Xiamen, formerly romanized as Amoy, is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian, beside the Taiwan Strait. It is divided into six districts, Siming, Tongan, altogether, these cover an area of 1,699.39 square kilometers with a population of 3,531,347 as of 2010. The urbanized area of the city has spread from its original island to include parts of all six of its districts and this area connects to Quanzhou in the north and Zhangzhou in the west, making up a metropolis of more than five million people. The Jinmen or Kinmen Islands administered by the Republic of China lie less than 6 kilometers away, Xiamen Island was considered to possess one of the worlds great natural harbors in Yundang Bay, but Fujians international trade was long restricted to Quanzhou or to Guangzhou in Guangdong. Due to the siltification of Quanzhous harbor, the British insisted that Xiamen be opened to trade in the treaty that ended the First Opium War in 1842. The overseas Chinese continue to support Xiamens educational and cultural institutions, as part of Chinas Opening Up Policy under Deng Xiaoping, Xiamen became one of the original four special economic zones opened to foreign investment and trade in the early 1980s.
Its former harbor was enclosed using land excavated during the citys expansion, the city is known for its mild climate, Hokkien culture and colonial architecture, as well as its relatively low pollution. In 2006, Xiamen was ranked as Chinas 2nd-most suitable city for living, the area around Xiamen Bay appears as Tongan in some Han records. Xiamen Island was described as Jiahe Islet c. 976 and it received its present name from the Xiamen Castle erected on the island by Zhou Dexing in 1387 during the Ming. The name was written using the Chinese characters meaning Lower Gate. When its port prospered under the Qing, the name was considered unrefined and changed to homophonous characters meaning Mansion Gate, Xiamen is the atonal pinyin romanization of the characters pronunciation in Mandarin. It has been romanized as Hiamen, the former English name Amoy was based on the same names pronunciation in the Zhangzhou dialect of Hokkien, Ē-mûi. Xiamen was named Siming for a few years during its occupation by the loyalist Southern Ming forces of Koxinga, the Qing restored the former name upon their conquest of the area, but Koxingas name was in turn restored after the Xinhai Revolution that inaugurated the republic in 1912.
The name Xiamen was restored again but Siming continues to be used as the name of one of its districts, Xiamen is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian whose urban core grew up from the port of Xiamen on southern Xiamen Island, now located within Siming District. It now includes Gulangyu Island and the rugged coast of the mainland from the northeast bank of the Jiulong River in the west to the islands of Xiangan in the east, Xiamen Island lies about one degree north of the Tropic of Cancer. It is divided between Huli District in the north and Siming District in the south and its mainland territory is divided among Haicang, Jimei and Xiangan districts. In the 19th century, Xiamens harbor on Yundang Bay was considered one of the great natural harbors. Land reclamation has since used to fill in the mouth of this inlet
Siming District is an urban district of Xiamen in southeastern Fujian, China. It includes the territory of the old town of Xiamen and the government offices of the modern sub-provincial city, Siming occupies the southern half of Xiamen Island. It includes Gulangyu Island to its southwest, the sheltered Yundang Bay responsible for old Xiamens prized harbor was converted into a lake in the 20th century by the addition of landfill from construction. The modern Siming District includes the territory of the old town of Xiamen and he abandoned the island in favor of Taiwan when he defeated the Dutch there. The Qing held the city from the early 1660s, restoring its former name, Gulangyu Island, now part of the district, developed as a foreign enclave after Xiamen became a treaty port at the end of the First Opium War in 1842. After the fall of the Qing in 1912, the Republic of China organized the area around Xiamen as Siming County and it was renamed the Central District in October 1945 after its reconquest from the Japanese.
Following its capture by the Communists at the end of the Chinese Civil War, in April 1953, its district bureau administration was upgraded to a peoples government. As part of the Cultural Revolution, it was renamed Xiangyang District from August 1966 to October 1979, Gulangyu Island and Kaiyuan District were merged into Siming in May 2003. Xiagang Street was originally a district in 1950, Siming has ten street offices, Binhai Zhonghua Xiagang Lianqian Jialian Yundang Wucun Kaiyuan Lujiang Gulangyu These street offices are divided into 95 residential committees. Xiamen Bluebird Cartoon Company, which makes the XingXing Fox cartoon, is headquartered in the Amoy Software Park 2 in Siming District
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, it is one of the two character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the Peoples Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s in an attempt to increase literacy and they are officially used in the Peoples Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong, Macau. Overseas Chinese communities generally tend to use traditional characters, Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name above or colloquially. Strictly, the latter refers to simplifications of character structure or body, character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, Simplified character forms were created by decreasing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of traditional Chinese characters.
Some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms, some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character. Finally, many characters were left untouched by simplification, and are identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies. Some simplified characters are very dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters and this often leads opponents not well-versed in the method of simplification to conclude that the overall process of character simplification is arbitrary. In reality, the methods and rules of simplification are few, on the other hand, proponents of simplification often flaunt a few choice simplified characters as ingenious inventions, when in fact these have existed for hundreds of years as ancient variants.
However, the Chinese government never officially dropped its goal of further simplification in the future, in August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters. The new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was promulgated by the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China on June 5,2013, cursive written text almost always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print have always existed, they date back to as early as the Qin dynasty, One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lubi Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China, Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or completely abolished.
Fu Sinian, a leader of the May Fourth Movement, called Chinese characters the writing of ox-demons, lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, If Chinese characters are not destroyed, China will die. Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the problems in China during that time
Quanzhou, formerly known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level city beside the Taiwan Strait in Fujian Province, China. Its is Fujians largest metropolitan region, with an area of 11,245 square kilometers and, as of the 2010 census, Quanzhou was Chinas 12th-largest extended metropolitan area in 2010. Quanzhou was Chinas major port for foreign traders, who knew it as Zaiton and it was visited by both Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta, both travelers praised it as one of the most prosperous and glorious cities in the world. A failed revolt prompted a massacre of the foreign communities in 1357. Quanzhou became a center in the 19th century but the siltation of its harbor long reduced its capacity for trade by larger ships. Quanzhou is the pinyin romanization of the citys Chinese name 泉州. The name derives from the former status as the seat of the imperial Chinese Quan Prefecture. The romanization Chuan-chiu, Choan-Chiu, and Shanju reflect the local Hokkien pronunciation Choâⁿ-chiu and it is uncertain when or why British sailors first applied the name to Quanzhou.
Variants include Kangiu and Chincheu, variant transcriptions from the Arabic name include Caiton, Çaiton, Çayton, Zaytún, Zaitûn, Zaitún, and Zaitūn. The common folk etymology of satin as deriving from Zaiton cloth seems, Quanzhou proper lies on a spit of land between the estuaries of the Jin and Luo rivers as they flow into Quanzhou Bay on the Taiwan Strait. Its surrounding prefecture extends west halfway across the province and is hilly, along with Xiamen and Zhangzhou to its south and Putian to its north, it makes up Fujian Provinces Southern Coast region. In its mountainous interior, it borders Longyan to the southwest and its moderate temperature ranges from 0 to 38 degrees Celsius. In summer, there are typhoons that bring rain and some damage to the city, wang Guoqing used the area as a base of operations for the Chen State before he was subdued by the Sui general Yang Su in the AD 590s. Quanzhou proper was established under the Tang in 718 on a spit of land between two branches of the Jin River, Muslim traders reached the city early on in its existence, along with their existing trade at Guangzhou and Yangzhou.
Already connected to inland Fujian by roads and canals, Quanzhou grew to importance in the first century of the Song. A1095 inscription records two convoys, each of twenty ships, arriving from the Southern Seas each year, Quanzhous maritime trade developed the areas ceramics, sugar and salt industries. 90% of Fujians ceramic production at the time was jade-colored celadon, frankincense was such a coveted import that promotions for the trade superintendents at Guangzhou and Quanzhou were tied to the amount they were able to bring in during their terms in office. During this period it was one of the worlds largest and most cosmopolitan seaports, by 1120, its prefecture claimed a population of around 500,000
Huli is one of the administrative districts of the city of Xiamen, Peoples Republic of China. Huli District occupies the half of Xiamen Island, with 3 sides facing the narrow ocean straits that separate Xiamen Island from Chinas mainland. Huli is the heart of Xiamen Special Economic Zone and it was founded as district in November 1987. Huli District administers Jiangtou, Jingshan and Dianqian and it covers land area of 61.41 square kilometres which is 46. 33% of the entire island. Huli District is the centre for commerce, education, tourism, Huli District’s GDP in 2002, was 3.561 billion yuan. The total economic value was 7.127 billion yuan, the Per capita net income of the residents was 8250 yuan. By 2002 year end, the population of Huli District was 127200. This made up of 44400 households, the total population of urban residents is 101900 which consist of 80. 11% of total population. By the start of 2006, local residents were up to 440,000 including 320,000 from other places and this equal to 72. 73% of entire population.
The northern coast of Huli District boast a deep water port, official website of Huli District Government Guide to Xiamen http, //english. xm. gov. cn/
Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative structure. Administrative chiefs of prefectural level cities generally have the rank as a division chief of a national ministry. Since the 1980s, most former prefectures have been renamed into prefectural level cities, a prefectural level city is a city and prefecture that have been merged into one unified jurisdiction. The larger prefectural level cities span over 100 kilometres, prefectural level cities nearly always contain multiple counties, county level cities, and other such sub-divisions. To distinguish a prefectural level city from its urban area. The first prefectural level cities were created on 5 November 1983, over the following two decades, prefectural level cities have come to replace the vast majority of Chinese prefectures, the process is still ongoing. Most provinces are composed entirely or nearly entirely of prefectural level cities and Zhengzhou are the largest prefectural level cities with populations approaching or exceeding some sub-provincial cities. A sub-prefecture-level city is a city with powers approaching those of prefectural level cities.
There are total of three classification of prefecture-level city, Regular prefectural level city which consist of counties, county level cities, consolidated district-governed prefectural level city which only consist of districts as it subdivisions. Thus, Indiana is indicated on the map by a point, which is distinct from, and enclosed by, in China, large cities such as City of Xianning may, in reality, contain both urban and rural elements. Moreover, they may enclose counties or other cities, on a less detailed map, City of Xianning would be indicated by a point, more or less corresponding to the coordinates of its city government. Other populous areas may be exhibited as points, such as County of Tongshan, with no indication that County of Tongshan is, in fact, enclosed by City of Xianning. On a more detailed map, City of Xianning would be drawn as an area, similar to a county of the United States and this convention may lead to difficulty in the identification of places mentioned in older sources.
For example, Guo Moruo writes that he was born in Town of Shawan, within Prefecture of Leshan, and attended primary school in Town of Jiading. A modern map is unlikely to show either town, because it is too small, and Jiading, because it is the seat of City of Leshan, and is therefore indicated on the map by a point labelled Leshan. A more detailed map would show Shawan as a district within City of Leshan, statistics of China such as population and industrial activity are generally reported along prefectural city lines. Thus, the relatively unknown City of Huangshi has 2.5 million residents, more than most European capitals, but upon closer inspection, Huangshi contains several other cities, such as City of Daye. If a person wished to calculate the population of the area of Huangshi, and had a map of Huangshi, and a table of its population by district
Communist Party of China
The Communist Party of China is the founding and ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. It was founded in 1921, chiefly by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao, the CPC is currently the worlds second largest political party with a membership of 88.76 million as of 2016. It controls the worlds largest armed force, the Peoples Liberation Army, the highest body of the CPC is the National Congress, convened every fifth year. The partys leader holds the offices of General Secretary, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, through these posts the party leader is the countrys paramount leader. The current party leader is Xi Jinping, elected at the 18th National Congress, the CPC is still committed to communist thought and continues to participate in the International Meeting of Communist and Workers Parties each year. The official explanation for Chinas economic reforms is that the country is in the stage of socialism. The planned economy established under Mao Zedong was replaced by the socialist market economy, the CPC has its origins in the May Fourth Movement of 1919, during which radical ideologies like Marxism and anarchism gained traction among Chinese intellectuals.
Other influences stemming from the Bolshevik revolution and Marxist theory inspired the Communist Party of China, Li Dazhao was the first leading Chinese intellectual who publicly supported Leninism and world revolution. In contrast to Chen Duxiu, Li did not renounce participation in the affairs of the Republic of China, both of them regarded the October Revolution in Russia as groundbreaking, believing it to herald a new era for oppressed countries everywhere. The CPC was modeled on Vladimir Lenins theory of a vanguard party, Study circles were, according to Cai Hesen, the rudiments. Several study circles were established during the New Culture Movement, the founding National Congress of the CPC was held on 23–31 July 1921. With only 50 members in the beginning of 1921, the CPC organization, while it was originally planned to be held in Shanghai French Concession, police officers interrupted the meeting on 3 July. Because of that, the congress was moved to a tourist boat on South Lake in Jiaxing, Zhejiang province, only 12 delegates attended the congress, with neither Li nor Chen being able to attend.
Chen sent a representative to attend the congress. The resolutions of the called for the establishment of a communist party. The communists dominated the left wing of the KMT, a party organized on Leninist lines, when KMT leader Sun Yat-sen died in March 1925, he was succeeded by a rightist, Chiang Kai-shek, who initiated moves to marginalize the position of the communists. Fresh from the success of the Northern Expedition to overthrow the warlords, Chiang Kai-shek turned on the communists, ignoring the orders of the Wuhan-based KMT government, he marched on Shanghai, a city controlled by communist militias. Although the communists welcomed Chiangs arrival, he turned on them, Chiangs army marched on Wuhan, but was prevented from taking the city by CPC General Ye Ting and his troops
Xiangan is one of the districts of Xiamen, Peoples Republic of China. It is located on the mainland, and is Xiamens easternmost district, the Xiamen Xiangan Tunnel is located in the discrict. The tunnel is about 9 km long, including 5.95 km kilometres of road under water and it starts from Wutong of Xiamen Island and terminates at Xibin, Xiangan District, Xiamen. It was completed in November 2009 and was at the time the first tunnel of its kind on the mainland, Xiangan district is the location of the new campus of Xiamen University. It is predicted to accommodate up to 30,000 students, the campus has an automobile-free policy, most journeys by students and faculty are made on bicycles