Biratnagar is a metropolitan city and the interim capital of the Province No. 1 of Nepal. It is the second most densely populated and the fourth most populous city of Nepal, with a population of 240,000. Biratnagar has been the most politically active city of Nepal, gifting a subtotal of five prime ministers along with hosting some of the most revolutionary incidents in the modern history of Nepal; the city has a total area of 29.9 mi², a geographical location of 26°28'60"N 87°16'60"E. and is located in the Morang District of the eastern-most Terai region of Nepal. It lies 399 km east of Nepal's capital, 6 km north of the Jogbani border of the Indian state of Bihar. Biratnagar was declared a metropolitan on May 2017 along with Birgunj, it stands to be the third most populated metropolitan city after the urban agglomeration of Kathmandu and the Pokhara Lekhnath. The upgradation to the metropolis was witnessed via the addition of Tankisinuwari and Jahada-3 to the previous submetropolitian, pushing the total population to 240,000 from 214,000.
The city has been home to the Biratnagar Jute Mills, the first large scale industry of Nepal. Named after King Virata, the city serves as the entrance point to a manifold of majestic destinations of Eastern Nepal; the old name of Biratnagar was Gograha Bazaar. Biratnagar the ancient kingdom of Matsyadesh was ruled by the great king Birat five thousand years ago. Gograha is the historical place since king Birat reign. Till today the ruins of temples and ponds are scattered in a vast area of Vedhyari, Buddhanagar VDC; the ruins of the buildings and deep wells are to be found in many areas. Since last three to four centuries the encroachment by the newcomers has been a great problem to the old heritage; the typical people used to live in its nearby area since unknown past. They called themselves as "BIRAT RAJBANSHI" not to be confused with Bengali Rajbanshi. In 1914 AD, Colonel Jit Bahadur Khatri, the district governor, laid the foundations of modern Biratnagar by moving the hospital, post office and the customs, land registry and auditor offices to Gograha Bazaar from Rangeli, the district capital of Morang at the time.
Biratnagar got its present name in 1919 AD from Keshar Shamsher Rana after objects of historical importance, believed to be of King Virata's time, were found in the place. The region is believed to be a part of the kingdom of Virata, mentioned in the Mahabharata; the ruins of the palace along with stone carved tools and household objects can be seen protected in the southern part of Biratnagar, close to the border. In Nepali birat means huge and nagar means city. Article Reference Biratnagar got its present name in 1919 AD from Keshar Shamsher Rana after objects of historical importance were found; the ruins of the palace along with stone carved tools and household objects can be seen protected in southern part of Biratnagar at Bhedyari, Buddhanagar VDC. On March 4, 1947, the first anti-Rana movement on Nepali soil took place in Biratnagar in the form of the Biratnagar jute mill strike under the leadership of Girija Prasad Koirala along with Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala; this sparked a countrywide anti-Rana demonstration that led to the abolishment of Rana rule in Nepal.
According to 2011 CBS census data, Biratnagar's population was 214,663. Majority of people are from Kshatriya community; the main language spoken is Nepali. Maithili is spoken by a large proportion of population; the historical local indigenous ethnical language is Birat Rajbanshi aka Khotta/Khoratha. English is well understood by the educated mass. Biratnagar is situated within one of the most ethnically diverse regions of Nepal, the rural hinterland is home to a diverse cross section of communities. Most people practice Hinduism followed by Islam, Jainism and Christianity. Biratnagar is famous for its high-spirited festival celebration. In Dashain, Nepal's biggest festival, a large number of people including young persons visit the Kali Mandir, a temple that lies in the heart of the town. Famous is Tihar, festival of lights, when the residents line their homes with Diyo and decorative electrical lamps during the two days of celebration. Firecrackers are banned in Nepal and are prohibited during Tihar, but smuggling them in during Tihar is popular.
Krishna Janmashtami is a festival, celebrated in Biratnagar. Thousands of people gather on the second day of Krishna Ashtami to pull the Holy Cart which goes around the city the length of, 8 km; this event is termed the Rath Yatra. It is the largest rath yatra in Eastern Nepal. Traffic will be halted for five to six hours on that day, it is believed. So, people keep a young child in the Holy Cart as a symbol of Krishna and pull the cart with joy to celebrate the Lord Krishna's birthday; the Rath is big and heavy and needs hundreds of persons to move it. The recruits of the Nepalese Army are recruited to pull the heavy cart, it has an engine to run if required to move fast, it has brakes to stop, as it has to stop at many places to allow people to worship the Lord. Some people stay on top of the Rath to distribute prasad to people; the Holy Cart will be follo
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Pranab Mukherjee is an Indian politician who served as the 13th President of India from 2012 until 2017. He is a Bharat Ratna awardee, awarded in 2019 by President of India Shri Ram Nath Kovind. In a political career spanning five decades, Mukherjee has been a senior leader in the Indian National Congress and has occupied several ministerial portfolios in the Government of India. Prior to his election as President, Mukherjee was Union Finance Minister from 2009 to 2012. Mukherjee got his break in politics in 1969 when Prime Minister Indira Gandhi helped him get elected to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of Parliament of India, on a Congress ticket. Following a meteoric rise, he became one of Gandhi's most trusted lieutenants and a minister in her cabinet by 1973. During the controversial Internal Emergency of 1975–77, he was accused of committing gross excesses. Mukherjee's service in a number of ministerial capacities culminated in his first stint as finance minister in 1982–84. Pranab Mukherjee was Leader of the House in the Rajya Sabha from 1980 to 1985.
Mukherjee was sidelined from the Congress during the premiership of Rajiv Gandhi, Indira Gandhi's son. Mukherjee had viewed himself and not the inexperienced Rajiv, as the rightful successor to Indira following her assassination in 1984. Mukherjee lost out in the ensuing power struggle, he formed his own party, the Rashtriya Samajwadi Congress, which merged with the Congress in 1989 after reaching a consensus with Rajiv Gandhi. After Rajiv Gandhi's assassination in 1991, Mukherjee's political career revived when Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha Rao appointed him Planning Commission head in 1991 and foreign minister in 1995. Following this, as elder statesman of the Congress, Mukherjee was the principal and architect of Sonia Gandhi's ascension to the party's presidency in 1998; when the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance came into power in 2004, Mukherjee won a Lok Sabha seat for the first time. From until his resignation in 2012, Mukherjee was number-two in Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's government.
He held a number of key cabinet portfolios—Defence, External Affairs and Finance —apart from heading several Groups of Ministers and being Leader of the House in the Lok Sabha. After securing the UPA's nomination for the country's presidency in July 2012, Mukherjee comfortably defeated P. A. Sangma in the race to Rashtrapati Bhavan, winning 70 percent of the electoral-college vote. In 2017, Mukherjee decided not to run for re-election and to retire from politics after leaving the presidency due to "health complications relating to old age", his term expired on 25 July 2017. He was succeeded as President by Ram Nath Kovind. In June 2018 Mukherjee became first former President of India to address a Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh event. Pranab was born in a Bengali Kulin Brahmin family in Mirati, a village in the Bengal Presidency of British India, his father, Kamada Kinkar Mukherjee was active in the Indian independence movement and was a member of West Bengal Legislative Council between 1952 and 1964 as a representative of the Indian National Congress and was the member of AICC.
His mother was Rajlakshmi Mukherjee. He attended the Suri Vidyasagar College in Suri affiliated to University of Calcutta, he subsequently earned MA degree in Political Science&History and LL. B. degree. In 1963, he became Lecturer of Political Science at Vidyanagar College. Mukherjee's political career began in 1969, when he managed the successful Midnapore by-election campaign of an independent candidate, V. K. Krishna Menon. Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, recognized Mukherjee's talents and recruited him to her party, the Indian National Congress, he became a member of the Rajya Sabha in July 1969. Mukherjee was re-elected to the house in 1975, 1981, 1993 and 1999. Mukherjee became a Gandhi loyalist and is described as his "man for all seasons". Mukherjee's rise was rapid in the early phase of his career and he was appointed Union Deputy Minister of Industrial Development in Indira Gandhi's cabinet in 1973. Mukherjee was active in the Indian cabinet during the controversial Internal Emergency of 1975–77.
Ruling Congress politicians of the day including Mukherjee were accused of using extra-constitutional powers to "wreck established norms and rules of governance". Following the Congress's defeat in the 1977 general elections, the newly formed Janata government-appointed Shah Commission indicted Mukherjee. Mukherjee emerged unscathed and rose through a series of cabinet posts to become Finance Minister from 1982 to 1984, his term was noted for his work in improving the finances of the government that enabled Gandhi to score a political point by returning the last installment of India's first IMF loan. As Finance Minister, Mukherjee signed the letter appointing Manmohan Singh as Governor of the Reserve Bank of India. In 1979, Mukherjee became Deputy Leader of the INC in the Rajya Sabha, in 1980 he was appointed Leader of the House. Mukherjee was considered the top-ranking Indian cabinet minister and he presided over cabinet meetings in the absence of the Prime Minister. Mukherjee was sidelined from the INC following th
Pushpa Basnet is a social worker and the Founder/President of Early Childhood Development Center and Butterfly Home, non-profit organizations, in Kathmandu, Nepal. Her organization works to strengthen the rights of children living behind bars with their incarcerated parents, her efforts have been recognized by national and international media since she was nominated for CNN Heroes Award, which she subsequently won in 2012. She has won the'CNN Super Hero Award' in 2016. Basnet started her career at the age of 21, while she was still an undergraduate in Social Work at St. Xavier's College, Kathmandu; as part of her college assignment, she visited the women prison in Kathmandu. She was dismayed, she raised 70,000 rupees from her close friends and sister, started a non-profit organization -The Early Childhood Development Center to provide a day care program to the children, in 2005. In 2007, she opened a residential home for kids to live outside the prison year round while still visiting their mothers on holidays.
Today, she has assisted more than 137 children of incarcerated parents. She runs a residential home for older ones, she has helped to provide alternative residence, school enrollment, free meals and medical care to them. In 2009, sponsored by ChangeFusion Nepal, she started a program to coach parents to make handicrafts inside the cell; the main objective of the program is to make the female prisoners as well as former prisoners to become involved in income generating activities through which they can sustain their livelihood and contribute towards raising their children. Basnet started her career at the age of 21, while she was still an undergraduate in Social Work at St. Xavier's College, Kathmandu; as part of her college assignment, she visited the women prison in Kathmandu. She was dismayed, she raised 70,000 rupees from her close friends and sister, started a non-profit organization -The Early Childhood Development Center to provide a day care program to the children, in 2005. In 2007, she opened a residential home for kids to live outside the prison year round while still visiting their mothers on holidays.
Today, she has assisted more than 100 children of incarcerated parents. She runs a residential home for older ones, she has helped to provide alternative residence, school enrollment, free meals and medical care to them. In 2009, sponsored by ChangeFusion Nepal, she started a program to coach parents to make handicrafts inside the cell; the main objective of the program is to make the female prisoners as well as former prisoners to become involved in income generating activities through which they can sustain their livelihood and contribute towards raising their children. She, along with her organization, coordinate with prison administrators to rescue children behind bars throughout urban and rural areas of Nepal, help them break the cycle of crime and poverty. Recognizing her effort as the first of a kind in Nepal, many local organizations have pledged their help to raise fund for Basnet. Major donations for Basnet's organization has come from Shikshya Foundation Sundar Sansar. ECDC supports children under a contract with Glasswaters Foundation.
The center collects donations through individual donations. A local organization helped raise 370,000 ruppees for her organization through various national and international donation programs. Pushpa Basnet has been awarded with CNN Hero Award 2012, held at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, California, on Sunday, 2 December. Academy Award winning actress Susan Sarandon presented Basnet with the award; the show was aired LIVE through CNN. When earlier interviewed by CNN, she commented on her venture as. My mission is to make sure no child grows up behind prison walls." CNN Heroes culminated in a global telecast honoring the Top 10 CNN Heroes of 2012 on 20 September. Basnet was selected in the final list through unanimous Jury decision, winning a $50,000 grant amount for her effort and contributions towards the welfare of children who are behind the bars; each of the Top 10 CNN Heroes received $50,000 in recognition of their work, Basnet's nonprofit, the Early Childhood Development Center, has been awarded an additional $250,000 grant to continue the work.
Basnet was the honored guest speaker in the banquet dinner hosted by George Washington Student Organization Babies Behind Bars in The Cloyd Heck Marvin Basnet was an honored speaker in TEDx Kathmandu, organized on 28 July 2012. ILGA Foundation of South Korea awarded The Young ILGA Award to Basnet on 1 September 2012, at Seoul's Chung Conference Hall for her contribution in human services. Basnet is the only foreigner to receive the award, established in the memory of Social worker ILGA Kim Yong Ki in 1989. Pushpa Basnet has been awarded as CNN Superhero 2016. Https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qGQzi4zBAgM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AxbuHSDuQZ8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b4o8GhXpuGE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6KRoRjw5NzI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9XIlDvvAnXY Agrim Poudyal People of Nepal Anuradha Koirala ECDC Nepal ECDC's Official Website CNN Edition CNN's Special Coverage on Basnet and her work Official Pushpa Basnet Official Facebook Page for Basnet: 2012 CNN Hero Basnet's Fan Page on CNN CNN Heroes Award 2012 Voting Portal for Basnet
Hetauda is a sub-metropolitan city in the Makwanpur District of Narayani Zone of southern Nepal. It is the administrative headquarters of the Makwanpur District, the headquarters of Nepal's Central Development Region, the interim state capital of Province No. 3. It is one of the largest cities of Nepal. At the time of the 2015 Nepal census, it had a population of 153,875 people. Hetauda sub-metropolitan city is situated in the confluence of the two prominent national highways viz. Tribhuvan highway and Mahendra highway, it was declared a municipality in 1969 A. D, but development was sluggish. Momentum increased when the city became headquarters of the Makwanpur district in 1982A. D, it is now striving to be the regional headquarters of the central development region. It is regarded as a "Green city". Hetauda city is located at a distance of 76 km from the capital city, via the fast track, at a distance of 132 km via Daman Tribhuvan Highway and 224 km via Narayangadh. Another Kanti Lokpath highway will be built within May 2018, it will take only 2 hours to travel from Hetauda to Kathmandu.
First tunneling road is being constructed, believed to shorten the distance between Hetauda-Kathmandu. It is expected that traveling time from Kathmandu to Hetauda via tunnel road will be just 57 min and 13 sec only. Lying in the central development region of the nation, it is properly situated at the central of the Makwanpur district, it lies in the 27°25' N latitude and 85°02' E longitude and is situated at a level of 300-390m above the sea level. The total area of the city is 261 km2 where around 254 km2. is land and the remaining 7 km2 consists of water. Boundary: East: Chhatiwan V. D. C West: Manahari and Sarikhet V. D. C North: Naamtaar and Makwanpurgadhi V. D. C South: Bara and Parsa District, the city is surrounded by three rivers—the Rapti to the west, the Samari to the north, the Karra to the south—and is part of an important industrial regions; the settlement developed because of its location along the Tribhuvan Highway, was linked to another major national thoroughfare: the Mahendra Highway known as the East-West Highway.
According to 2018 census, Hetauda has the total population of 84,775. It was awarded as the cleanest city of Nepal in the year 2016 and 2017. Apart from natural environment, there are a number of monuments and historical sites to visit in this city like Makawanpur Gadhi and Pathivara Devi Temple; the city is situated in a unique geographical structure called Doon, giving it a valley-like geography. It is surrounded by mountains, with the Mahabharata Range to the north and the Sivalik Hills to the south; the rivers Rapti and Karra run through the city and flow southwest to meet the Narayani, one of the bigger rivers of Nepal. The sal tree is common in and around the city. On the banks of the Rapti and Karra rivers, the Indian rosewood can be found interspersed with sal and other tropical species; the ashoka tree is part of the city's greenery. Community groups work to preserve the area's natural resources. Several government bodies—including District Forest Office Makwanpur, District Soil Conservation Office Makwanpur and District Plant Resources Office Makwanpur, under the Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation—are headquartered in Hetauda.
Some international non-governmental organizations support the sustainable development of forest resources in the area. The Hetauda Industrial District is one of the biggest industrial districts in Nepal, housing large, medium-scale, cottage industry. Three of the major national paint factories are situated in HID, including Asian Paints and Yeti Paints; because of political events in the past decade, however, HID has been shrinking as industries either move to other countries or shut down. The city is a working-class residential town, therefore a sizable portion of the population is employed by industry or government. Trucking, since most goods bound for Kathmandu pass through Hetauda, individual entrepreneurship are other means of livelihood. Passenger service to Kathmandu using Indian Tata Sumo SUVs has taken hold. One of the most popular attractions of Hetauda is Martyr Memorial Park, or Sahid Smarak, completed in 1994; the park honors Nepalese martyrs, from those who lost their lives in the British colonial wars to those who overthrew the autocratic Panchayat system in 1989.
A series of sculptures of these martyrs sit on a large boulder. The park is popular as a picnic spot and as an escape from busy city life, it has a swimming pool and a zoo that houses some endangered and some common wild animals, from monkeys to leopards. Another major site is Makwanpur Gadhi in the east of the city, a fort of historical importance dating back to the unification of Nepal. King Prithvi Narayan Shah, who led the unification process, was married to the princess of Makwanpur, whose father was a king of the Sen dynasty that ruled the region. Historians say that this marriage was a political strategy by the king, who saw that an alliance with Makwanpur could encircle Kathmandu Valley. Other nearby tourist attractions are: Chisapani Gadhi View Tower Pathivara Temple Palung Valley Daman Simbhanjyang Manakamana Temple Banaskhandi Temple Gumba Danda Kusmanda Sarowar Triveni Dham Bhutandevi Mandir Hetauda is an hour's drive from the Nepalese border city of Birgunj, adjacent to Raxaul, India.
Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r
Gandaki Pradesh is one of the seven federal provinces established by the current constitution of Nepal, promulgated on 20 September 2015. Pokhara is the province's capital city, it borders the Tibet of China to the north, Province No. 3 to the east, Karnali Pradesh to the west, Province No. 5 and Uttar Pradesh of India to the south. The total area of the province is 21,504 km². According to the latest census, the population of the province was 2,403,757; the newly elected Provincial Assembly adopted Gandaki Pradesh as the permanent name by replacing its initial name Province no. 4 for in July 2018. The Gandaki Pradesh got its name from River Gandaki. All of the districts of Gandaki Pradesh are irrigated by one of the branches of Gandaki River. Gandaki Pradesh is formed by combining former two Zones of Nepal, they are Gandaki and Dhaulagiri, Nawalpur region of former Nawalparasi District of Lumbini Zone; the name, Gandaki Pradesh is related to Gandaki River Civilization. The province has an area of 21,773 km2, about 14.66% of the total area of Nepal.
The state is extends between 27°-20' N ~ 29°-20' N latitude and 82° 52' E ~ 85°-12' E longitude. In terms of terrain, the province is spread over the Himalayan and Terai region of Nepal; the Governor acts as the head of the province while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Pokhara High Court is the head of the judiciary; the present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Baburam Kunwar, Prithvi Subba Gurung and Purushottam Bhandari. The province has 60 provincial assembly constituencies and 18 federal House of Representative constituencies. Gandaki Pradesh has a unicameral legislature, like that of the other provinces in Nepal; the tenure of provincial assembly is of five years. The Provincial Assembly of Gandaki is temporarily housed at the Town Development Training Centre in Pokhara. Gandaki province is divided into 11 districts. A district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer.
The districts are further dived to rural municipalities. The municipalities include one metropolitan city and 26 municipalities. There are 58 rural municipalities in the province. Baglung District Gorkha District Kaski District Lamjung District Manang District Mustang District Myagdi District Nawalpur District Parbat District Syangja District Tanahun District The province has a population of 2,403,016, just about 9.06% of the total population of Nepal. The population density is about 110 persons per square kilometre; the province has a population growth rate of -0.33%. The sex ratio is 89 males for 100 females, with a total of 948,028 males and 1,144,124 females recorded in 2011; the urban population of the region is 1,452,186 and the rural population is 943,652. About 50.1% of the population in the province are independent population. According to the 2011 Nepal census there are total 88 languages spoken in Gandaki Pradesh. Nepali, Tharu, Kumal, Ghale, Thakali etc are main languages, spoken by communities in Gankldaki Pradesh.
Spoken language is Nepali, spoken by 68.885 percent people of Gandaki Pradesh. Magar is secondly most spoken language with percentage of 9.025 and Gurung is third spoken language with percentage of 7.855. List of provinces of Nepal List of districts of Nepal