National Statistics Institute (Chile)
The National Statistics Institute of Chile is a state-run organization of the Government of Chile, created in the second half of the 19th century and tasked with performing a general census of population and housing collecting and publishing official demographic statistics of people in Chile, in addition to other specific tasks entrusted to it by law. Its antecedents lie in the initiatives of president Manuel Bulnes and his minister, Manuel Rengifo, to draw up the second population census and obtain statistical data of the country. By Decree No. 18 March 27, 1843, the Office of Statistics was created, Ministry of the Interior to provide knowledge of the departments and provinces. It put the INE in charge of producing the national population census every 10 years, as required by the Census Act of July 12, 1843. Law No. 187 of September 17, 1847 established the office as a permanent body of the state. By 1853, it was required that each section chief of the ministries collect and submit data to the Bureau of Statistics.
Subsequently and by various legal modifications, it was called Dirección General de Estadísticas, Servicio Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos, Dirección de Estadísticas y Censos. It has called by its current name since 1970, it has been under the Ministry of Economy since 1927; the first official publication, National Repertoire, was released in 1850. It was followed by the Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Chile published without interruption from 1837 to 1866. In 1882 they published Geographical Synopsis of Chile. In 1911, they began publishing independent volumes of statistics by subject. Official website
Laguna del Laja is a lake located in the Bío-Bío Region of Chile. The lake gives its name to Laguna del Laja National Park. "Plan de Manejo Parque Nacional Laguna del Laja". Archived from the original on 2006-11-05
Laguna del Laja National Park
Laguna del Laja National Park is a national park of Chile located in the Andes, between 37°22’ and 37°28’ south latitude and 71°16’ and 71°26’ west longitude. The park features spectacular mountain landscapes, whose main attractions are the Antuco Volcano, Sierra Velluda and Laguna del Laja; the latter gives the name to this protected area. The park ranges in elevation from 976 m to 3585 m at Sierra Velluda. Although a little snow caps Antuco volcano, much more snow adorns the two major summits of its southern neighbor during Chile’s summer. Sharp ridges and deep valleys carve this rugged region, which alternates between bare rock and lush vegetation. Another summit in the park, although least prominent, is Cerro Cóndor at 1,668 m; the park forms part of the Bío Bío River basin. Some small tributaries of Laja River originate in the park; the park lies within the Valdivian temperate forests ecoregion. It is home to a wide variety including the cougar and foxes. In the park have been identified 47 bird species.
Endangered and rare vegetation species are found in the park. Among them are: ciprés de la cordillera, maitén del Chubut and radal enano. Several activities can be performed within the boundaries of the park and in the surrounding area including climbing, trekking and fishing
Chiguayante is a Chilean city and commune in Concepción Province, Biobío Region. It is part of Greater Concepción. According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, Chiguayante spans an area of 71.5 km2 and has 81,302 inhabitants. Of these, 81,238 lived in 64 in rural areas; the population grew by 44.2 % between the 2002 censuses. It had an estimated 2010 population of 119,265; as a commune, Chiguayante is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde, directly elected every four years. The 2008-2012 alcalde is Tomás Solis Nova. Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Chiguayante is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by José Miguel Ortiz and Enrique Van Rysselberghe as part of the 44th electoral district; the commune is represented in the Senate by Alejandro Navarro Brain and Hosain Sabag Castillo as part of the 12th senatorial constituency. Municipality of Chiguayante
Independent Democratic Union
The Independent Democratic Union is a Chilean right-wing, conservative political party, founded in 1983. Its founder was the lawyer and law professor Jaime Guzmán, a civilian who collaborated with Augusto Pinochet and a member of the Opus Dei. Guzmán was a senator from 1990 until his assassination on April 1, 1991, its ideological origins date back to Guzmán's Guildist Movement, born out of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile in 1966, espousing the independence and depoliticization of intermediate bodies of civil society. The UDI is today a conservative political party with strong links to the Opus Dei, that opposes women reproductive rightsUDI, together with National Renewal and other minor movements, formed a coalition of right-wing parties called Coalition for Change, the successor to Alliance for Chile and rose to power in March 2010, after victory in the presidential elections of January 2010, it was the largest political party in Congress between 2010 and 2014. In the Chilean parliamentary election, 2009, UDI held the largest majority in the election of deputies, electing 40 deputies with 23.04%, got 21.21% in the election of senators.
Its bench is the largest obtained by a single party in Chile since 1990. UDI has 39 deputies and 8 senators. In the Chilean municipal election, 2008, UDI got 347 councilmen by a vote of 15.11%, obtained 58 mayors by a vote of 20.05%. That year, it was the largest party by elected councilmen and the most voted for party in the election of councilmen. UDI is the second largest party by number of mayors in Chile, it was during the university strikes of the 1960s when Jaime Guzmán, President of the Law Students Union at the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile -who opposed the protests and strikes, led by the Christian-democrats and left-wing students- gathered a group of students and founded the Movimiento Gremial and ran for the University's Student Union election. The movement became one of the most important in the Catholic University, won the presidency of the University's Student Union. Jaime Guzmán criticized liberal democracy and sought inspiration in authoritarian corporatism, proposing the principle of subsidiarity and to invigorate intermediate social movements, by the way that these were independent to develop their own specific purposes.
Well into the government of Salvador Allende, some young members of the National Party and the Christian Democrats became part of the Gremialismo Movement of Jaime Guzmán. Guzmán supported a military coup against Allende's government, which happened shortly thereafter on September 11, 1973, he was a close advisor of General Augusto Pinochet. Guzmán was appointed a member of the Commission for the Study of the New Constitution, who worded the new constitution promulgated in 1980. After the 1982 economic crisis, which caused the temporary removal of the "Chicago Boys" from cabinet, Guzmán moved away from the government and decided to found the movement he desired, establishing it on September 24, 1983 under the name Independent Democratic Union Movement; the emerging movement, a supporter of the military government, had a strong empathy with the lower classes, in order to seize from the Marxist left its traditional domain. Amid the growing economic crisis of the time, UDI engaged in empowering leaders in the countryside and peripheral neighbourhoods that would help extend its influence in the middle and lower classes.
One of them was Simon Yévenes, UDI member assassinated by left-wing resistance fighters on April 2, 1986. On April 29, 1987, the Independent Democratic Union merged with other related movements such as National Union Movement, led by Andrés Allamand, National Labour Front, led by Sergio Onofre Jarpa, plus some former members and supporters of the National Party and the Christian Democrats, to form the National Renewal party, who managed to unite all the right movements in the country. However, UDI members maintained their own identity in the new party, which caused a crisis in 1988, culminating in the resignation of all former UDI members to National Renewal. Allamand stayed in charge of National Renewal, while Jaime Guzman managed to register a new political party: Independent Democratic Union in 1989. UDI supported Pinochet's remaining in power in the Chilean national plebiscite, 1988. After the "Yes" option was defeated and presidential elections were announced, the UDI joined National Renewal and formed the "Democracy and Progress" alliance.
Hernan Büchi, the former Minister of Finances under Pinochet, ran for president for this alliance. The alliance ran a common Parliament list; the UDI's option lost the 1989 presidential election, this time against the center-left Concertación's leader, the Christian Democrat Patricio Aylwin. In the 1989 parliamentary elections, the Independent Democratic Union obtained a 9.82% of votes in deputies and 5.11% in the Senate. Jaime Guzmán won a seat as Senator for Western Santiago constituency. Although Guzman took third place with only 17% of the vote, behind Christian Democrat Andrés Zaldívar and Party for Democracy leader Ricardo Lagos, the two main leaders of the Coalition of Parties for Democracy, the binomial system allowed Zaldívar's and his election and deferred Ricardo Lagos who got 30%. By 1990, Guzman was positioned as the leader of the opposition and was one of the harshest critics o
Concepción is a Chilean city and commune belonging to the metropolitan area of Greater Concepción, it is one of the largest urban conurbations of Chile. It has a significant impact on domestic trade being part of the most industrialized region in the country, its location is in the called Zona Centro Sur, in the geographic center of the country, it is the capital of the Concepción Province and Bío Bío Region. It sits about 500 km south of the country's capital. Greater Concepción is the second-largest conurbation in the country, with 945,650 inhabitants. Individually, it is the 11th largest commune in the country, with a population of 229,665. Concepción was founded by Pedro de Valdivia in 1550 north of the Bío Bío River, at the site, today known as Penco. At that time it was given the name Concepción de María Purísima del Nuevo Extremo; the new settlement of Concepción was just a few kilometers north of La Frontera, the boundary between Spanish territory and the land of the Mapuche, an American Indian ethnic group that remained independent until the 1870s.
The settlement was formally recognized by the Spanish authorities as a town two years by a royal decree. It was given a coat-of-arms, still in use today. At the time of the Spanish arrival to the Concepción area chronicler Jerónimo de Vivar noted local Mapuches wore gold and silver bracelets and "sort of crowns"; this is interpreted either as Incan gifts, war spoils from defeated Incas, or adoption of Incan metallurgy. Although Concepción was a significant military settlement for the Captaincy General of Chile, it was overrun and destroyed by Mapuche armies in 1554, once again after being refounded in 1555. Concepción was restored during the governorship of García Hurtado de Mendoza when he landed there and built a fort on the Alto de Pinto in 1557; the town was refounded once more on January 1558, by captain Jerónimo de Villegas. It became the headquarters of the military forces engaged against the Mapuche in La Araucanía over the next two centuries, growing to a population of 10,000 despite a siege in 1564 and other attacks by the Mapuche.
Concepción was the home of the Real Audiencia from 1565 to 1575. Earthquakes and tsunamis, which razed the town in 1570, 1657, 1687, 1730 and 1751, led the authorities to move the town to its current site in the Valle de la Mocha, alongside the Bío Bío River; the new site for the town of Concepción became the main town of the Intendancy of Concepción, whose jurisdiction extended from the Maule River to La Frontera. The first Intendant of Concepción was the Irishman Ambrose O'Higgins, Marquis of Osorno, who became Royal Governor of Chile and Viceroy of Peru; when the First National Government Board met in Santiago on September 18, 1810, citizens of Concepción joined up. Concepción was used as the point of entry by the Spanish Army in the attempt by the Viceroyalty of Peru to re-conquer Chile. Concepción politicians and soldiers became a significant political force in the newly independent country. On January 1, 1818, Ambrose O'Higgins's son, Bernardo O'Higgins and took the oath of the Chilean War of Independence in the main square of Concepción, which since has been known as "Plaza de la Independencia".
On February 20, 1835, the town again was destroyed by an earthquake and had to be rebuilt. As of 2010, Concepción is the second largest city of Chile; the Universidad de Concepción, founded in 1919, became the first secular private university in Chile. The neighboring harbor of Talcahuano is the site of the largest naval base in Chile. On February 27, 2010, an 8.8 magnitude earthquake struck the city of Concepción, killing more than 521 people and injuring thousands nationwide. Following the earthquake, geologists relying on global positioning satellite data concluded that the city had been displaced 3 meters to the west as a result of the event; the tsunami that followed missed the city. After the 2010 Chile earthquake, a prison riot began in Concepción's El Manzano prison following a failed escape attempt by the internees. Different parts of the prison were set on fire and the riot was controlled only after the guards shot into the air and received help from military units; as of 5 March 2010, a Peruvian field hospital has been deployed to the city.
Like most of Chilean territory, the Concepción region is seismically active, with much of Concepción destroyed by a violent earthquake in 1939. An earthquake in 1953 damaged 15% of the town's buildings. Another major earthquake in 1960 had a nearby epicenter. On February 27, 2010, an earthquake of 8.8 magnitude struck at 35.846°S, 72.719°W, 115 km NNE of the city. The United States Geological Survey said the earthquake struck at 0334 GMT on Saturday at a depth of 35 km; the effects were felt as far away as Brazil -- 2,870 miles. Concepción is known as "the university city" thanks to the numerous universities within the urban agglomeration, since one of the most important universities of the country were founded here, such as the Universidad de Concepción, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción and Universidad del Biobío; this city has numerous headquarters for many other universities. In addition, this metropolis has a large educational offer, focused on institutes, centers of technical formation and the universities mentioned above.
Florida is a Chilean town and commune located in the Concepción Province, Biobío Region. According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, Florida spans an area of 608.6 km2 and has 10,177 inhabitants. Of these, 3,875 lived in urban areas and 6,302 in rural areas. Between the 1992 and 2002 censuses, the population fell by 2.5%. As a commune, Florida is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a communal council, headed by an alcalde, directly elected every four years; the 2008-2012 alcalde is Juan Vergara Reyes. The communal council has the following members: Aureliano Illanes Jorge Roa Juan Contreras Agustin Montero José Lizama Renán Arriagada Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Florida is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Sergio Bobadilla and Clemira Pacheco as part of the 45th electoral district; the commune is represented in the Senate by Alejandro Navarro Brain and Hosain Sabag Castillo as part of the 12th senatorial constituency. Municipality of Florida