsmen, the small town of Toome, at the outflow of the river, being the centre. Immediately below this point lies Lough Beg, the Small Lake, County Antrim has a number of air and sea links. Northern Irelands main airport, Belfast International Airport, at Aldergrove is in County Antrim, Belfast International shares its runways with the Royal Air Force base RAF Aldergrove, which otherwise has its own facilities. It is the fifth-largest regional air cargo centre in the UK, there are regular services to Great Britain and North America.
The region is served by George Best Belfast City Airport, a mile east of Belfast city centre on the County Down side of the city. Two of Northern Irelands main ports are in County Antrim, ferries sail from Larne Harbour to destinations including Cairnryan and Troon in Scotland, and Fleetwood in England. The Port of Belfast is Northern Irelands principal maritime gateway, serving the Northern Ireland economy and it is a major centre of industry and commerce and has become established as the focus of logistics activity for Northern Ireland. Around two-thirds of Northern Irelands seaborne trade, and a quarter of that for Ireland as a whole, is handled at the port, the population of County Antrim was 615,384 according to recent census information, making it the most populous county in Northern Ireland
Gaelic games are sports played in Ireland under the auspices of the Gaelic Athletic Association. Gaelic football and hurling are the two main games, other games organised by the GAA include Gaelic handball and rounders. Womens versions of hurling and football are played, organised by the Camogie Association of Ireland. While womens versions are not organised by the GAA, they are associated with it. Today, Gaelic games are the most popular games in Ireland in terms of supporter attendances at senior games, despite an economic downturn, attendances in 2009 were up 11% on 2008. Gaelic football is played by teams of 15 on a grass pitch with H-shaped goals at each end. The primary object is to score by driving the ball through the goals, which is known as a goal, or by kicking the ball over the bar, the team with the highest point score at the end of the match wins. The female version of the game is known as ladies Gaelic football and is similar to the game with a few minor rule changes. Hurling is a stick and ball game played by teams of 15 on a grass pitch with H-shaped goals at each end.
The primary object is to score by driving the ball through the goals or putting the ball over the bar, three points is the equivalent of a goal. The team with the highest score at the end of the match wins and it is over three thousand years old, and is said to be the worlds fastest field game, combining skills from lacrosse, field hockey, and baseball in a hard-hitting, highly skilled game. The female version of the game is known as camogie and is similar to hurling with a few minor rule changes. Gaelic handball is a game in two players use their hands to return a ball against a wall. The game is similar to American handball, there are three codes of handball, 60x30, 40x20 and One Wall. One Wall handball is the most popular version of handball with it being played in over 30 countries. It is hoped that this version of handball will soon become an Olympic sport, the sport of handball is governed by GAA Handball in Ireland. Rounders is a bat and ball game which is played in Ireland, Rounders is the least popular of the GAA Gaelic games and is organised by a subdivision of the GAA known as the Rounders Council of Ireland.
Other Gaelic games such as Gaelic athletics have nearly or completely died out, when founded the GAA organised a number of Gaelic athletics competitions but passed the responsibility to the National Athletic and Cycling Association in 1922
The Cavan County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association or Cavan GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, and is responsible for Gaelic games in Cavan. Cavan GAA has jurisdiction over the area that is associated with the county of County Cavan. There are 8 officers on the Board, for details on the Boards clubs, see Gaelic Athletic Association clubs in County Cavan and List of Gaelic games clubs in Ireland#Cavan. The Board is subject to the Ulster GAA Provincial Council, the teams of Cavan GAA play home games at Kingspan Breffni Park, Cavan. The current football manager is Mattie McGleenan who took over in October 2016, previously Hyland had led the under 21 team to two successive Ulster titles in 2011 and 2012. He led the team to the All Ireland Under 21 Championship final in 2012 where they lost out to Galway. There was no sponsorship on GAA jerseys until the 2nd game of the Meath V Dublin 4 in a row in 1991 so only a handful of teams had sponsorship in 1991, in 1992 Holybrook Construction sponsored the jerseys although it was only for 1 game.
For the 1993-94 seasons Cavan Co-op Mart took over sponsorship, Kingspan has continuously sponsored Cavan since 1995. The first crest that adorned the Cavan jerseys was the Coat of Arms for County Cavan. The crest was split into four quadrants and included the red hand of Ulster encased in an outline of the Franciscan Abbey which is situated in Cavan town, here lies the remains of an Ulster leader, Eoghan Rua ONeill. The Rampant Lion from the coat of arms of the O’Reilly clans, in 2004 Cavan released a new crest for the Breifne County. The crest was designed by the 38th President of the Gaelic Athletic Association Aogán Farrell, the crest draws on cultural and historical influences. The primary colours are blue and white with Ulsters red hand, the designers wanted to reflect the following elements Breifne, The ancient Gaelic territory. Here the O Reilly’s invited the Franciscans to establish a monastery, the OReilly chieftains are buried here. Here lie the remains of Ulsters great leader, Eoghan Rua ONeill GAA Logo, the logo is representative of the Gaelic Athletic Association.
Red Hand 1886, The first GAA club founded in the province of Ulster was formed in Cavan, Ballyconnell First Ulsters formed in 1885 and affiliated in 1886. The date is preserved in the crest, a red hand has always appeared on Cavan crests. Lakes and Hills, Our landscape is dominated by wee lakes, the environment shapes us and this is reflected on the new crest
All-Ireland Senior Football Championship
The All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, the premier competition in Gaelic football, is an annual series of games played in Ireland and organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association. The All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final is played on the third or fourth Sunday in September at Croke Park in Dublin, the first Championship to be held featured club teams who represented their respective counties after their county championship. The 21 a-side final was between Commercials of Limerick and Young Irelands of Louth, the final was played in Beech Hill, Clonskeagh on 29 April 1888 with Commercials winning by 1–4 to 0–3. Unlike All-Ireland competitions, there were no championships. The second Championship was unfinished owing to the American Invasion Tour, the 1888 provincial championships had been completed but after the Invasion tour returned, the All-Ireland semi-final and final were not played. English team London reached the four times in the early years of the competition. In 1892, inter-county teams were introduced to the All-Ireland Championship, Congress granted permission for the winning club to use players from other clubs in the county, thus the inter-county teams came into being.
The rules of hurling and football were altered, goals were made equal to five points, the 1903 Championship brought Kerrys first All-Ireland title. They went on to become the most successful team in the history of the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship. The first half of the century brought the rise of several teams who won two or more All-Ireland titles in that period, such as Kildare, Cavan, Wexford. In the 1990s, a significant sea change took place, as the All-Ireland was claimed by an Ulster team in four consecutive years, since Ulster has produced more All-Ireland winning teams than any other province. The All-Ireland Qualifiers were introduced in 2001, that year, the 2001 final brought victory for Galway who became the first football team to win an All-Ireland by springing through the back door. In 2013, Hawk-Eye was introduced for Championship matches at Croke Park and it was first used to confirm that Offaly substitute Peter Cunninghams attempted point had gone wide 10 minutes into the second half of a game against Kildare.
2013 brought the first Friday night game in the history of the Championship - a first round qualifier between Carlow and Laois, the county is a geographical region in Ireland, and each of the thirty-two counties in Ireland organises its own GAA affairs through a County Board. The county teams play in their respective Provincial Championships in Connacht, Munster, kilkenny is currently unique among the 32 Irish county associations in not participating in the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship. The Provincial Championships operate through a cup competition format. They take place during the months of May and July, the winners of each of the four Provincial Championships earn a place in the All-Ireland Quarter-Finals, which take place in the month of August. Each match is played as a single leg, if a match is drawn there is a replay
All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship
Where five Sundays occur in September, the final is held on the second Sunday in September. The Championship was initially a straight knockout competition open only to the champions of each of the four provinces of Ireland, during the 1990s the competition was expanded, firstly incorporating a back-door system and a round-robin group phase involving more games. The Championship currently consists of several stages, in the present format, it begins in late May with provincial championships held in Leinster and Munster. Once a team is defeated in the stage they are granted one more chance to compete for the title. Thirteen teams currently participate in the Championship, the most dominant teams coming from the provinces of Leinster and Munster, Kilkenny and Tipperary are considered the big three of hurling. Between them, these teams have won 93 out of 129 championships completed during its history, the title has been won by 13 different teams,10 of which have won the title more than once. The all-time record-holders are Kilkenny, who have won the competition 36 times, the current All-Ireland champions are Tipperary.
At the third meeting of the new organisation in January 1885, in 1886 county boards were created to run the affairs of the various counties that participated in the competition. By 1887 the first All-Ireland Hurling Championship took place with five teams participating, for the first few years of the championship the various counties were represented by the team who won the county club championship. For instance, the 1887 championship saw Thurles representing Tipperary and Meelick representing Galway, dedicated inter-county teams were only introduced in 1895 when Cork put forward a mixture of all the best players from that countys best local clubs. Over the early years various changes were made in the rules of hurling, teams were reduced from 21 players to 17 and eventually to the current number of 15, and the rules regarding the value of a goal were tweaked in the first few years of the competition. The provincial championships were introduced in 1888 in Munster, Connacht, the winners of the provincial finals participated in the All-Ireland semi-finals.
Over time the Leinster and Munster teams grew to become the superpowers of the game, as Gaelic football was the dominant sport in Ulster. After some time Galway became the only team in Connacht and was essentially given an automatic pass to the All-Ireland semi-final every year. This knock-out system persisted for over 100 years and was considered to be the fairest system as the All-Ireland champions would always be the only undefeated team of the year. In the mid-1990s the Gaelic Athletic Association looked at developing a new system whereby a defeat in the championship for teams would not mean an immediate exit from the Championship. In the 1997 championship the first major change in format arrived when the system was introduced. This new structure allowed the defeated Munster and Leinster finalists another chance to regain a place in the All-Ireland semi-finals and Kilkenny were the first two teams to benefit from the new system when they defeated Down and Galway respectively in the quarter-finals
Mayos senior Gaelic football team play in the Connacht Senior Football Championship. Despite having three All-Ireland Senior Football Championship wins—1936,1950 and 1951— and holding having a number of consecutive National Football League titles. Mayo hold the record of staying the longest time in the top flight of the National Football League, Mayo have in recent times become known for their propensity to reach All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Finals only to fall at the ultimate hurdle. Mayo hold the Championship record for consecutive losing All-Ireland Senior Football Final appearances—this currently stands at eight, in 1989, they reached their first All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final since their last victory in 1951 only to lose to Cork. In 1996, a point by Meath at the end of the final forced a replay. Kerry bridged an 11-year title gap against them in 1997 with a three-point win, before torturing them by eight points in 2004 and thirteen points in 2006. Then, in the minute, Colm McFadden seized the ball from the grasp of Kevin Keane.
Mayo managed thirteen points to Donegals two goals and eleven, only got on the scoresheet after sixteen minutes when already two goals behind and never led during the match. 2013 saw Mayo in the again, and once more coming up short, this time being seen off by Dublin. The teams traditional colours are green and red, the Mayo jersey will commonly be mostly green, with a thick horizontal red stripe just below chest level. These colours are inspired by The Green Above The Red, a rebel song, Mayos current crest is based on the countys coat of arms, which is shown on the left. It features four crosses, each representing a diocese of the Catholic Church in Mayo, the Patriarchal or double cross represents the Archdiocese of Tuam, while the three smaller Passion crosses represent Achonry and Galway/Kilmacduagh/Kilfenora. The Irish root word of the county, Maigh Eo, means plain of the yew trees, as well as this, the number of trees is significant, with the nine trees representing the number of baronies in the county.
The sailing ship represents the maritime history, while the red sea below the green hills represents the traditional green above the red motif of the county. The Mayo GAA crest features the Irish words Críost Linn, Mayos current sponsors are Irish sports store chain Elverys Sports. Their jerseys are provided by Irish manufacturers ONeills sportswear, Mayos unofficial supporters club is Mayo Club 51. Their crest is based on the current GAA crest, with the famous mountain Croagh Patrick in green, the name of the club commemorates the year that the Mayo senior footballers last won the Sam Maguire Cup, a year which is synonymous with Mayo football. Traditionally a football county, Mayo have always had a support at minor, U21
Camogie is an Irish stick-and-ball team sport played by women, it is almost identical to the game of hurling played by men. Camogie is played by 100,000 women in Ireland and worldwide and it is organised by the Dublin-based Camogie Association or An Cumann Camógaíochta. The game consists of two 30 minute halves, matches are contested by two teams of 15 a side, using a field 130m to 145m long and 80m to 90m wide. H-shaped goals are used, a goal is equal to three points and a point is equal to one point. The annual All Ireland Camogie Championship has an attendance of 33,154 while average attendances in recent years are in the region of 15,000 to 18,000. The final is televised live, with a TV audience of over 300,000 being claimed, the rules are almost identical to hurling, with a few exceptions. Goalkeepers wear the colours as outfield players. This is because no special rules apply to the goalkeeper and so there is no need for officials to differentiate between goalkeeper and outfielders, a camogie player can handpass a score Camogie games last 60 minutes, two 30-minute halves.
Ties are resolved by multiple 2×10-minute sudden death extra time periods, in these, dropping the camogie stick to handpass the ball is permitted. A smaller sliotar is used in camogie – commonly known as a size 4 sliotar – whereas hurlers play with a size 5 sliotar. If a defending player hits the sliotar wide, a 45-metre puck is awarded to the opposition After a score, the metal band on the camogie stick must be covered with tape. Two points are awarded for a direct from a sideline cut. Camogie players must wear skirts or skorts rather than shorts, experimental rules were drawn up in 1903 for a female stick-and-ball game by Máire Ní Chinnéide, Seán Ó Ceallaigh, Tadhg Ó Donnchadha and Séamus Ó Braonáin. The Official Launch of Camogie took place with the first public match between Craobh an Chéitinnigh and Cúchulainns on 17 July at a Feis in Navan, the sports governing body, the Camogie Association or An Cumann Camógaíochta was founded in 1905 and re-constituted in 1911,1923 and 1939. Until June 2010 it was known as Cumann Camógaíochta na nGael, although camogie was founded by women, and independently run, there was, from the outset, a small yet powerful male presence within its administrative ranks.
Of all the cultural nationalist organisations for adults that emerged during the fin de siècle, under Séamus Ó Braonáins original 1903 camogie rules both the match and the field were shorter than their hurling equivalents. Matches were 40 minutes, increased to 50 minutes in 1934, in 1999 camogie moved to the GAA field-size and 15-a-side, adopting the standard GAA butterfly formation. The name was invented by Tadhg Ua Donnchadha at meetings in 1903 in advance of the first matches in 1904, men play using a curved stick called in Irish a camán