Kimberly Noel Kardashian West is an American media personality, businesswoman and model. Kardashian first gained media attention as a friend and stylist of Paris Hilton, but received wider notice after a 2003 sex tape with her former boyfriend Ray J was leaked in 2007; that year and her family began to appear in the E! Reality television series Keeping Up with the Kardashians, its success soon led to the creation of spin-offs including Kourtney and Kim Take New York and Kourtney and Khloé Take Miami. In recent years, Kardashian has grown an online and social media presence, including tens of millions of followers on Twitter and Instagram, she has released a variety of products tied to her name, including the 2014 mobile game Kim Kardashian: Hollywood, a variety of clothing and products, the 2015 photo book Selfish and her eponymous personal app. Her relationship with rapper Kanye West has received significant media coverage. Time magazine included Kardashian on their list of 2015's 100 most influential people, while Vogue described her in 2016 as a "pop culture phenomenon."
Critics and admirers have described her as exemplifying the notion of being famous for being famous. She was reported to be the highest-paid reality television personality of 2015, with her total earnings exceeding US$53 million. Kardashian was born on October 21, 1980, in Los Angeles, the daughter of Robert and Kris, she has an older sister, Kourtney, a younger sister, Khloé, a younger brother, Rob. Their mother is of Dutch, English and Scottish ancestry, while their father was a third-generation Armenian-American. After their parents divorced in 1991, her mother married again that year, to Bruce Jenner, the 1976 Summer Olympics decathlon winner. Through their marriage, Kardashian gained step-brothers Burton "Burt", Brody, she attended a Roman Catholic all-girls school in Los Angeles. In 1994, her father represented football player O. J. Simpson during his murder trial. Simpson is Kardashian's godfather. Kardashian's father died in 2003 of cancer. In her 20s, Kardashian was the close friend and stylist of socialite Paris Hilton, through whom she first garnered media attention.
In 2006, Kardashian entered the business world with her two sisters and opened the boutique shop D-A-S-H in Calabasas, California. In February 2007, a sex tape made by Kardashian and Ray J in 2003 was leaked. Kardashian filed a lawsuit against Vivid Entertainment, she dropped the suit and settled for a reported US$5 million. In October 2007 Kardashian, in addition to her mother Kris Jenner, her step-parent Caitlyn Jenner, her siblings Kourtney, Khloé, Rob Kardashian, half-sisters Kendall and Kylie Jenner, began to appear in the reality television series Keeping Up with the Kardashians; the series proved successful for E!, has led to the creations of spin-offs including Kourtney and Kim Take New York and Kourtney and Kim Take Miami. In one of the episodes, Kim discussed an offer from Playboy to appear nude in the magazine; that December, Kardashian posed in a nude pictorial for Playboy. In 2008, she made her feature film debut in the disaster film spoof Disaster Movie, in which she appeared as a character named Lisa.
That same year, she was a participant on season seven of Dancing with the Stars, where she was partnered with Mark Ballas. Kardashian was the third contestant to be eliminated. In January 2009, Kardashian made a cameo appearance during an episode of the sitcom How I Met Your Mother, in the episode "Benefits". In April, she released a workout DVD series through her television production company Kimsaprincess Productions, LLC which has seen the release of three successful workout videos, Fit in Your Jeans by Friday, with trainers Jennifer Galardi and Patrick Goudeau. Kardashian played Elle in four episodes of the television series Beyond the Break. Kardashian became a guest host of WrestleMania XXIV and guest judge on America's Next Top Model in August of that year. In September, Fusion Beauty and Seven Bar Foundation launched "Kiss Away Poverty", with Kardashian as the face of the campaign. For every LipFusion lipgloss sold, US$1 went to the Foundation to fund women entrepreneurs in the US; the following month, she released her first fragrance self-titled "Kim Kardashian".
In December 2009, Kardashian made a guest star appearance on CBS's CSI: NY with Vanessa Minnillo. In 2010, Kardashian ventured into several new endorsement deals, including endorsing various food products for Carl's Jr. In January 2010, she starred as Summa Eve in the film Deep in the Valley. In April, Kardashian sparked controversy over the way she held a kitten for a photograph, holding it by the scruff of its neck. With sisters Kourtney and Khloé, Kardashian is involved in the retail and fashion industries, they have launched several clothing fragrances. Animal rights organization PETA criticized Kardashian for wearing fur coats, named her as one of the five worst people or organizations of 2010 when it came to animal welfare. June saw Kardashian guest star with Khloé and Kourtney as themselves on the season three premiere episode of the series 90210. On July 1, 2010, the New York City branch of Madame Tussauds revealed a wax figure of Kardashian. In November, Kardashian served as producer for The Spin Crowd, a reality television show about Command PR, a New York City public relations firm, run by Jonathan Cheban and Simon Huck.
The show followed them. That month, she appeared on season ten of The Apprentice. Kim and Khloé wr
Birkbeck, University of London
Birkbeck, University of London, is a public research university located in Bloomsbury London, a constituent college of the federal University of London. Established in 1823 as the London Mechanics' Institute by its founder, Sir George Birkbeck, its supporters, Jeremy Bentham, J. C. Hobhouse and Henry Brougham, Birkbeck has been one of the few institutions to specialise in evening higher education. Birkbeck's main building is based in the Bloomsbury zone of Camden, in Central London, alongside a number of institutions in the same borough. In partnership with University of East London, Birkbeck has an additional large campus in Stratford, next to the Theatre Royal. Birkbeck offers over 200 undergraduate and postgraduate programmes that can be studied either part-time or full-time, though nearly all lectures are given in the evening. Birkbeck's academic activities are organised into five constituent faculties which are subdivided into nineteen departments, it offers many continuing education courses leading to certificates and diplomas, foundation degrees, short courses.
Research at Birkbeck in 11 subject areas is rated as ‘internationally excellent’ and ‘world leading’ while over 90 percent of Birkbeck academics are research-active. Birkbeck, being part of the University of London, shares the University's academic standards and awards University of London degrees. In common with the other University of London colleges, Birkbeck has secured its own independent degree awarding powers, which were confirmed by the Privy Council in July 2012; the quality of degrees awarded by Birkbeck was confirmed by the UK Quality Assurance Agency following institutional audits in 2005 and 2010. Birkbeck has been shortlisted by the Times Higher Education Awards as University of the Year. Birkbeck is a member of academic organisations such as the Association of Commonwealth Universities and the European University Association; the university's Centre for Brain Function and Development was awarded The Queen's Anniversary Prize for its brain research in 2005. Birkbeck has produced many notable alumni in the fields of science, politics, literature, media and drama.
Alumni include four Nobel laureates, numerous political leaders, members of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, a British prime minister among its former students and faculty. In 1823, Sir George Birkbeck, a physician and graduate of the University of Edinburgh and an early pioneer of adult education, founded the "London Mechanics' Institute" at a meeting at the Crown and Anchor Tavern on the Strand. More than two thousand people attended; however the idea was not universally popular and some accused Birkbeck of "scattering the seeds of evil."In 1825, two years the institute moved to the Southampton Buildings on Chancery Lane. In 1830, the first female students were admitted. In 1858, changes to the University of London's structure resulting in an opening up of access to the examinations for its degree; the Institute became the main provider of part-time university education. In 1866, the Institute changed its name to the Birkbeck Scientific Institution. In 1885, Birkbeck moved to the Breams Building, on Fetter Lane, where it would remain for the next sixty-seven years.
In 1904, Birkbeck Students' Union was established In 1907, Birkbeck's name was shortened to "Birkbeck College". In 1913, a review of the University of London recommended that Birkbeck become a constituent college, although the outbreak of the First World War delayed this until 1920; the Royal Charter was granted in 1926. In 1921, the college's first female professor, Dame Helen Gwynne-Vaughan, began teaching botany. Other distinguished faculty in the inter-war years included Nikolaus Pevsner, J. D. Bernal, Cyril Joad. During the Second World War, Birkbeck was the only central University of London college not to relocate out of the capital. In 1941, the library suffered a direct hit during The Blitz but teaching continued. During the war the College organised lunch time extramural lectures for the public given by, among others, Joad and Harold Nicolson. In 1952, the college moved to its present location in Malet Street. In 2002, the college was re-styled University of London. In 2003, following a major redevelopment, its Malet Street building was reopened by the Chancellor of the University of London, HRH The Princess Royal.
In 2006, Birkbeck announced that it had been granted £5 million by the Higher Education Funding Council for England to expand its provision into east London, working with the University of East London. The partnership is called Birkbeck Stratford. Birkbeck is one of the largest colleges of the University of London not to award its own degrees. Although it has held its own degree awarding powers since 2012, Birkbeck has chosen to hold these in reserve, preferring to award University of London degrees. In 1876, the London Society for the Extension of University Education was founded, boosting the aims of encouraging working people to undertake higher education. In 1988, the Department of Extra-Mural Studies of the University of London was incorporated into Birkbeck, becoming at first the Centre for Extramural Studies. In 1903, it became the Department of Extra-Mural Studies of the University of London and it was integrated into Birkbeck in 1988 as the School of Continuing Education. In 2009, the Faculty of Lifelong Learning was incorporated into the main College structure.
Birkbeck is principally located between Malet Street and Woburn Square in Bloomsbury, with a number of institutes, teaching hospitals, scientific laboratories on nearby streets. The Friends House is partially owned by Birkbeck Law School; the School of Arts, including the
Swinging with the Finkels
Swinging with the Finkels is a 2011 British comedy film directed by Jonathan Newman and starring Mandy Moore, Martin Freeman and Melissa George. The screenplay concerns a wealthy London couple who decide to take up "swinging" in an attempt to save their struggling marriage; the film was picked up by Freestyle Releasing and had a limited release date in the United States on 26 August 2011. Martin Freeman as Alvin Finkel Mandy Moore as Ellie Finkel Melissa George as Janet Jonathan Silverman as Peter Richard Shelton as Trevor Jerry Stiller as Mr. Winters Angus Deayton as Richard Edward Akrout as Andrew John Barrard as Old Man The 2011 film was based on Sex with the Finkels, an original short film from director Jonathan Newman; the film served as a vehicle for co-star Mandy Moore to extend her acting range beyond "good girl" roles. Critics focused on the film's crude, stale humour, one-dimensional characters, less-than-inspiring portrayal of marriage. On Rotten Tomatoes it has a 0% score based on 19 reviews.
Swinging with the Finkels on IMDb Swinging with the Finkels at Rotten Tomatoes
The Fine Art of Love
The Fine Art of Love is a 2005 erotic drama film directed by John Irvin. The film, starring Jacqueline Bisset, Hannah Taylor-Gordon and Mary Nighy, is based on Mine-Haha, or On the Bodily Education of Young Girls by the German playwright Frank Wedekind, it received its premiere at the 2005 Venice Film Festival. Thuringia, Germany, in the early 20th century. A group of young girls are brought up in a college amid gloomy dull lakes. Young Hidalla and her friends Irene, Blanka and Rain are brought up in an isolated world: the girls know nothing about life beyond the college's high walls, they play near a beautiful waterfall and are ordered not to make contact with the servants, who are categorized as inferior people and wear masks to cover their faces. The girls are instructed in music. Years Irene and Hidalla embark on a romantic relationship and are caught kissing in the school grounds by the servants. Vera begins to think that she is descended from royalty and attempts to unravel her origins, but finds that she was wrong.
The six girls attempt to escape from the school but are confronted by guard dogs that attack and kill Melusine. The girls are informed; the best performer will be released from the school. A messenger arrives, ostensibly to check the girls' strength. Blanka is chosen as prima ballerina, but Irene, feeling Hidalla rightfully deserves the position, reveals to the Headmistress that she is sexually involved with another student, which turns out to be true after she stumbles upon them. After this, Hidalla is chosen as the prima ballerina; when the ballet is held, the Prince becomes aroused by Hidalla's performance and tosses a rose at the stage. Intrigued, Hidalla continues with her performance, a terrified Irene commits suicide minutes before the final act. Shocked and enraged, Hidalla sets fire to the theater during the final act and is carried out by the Prince; the Headmistress is told that she is given the choice of a janitorial position and social ridicule and exile by peers at the school, or "the honorable decision".
Hidalla is taken to the Prince's palace. The next morning she escapes the palace, only to stumble upon the school, she screams as she realizes her fate and the fate of the other girls: to become concubines and/or sex slaves for wealthy men the Prince. The last shot is a horse carriage carrying young baby girls to the school, coming through the gate, with the doors slamming behind it. Innocence, a 2004 French film adaptation of Wedekind's novella The Fine Art of Love: Mine Ha-Ha on IMDb The Fine Art of Love at Rotten Tomatoes Review at Variety.com
Golders Green is an area in the London Borough of Barnet in England. A smaller suburban linear settlement, near a farm and public grazing area green of medieval origins, dates to the early 19th century, its bulk forms a late 19th-century and early 20th-century suburb with a commercial crossroads. The rest is of build, it is centred 5.5 miles north west of Charing Cross on the intersection of Golders Green Road and Finchley Road. It was founded as a medieval hamlet in the large parish of Middlesex; the parish was superseded by Hendon Urban District in 1894 and by the Municipal Borough of Hendon in 1932, abolished in 1965. In the early 20th century it grew in response to the opening of a tube station of the London Underground, adjacent to the Golders Green Hippodrome, home to the BBC Concert Orchestra for many years; the area has a busy main shopping street, Golders Green Road. It is known for its large Jewish population as well as for being home to the largest Jewish kosher hub in the United Kingdom, which attracts many Jewish tourists.
The name Golders comes from a family named Godyere who lived in the area, Green alludes to the manorial common at a cross roads next to which the settlement was built. Golders Green has been a place in the manor of Hendon since around the 13th century; the earliest references to the name of the adjacent district of "Temple Fortune" is on a map. However this name reveals a much earlier history, it is that the name refers to the Knights of St John, who had land here. Fortune may be derived from a small settlement on the route from Hampstead to Hendon. Here a lane from Finchley, called Ducksetters Lane, intersected, it is that the settlement was the Bleccanham estate. By the end of the 18th century Temple Fortune Farm was established on the northern side of Farm Close; the building of Finchley Road replaced Ducksetters Lane as a route to Finchley, resulted in the development of a small hamlet. Hendon Park Row is of this period, consisted of around thirty small dwellings built by a George Stevens, which were, with two exceptions, demolished around 1956.
A small dame school and prayer house run by Anglican deaconesses existed in the 1890s and 1900s, developed to become St. Barnabas. Along Finchley Road were a number of villas, joined by the Royal Oak public house. By the end of the 19th century there were around 300 people living in the area, which included a laundry and a small hospital for children with skin diseases; the principal industry was brick making. In 1895 a Jewish cemetery was established adjacent to Hoop Lane, with the first burial in 1897. Golders Green Crematorium was opened in 1902. A significant moment in Temple Fortune's development into a suburban area occurred in 1907, when transport links were vastly improved by the opening of Golders Green Underground station. Although the area had been served by horse-drawn omnibuses and motor buses, the tram line of 1910, connecting Finchley Church End with Golders Green Station, led to the development of the area west of Finchley Road; the establishment of Hampstead Garden Suburb brought major changes to the area east of Finchley Road.
Temple Fortune Farm was demolished and along the front of the road the building of the Arcade and Gateway House established the Hampstead Garden Suburb's retail district. Both the Golders Green Hippodrome, former home of the BBC Concert Orchestra, the police station opened in 1913; the now-demolished Orpheum Theatre was intended to rival the Hippodrome in Golders Green. For local elections Golders Green ward covers the west of the area. Councillors are elected from across 21 wards. Nationally it votes for the MP for seat of Finchley and Golders Green, which encompasses the parts of the NW11 and NW2 postcode districts it contains; the same boundaries are used for the Golders Green, Childs Hill and Garden Suburb wards of the Metropolitan Police Service. The area is adjacent to the Heath Extensions part of Hampstead Heath. Golders Green is being referred to as a Jewish area, the Christian, Hindu and no-stated-religion populations represent the majority of Golders Green residents. Ethnically, the Golders Green ward was 64% white.
Indians, Other Asians and Black Africans made up 5% each. 6% claimed'Any other ethnic group' There has been a prominent Jewish community in Golders Green since the 20th century. The Jewish community took root after Hitler's rise to power, with the first German Jewish immigrants forming the Golders Green Beth Hamedrash. Soon after, Galician Jewish immigrants formed other synagogues. With it came the formation of Jewish schools such as Menorah before the onset of World War II. By the 1950s, the Jewish population tripled. There are close to 50 Kosher restaurants and eateries under rabbinical supervision in Golders Green, more than 40 synagogues dotted throughout the area continuing into neighbouring Hendon, as well as 30 schools, many of them private; the Jewish community of Hendon and Golders Green is viewed as one, sharing the schooling system as well as rabbinical guidance. Golders Green is home to a growing Japanese and East Asian community with many families living in the district being catered for a notable number of restaurants and shops specialising in Japanese and other East Asian food, such as the Seoul Plaza sup
Covent Garden is a district in Greater London, on the eastern fringes of the West End, between Charing Cross Road and Drury Lane. It is associated with the former fruit-and-vegetable market in the central square, now a popular shopping and tourist site, with the Royal Opera House, known as "Covent Garden"; the district is divided by the main thoroughfare of Long Acre, north of, given over to independent shops centred on Neal's Yard and Seven Dials, while the south contains the central square with its street performers and most of the historical buildings and entertainment facilities, including the London Transport Museum and the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. The area was settled in the 7th century when it became the heart of the Anglo-Saxon trading town of Lundenwic, abandoned at the end of the 9th century. By 1200, part of it had been walled off by Westminster Abbey for use as arable land and orchards. Referred to as "the garden of the Abbey and Convent", "the Covent Garden", it was seized by Henry VIII and granted to the Earls of Bedford in 1552.
The 4th Earl commissioned Inigo Jones to build some fine houses to attract wealthy tenants. Jones designed the Italianate arcaded square along with the church of St Paul's; the design of the square was new to London and had a significant influence on modern town planning, acting as the prototype for new estates as London grew. By 1654 a small open-air fruit-and-vegetable market had developed on the south side of the fashionable square. Both the market and the surrounding area fell into disrepute, as taverns, coffee-houses and brothels opened up. By the 18th century it had become a well-known red-light district. An Act of Parliament was drawn up to control the area, Charles Fowler's neo-classical building was erected in 1830 to cover and help organise the market; the market grew and further buildings were added: the Floral Hall, Charter Market, in 1904 the Jubilee Market. By the end of the 1960s traffic congestion was causing problems, in 1974 the market relocated to the New Covent Garden Market about three miles south-west at Nine Elms.
The central building re-opened as a shopping centre in 1980 and is now a tourist location containing cafes, small shops, a craft market called the Apple Market, along with another market held in the Jubilee Hall. Covent Garden falls within the London boroughs of Westminster and Camden and the parliamentary constituencies of Cities of London and Westminster and Holborn and St Pancras; the area has been served by the Piccadilly line at Covent Garden Underground station since 1907. What would become the Strand on the southern boundary of the future Covent Garden was used during the Roman period as part of a route to Silchester, known as Iter VII on the Antonine Itinerary. Excavations in 2006 at St Martin-in-the-Fields revealed a late Roman grave, suggesting the locale had been a sacred site; the area to the north of the Strand was long thought to have remained as unsettled fields until the 16th century, but theories by Alan Vince and Martin Biddle that there had been an Anglo-Saxon settlement to the west of the old Roman town of Londinium were borne out by excavations in 1985 and 2005.
These revealed Covent Garden as the centre of a trading town called Lundenwic, developed around 600 AD, which stretched from Trafalgar Square to Aldwych. Alfred the Great shifted the settlement into the old Roman town of Londinium from around 886 AD onwards, leaving no mark of the old town, the site returned to fields. A document from 1200 AD mentions a walled garden owned by the Benedictine monks of the Abbey of St Peter, Westminster. A document, dated between 1250 and 1283, refers to "the garden of the Abbot and Convent of Westminster". By the 13th century this had become a 40-acre quadrangle of mixed orchard, meadow and arable land, lying between modern-day St Martin's Lane and Drury Lane, Floral Street and Maiden Lane; the use of the name "Covent"—an Anglo-French term for a religious community, equivalent to "monastery" or "convent"—appears in a document in 1515, when the Abbey, letting out parcels of land along the north side of the Strand for inns and market gardens, granted a lease of the walled garden, referring to it as "a garden called Covent Garden".
This is how it was recorded from on. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1540, Henry VIII took the land belonging to Westminster Abbey for himself, his son, Edward VI, granted it to the John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford, in 1552. The Russell family, who in 1694 were advanced in their peerage from Earl to Duke of Bedford, held the land until 1918. Russell built Bedford House and garden on part of the land, with an entrance on the Strand, the large garden stretching back along the south side of the old walled-off convent garden. In 1630, 4th Earl of Bedford, Francis Russell commissioned Inigo Jones to design and build a church and three terraces of fine houses around a large square or piazza; this had been prompted by Charles I taking offence at the condition of the road and houses along Long Acre, which were the responsibility of Russell and Henry Carey, 2nd Earl of Monmouth. Russell and Carey complained that under the 1625 Proclamation concerning Buildings, which restricted building in and around London, they could not build new houses.
For a fee of £2,000, the King granted Russell a licence to build as many new houses on his land as he "shall thinke fitt and convenient". The houses attracted the wealthy, though they moved out when a market developed on the south side of the square around 1654, coffee houses and prostitutes moved in; the Bedford Estate was expanded in 1669 to include Bloomsbury, when L