San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
Alamo Square, San Francisco
Alamo Square is a residential neighborhood and park in San Francisco, California, in the Western Addition. Its boundaries are not well-defined, but are considered to be Webster Street on the east, Golden Gate Avenue on the north, Divisadero Street on the west, Fell Street on the south. Alamo Square Park, the neighborhood's focal point and namesake, consists of four city blocks at the top of a hill overlooking much of downtown San Francisco, with a number of large and architecturally distinctive mansions along the perimeter, including the "Painted Ladies", a well-known postcard motif; the park is bordered by Hayes Street to the south, Steiner Street to the east, Fulton Street to the north, Scott Street to the west. Named after the lone cottonwood tree, Alamo Hill, was a watering hole on the horseback trail from Mission Dolores to the Presidio in the 1800s. In 1856, Mayor James Van Ness created a 12.7 acres park surrounding the watering hole, creating "Alamo Square". Alamo Square Park includes a playground and a tennis court, is frequented by neighbors and dog owners.
On a clear day, the Transamerica Pyramid building and the tops of the Golden Gate Bridge and Bay Bridge can be seen from the park's center. The San Francisco City Hall can be seen directly down Fulton Street; the area is part of the city's fifth Supervisorial district and is served by several Muni bus lines, including the 5, 21, 22, 24. In 2016 it was closed for a $4.3 million renovation lasting seven months. The Alamo Square neighborhood is characterized by Victorian architecture, left untouched by the urban renewal projects in other parts of the Western Addition; the Alamo Square area contains the second largest concentration of homes over 10,000 square feet in San Francisco, after the Pacific Heights neighborhood. A row of Victorian houses facing the park on Steiner Street, known as the "Painted Ladies", are shown in the foreground of panoramic pictures of the city's downtown area. A number of movies, television shows and commercials have been filmed around Alamo Square; the park features in the 1978 horror film The Invasion of the Body Snatchers, the 2012 romantic comedy The Five-Year Engagement.
The opening sequence of the American sitcom Full House features a romp in Alamo Square Park with the famous row of Victorians in the background. There are many architecturally significant mansions on the perimeter of the park, including the William Westerfeld House, the Archbishop's Mansion, the residences of the Russian and German Imperial consuls in the early 1900s, the mansions on the block diagonally across from the Painted Ladies. In 1984, the Alamo Square Historic District was created by the Board of Supervisors, stating: The Alamo Square Historic District is significant as a continuum of distinguished residential architecture by distinguished architects spanning the period from the 1870s to the 1920s; the towered Westerfield House, the renowned "Postcard Row" with its background of the downtown skyline, the neighboring streetscapes are as identified worldwide with San Francisco as the cable cars and Coit Tower. With a variety of architectural styles, the District is unified in its residential character small scale, construction type, intense ornamentation, use of basements and retaining walls to adjust for hillside sites...
With a high degree of integrity to its original designs, the District serves as a visual reminder of how businessmen lived two to four generations ago. The demographics of the neighborhood are characteristic of other urban neighborhoods that have undergone gentrification: many young people and upper-middle-class homeowners, in addition to a diverse older population. Divisadero Street, which divides Alamo Square from North Panhandle, is home to a number of small businesses including a growing collection of hip and popular restaurants and bars, catering to the young tech professionals who are contributing to the booming San Francisco startup economy, who value Alamo Square's weather, conveniently central location and easy access to transportation options. Efforts on the part of Alamo Square and North Panhandle residents and merchants have led to restrictions on chain stores on the corridor; the Harding Theater on Divisadero, closed for many years, is a local symbol of the power of a number of non-profit groups to stymie development, in spite of efforts to put forward a variety of proposals to use this valuable piece of property.
Neighborhood groups include the Alamo Square Neighborhood Association and the Haight-Divisadero Neighborhood Merchants Association. Author Alice Walker lived in one of the "Painted Lady" Victorians across from Alamo Square park up to the mid-1990s. Parks of San Francisco 49-Mile Scenic Drive Map of district 5 of the county, which Alamo Square is a part of Alamo Square Neighborhood Association Alamo Square, from San Francisco Parks Alliance
Yerba Buena Island
Yerba Buena Island sits in the San Francisco Bay between San Francisco and Oakland, California. The Yerba Buena Tunnel runs through its center and connects the western and eastern spans of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, it has had several other names over the decades: Sea Bird Island, Wood Island, Goat Island. The island is named after the town of Yerba Buena, named for the plant of the same name, abundant in the area; the plant's English and Spanish common name, Yerba buena, is an alternate form of the Spanish hierba buena used to describe local species of the mint family. The island is part of District 6 of the City and County of San Francisco. According to the United States Census Bureau, Yerba Buena Island and Treasure Island together have a land area of 2.334 km2 with a total population of 2,500 as of the 2010 census. Today the military reservation southeast of the Yerba Buena Tunnel belongs to the United States Coast Guard District Eleven; the US Coast Guard Sector San Francisco – Vessel Traffic Service tower is located on Signal Road Bldg.
278 atop the peak of the island. The US Coast Guard Sector San Francisco Headquarters is co-located with US Coast Guard Station San Francisco on Healy Avenue @ Fresnel Way at water-level on the southeast coast of the island; the Coast Guard Aids to Navigation San Francisco has a navigational buoy repair facility on Fresnel Way. The USCG Senior Officers' residences are in Quarters A, B, C, 8 and 9 off of Hillcrest Road on the hill atop the USCG base. During the summer of 2011, the Department of Homeland Security - United States Coast Guard opened the new SAFE Port Act Interagency Operations Center on the US Coast Guard Sector / Station San Francisco base; the IOC houses the VTS, WatchKeeper and the US Coast Guard Sector San Francisco Command Center together in one building. The first California legislature, on February 18, 1850, passed an act establishing the boundaries of San Francisco County and naming the island after the former name of the city of San Francisco, Yerba Buena, changed in 1847.
The island was Yerba Buena Island until 1895, when on a decision by the United States Board on Geographic Names, it was changed to Goat Island. During the gold rush, a large number of goats were pastured on the island, the name "Goat Island" came into popular use, it was changed back to Yerba Buena Island on June 3, 1931. The idea of a military post on Yerba Buena Island originated during the American Civil War, when it was feared a raiding Confederate warship could slip past Fort Point and Alcatraz Island during a foggy night. However, it was not until the 1870s that Army Post Camp Yerba Buena Island by Navy Road and North Gate Road was completed, including a fog signal and octagonal lighthouse called Yerba Buena Light that remain today at the end of Hillcrest Road. In 1891, the United States Army Engineers built a Torpedo Station / Shed / Storehouse / Assembly building at the end of Army Road by North Gate Road; the torpedoes were floating mines that could be placed in the bay via cable for defense against intruding enemy vessels.
The Torpedo Station was abandoned in the 1930s but still stands today listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Just before the turn of the 20th century, the first U. S. Naval Training Station on the Pacific Coast was established on the north east side of the island by 1st Street and North Gate Road. Quarters One known as the Admiral Nimitz House near the intersection of Whiting Way and Garden Way, was built about 1900 as the Naval Training Station commandant's residence and is among the eight surviving officers' residences in the historic district, its Classic Revival style, fashionable for private residences in the Bay Area at the time, was unusual for naval base housing. In 1963, Nimitz and his wife moved to the Nimitz House, where he died in 1966, his funeral was at the base chapel on Treasure Island and he was buried with full military honors at Golden Gate National Cemetery in San Bruno. The training station closed after World War I. Although the training station closed the Navy maintained presence with the stationary receiving ship USS Boston renamed USS Despatch, anchored in harbor through World War II.
During World War II, Yerba Buena Island fell under the jurisdiction of Treasure Island Naval Station, main headquarters of the 12th Naval District inside Building One. Built on the shoals of Yerba Buena Island, the 403-acre Treasure Island was a Works Progress Administration project in the 1930s. After hosting the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition, the United States Navy deemed Treasure Island an ideal location for transporting people and machines to the Pacific theater, on April 17, 1942, established Treasure Island Naval Station and as an Auxiliary Air Facility airfield which included a portion of Yerba Buena Island. Quarters One became the residence of the Commander in US Pacific Fleet. Several other buildings used by the Naval Station during World War II remain on the island, including the Senior Officers' Quarters in Quarters A, B, C, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. Buildings 83, 205 and 230 were support facilities to the senior officers' quarters. In 1996, the naval base and the Presidio of San Francisco were decommissioned, opened to public contr
Cathedral Hill, San Francisco
Cathedral Hill is a neighborhood and a hill, in the Western Addition district of San Francisco, California. The neighbourhood's northern border is Post Street, the eastern border is Van Ness Avenue, the southern border is Eddy Street and the western border is Laguna Street; the neighbourhood is centred on St. Mary's Cathedral on the corner of Gough Street, it is home to large condominium and apartment towers with numerous churches built atop the hill, including St. Mary's Cathedral, St. Mark's Lutheran Church, The First Unitarian Church of San Francisco, the Hamilton Baptist Church; the Sacred Heart Cathedral Prep school is in the neighbourhood. List of San Francisco, California Hills Neighborhoods of San Francisco Cathedral Hill Neighbors Association Cathedral Hill Neighbors Association on Yahoo Groups
Mission Bay, San Francisco
Mission Bay is a 303-acre neighborhood on the east side of San Francisco, California. It is bordered by China Basin to the north, Dogpatch to the south, San Francisco Bay to the east. An industrial district, it underwent development fueled by the construction of the UCSF Mission bay campus, is in the final stages of development and construction, it is the site of the under construction Chase Center. Mission Bay is bounded by Townsend Street on the north, Third Street and San Francisco Bay on the east, Mariposa Street on the south, 7th Street and Interstate 280 on the west. Before urbanization, Mission Bay was nestled inside of a +500 acre salt marsh and lagoon, was occupied by year-round tidal waters; this area was a natural habitat and refuge for large water fowl populations that included ducks, herons, egrets and gulls. The Native American tribes who resided in this area were the Costanoan people who spoke eight different languages which delineated between the various tribelets; the tribe most prevalent in the Bay area was the Patwin people who resided in the area for over 5,000 years.
Beginning in the mid-1800s, Mission Bay was used as a convenient place to deposit refuse from building projects. It was used to as a dumping ground for debris from the 1906 earthquake; as the marsh stabilized with the weight of the infill, the area became an industrial district. By 1850 the area was used for shipbuilding and repair and meat production, oyster and clam fishing. With the addition of the railroad, Mission Bay became the home to shipyards, canneries, a sugar refinery and various warehouses. In 1998 the area was announced by the Board of Supervisors as a redevelopment project. Much of the land was long a railyard of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, transferred to Catellus Development Corporation when it was spun off as part of the aborted merger of Southern Pacific and the Santa Fe Railway. Catellus subsequently sub-contracted several parcels to other developers, it has evolved into a wealthy neighborhood of luxury condominiums and biotechnology research and development. Mission Bay was the original headquarters of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine prior to the organization's move to Oakland.
It is the headquarters, at 550 Terry Francois Blvd, of the Old Navy brand of The Gap clothing retailer. It is the location of a new research campus of the University of California, San Francisco, UCSF Mission Bay Mission Bay was to be the location of a 14 acre, two-million-square-foot Salesforce.com U. S. headquarters. Salesforce sold the property it owned to the NBA's Golden State Warriors, who have announced plans to build an arena that will open by the 2019–20 NBA season; the northern terminus of the Third Street Light Rail Project of the San Francisco Municipal Railway. The northern terminus of Caltrain. An AT&T Fiber to the premises greenfield project; the first new branch of the San Francisco Public Library in over 40 years, The Mission Bay Branch Library, opened on July 8, 2006. It is located on the ground floor of a new multi-use facility, which includes an adult day health center, affordable senior housing, retail space and a large community meeting room; the new library is 7,500 square feet, is the 27th branch of the San Francisco Public Library.
455 Mission Bay Boulevard South planned to be the headquarters of Pfizer's Biotherapeutics and Bioinnovation Center, occupied by Nektar Therapeutics in November 2010 as their corporate headquarters. The other half of the building is occupied by Bayer's U. S. Innovation Center. Location of the San Francisco Public Safety Building at Third Street and Mission Rock, it includes Police Station and Mission Bay Fire Station. Funding for the building was passed with a 79.4 percent positive vote on Proposition B. The home of Rock Health, a seed accelerator for digital health startups. An estimated 56 biotech companies were clustered in Mission Bay in mid-2010; the San Francisco Bay Trail. The Blue Greenway waterfront trail. Sinking sidewalk on the 1200 block of 4th street Mission Bay is served by the N Judah and T Third Street lines of San Francisco's Muni Metro; the N Judah links the neighborhood to Downtown, BART, Hayes Valley and the Sunset District, the T Third Street links to downtown, BART, the Bayview and Visitacion Valley neighborhoods.
Several other Muni bus and trolley bus lines link the area to neighborhoods to the north and south. The Caltrain commuter rail system connects Mission Bay with San Gilroy; the proposed Central Subway project will make the link between Mission Bay, Oracle Park, Market Street-Union Square, Chinatown faster. Although near to and associated with Oracle Park, the ballpark is in the adjacent South Beach neighborhood. UCSF has built a new 289-bed hospital serving children and cancer patients which opened in February 2015. Construction of the hospital began in October 2010. Mission Bay has a large residential component with 6,404 apartments and/or condos planned; the Beacon is one of the largest condominium complexes in San Francisco and anchors much of the activity in North Mission Bay. With 595 condominium units, it sits on a full city block bounded by Townsend to the north, King to the south and 3rd and 4th Streets. A Safeway anchors the retail sections of the building; the building's name refers to its being the first large scale mixed-use project planned for the new neighborhood, thus "The Beacon" of the area's revival.
The California Institute for Regenerative Me
Bayview–Hunters Point, San Francisco
Bayview–Hunters Point are two major neighborhoods–the Bayview and Hunters Point–in the southeastern corner of San Francisco, United States. The decommissioned Hunters Point Naval Shipyard is located within its boundaries and Candlestick Park, demolished in 2015, was on the southern edge. Due to the South East location, the two neighborhoods are merged. Bayview-Hunter's Point has been labeled as San Francisco's "Most Isolated Neighborhood." Redevelopment projects for the neighborhood became the dominant issue of the 1990s and 2000s. Efforts include the Bayview Redevelopment Plan for Area B, which includes 1300 acres of existing residential and industrial lands; this plan identifies seven economic activity nodes within the area. The former Navy Shipyard waterfront property is the target of redevelopment to include residential and recreational areas; the Bayview–Hunters Point districts are located in the southeastern part of San Francisco, strung along the main artery of Third Street from India Basin to Candlestick Point.
The boundaries are Cesar Chavez Boulevard to the north, U. S. Highway 101 to the west, Bayview Hill to the south, the San Francisco Bay to the east. Neighborhoods within the district include Hunters Point, India Basin, Silver Terrace, Bret Harte, Islais Creek Estuary and South Basin; the entire southern half of the neighborhood is the Candlestick Point State Recreation Area as well as the Candlestick Park Stadium, demolished in 2015. Composed of tidal wetlands with some small hills, the area was inhabited by the Ramaytush and Muwekma Ohlone people prior to the arrival of Spanish missionaries in the 1700s; the Ohlone inhabited the land for ten thousand years. The district consisted of what the Ohlone people called "shell mounds", which were sacred burial grounds; the land was colonized in 1775 by Juan Bautista Aguirre, a ship pilot for Captain Juan Manuel de Ayala who named it La Punta Concha. Explorers renamed it Beacon Point. For the next several decades it was used as pasture for cattle run by the Franciscan friars at Mission Dolores.
In 1839, the area was part of the 4,446-acre Rancho Rincon de las Salinas y Potrero Viejo Mexican land grant given to José Cornelio Bernal. Following the California Gold Rush, Bernal sold what became the Bayview–Hunters Point area for real estate development in 1849. Little actual development occurred but Bernal's agents were three brothers, John and Robert Hunter, who built their homes and dairy farm on the land and who gave rise to the name Hunters Point; the Bayview–Hunters Point district was labelled "Southern San Francisco" on some maps, not to be confused with the city of South San Francisco further to the south. After a San Francisco ordinance in 1868 banned the slaughter and processing of animals within the city proper, a group of butchers established a "butchers reservation" on 81-acre of tidal marshland in the Bayview district. Within ten years, 18 slaughterhouses were located in the area along with their associated production facilities for tanning, fertilizer and tallow; the "reservation" and the surrounding houses and businesses became known as Butchertown.
The butcher industry declined following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake until 1971 when the final slaughterhouse closed. From 1929 until 2006 the Bayview–Hunters Point district were home for the coal and oil-fired power plants which provided electricity to San Francisco. Smokestack effluvium and byproducts dumped in the vicinity have been cited for health and environmental problems in the neighborhood. In 1994, the San Francisco Energy Company proposed building another power plant in the neighborhood, but community activists protested and pushed to have the current facility shut down. In 2008, Pacific Gas and Electric Company demolished the Hunters Point Power Plant and began a two-year remediation project to restore the land for residential development. Shipbuilding became integral to Bayview–Hunters Point in 1867 with the construction there of the first permanent drydock on the Pacific coast; the Hunters Point Dry Docks were expanded by Union Iron Works and Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation and were capable of housing the largest ships that could pass through the locks of the Panama Canal.
World War I increased the contracts there for building Naval vessels and, in 1940, the United States Navy purchased a section of property to develop the San Francisco Naval Shipyard. Beginning in the 1920s, a strong presence of Maltese American immigrants, along with Italian Americans, began populating the Bayview, focused on the local Catholic St. Paul of the Shipwreck Church and the Maltese American Social Club, they were a presence until the 1960s when they began moving into the suburbs. The shipbuilding industry saw a large influx of blue collar workers into the neighborhood, many of them African Americans taking part in the Great Migration; this migration into Bayview increased after World War II due to racial segregation and eviction of African Americans from homes elsewhere in the city. Between 1940 and 1950, the population of Bayview saw a fourfold increase to 51,000 residents; until 1969, the Hunters Point shipyard was the site of the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. The NRDL decontaminated ships exposed to atomic weapons testing and researched the effects of radiation on materials and living organisms.
This caused widespread radiological contamination and, in 1989, the base was declared a Superfund site requiring long-term clean-up. The Navy closed the shipyard and Naval
Sunset District, San Francisco
The Sunset District is a neighborhood located in the west-central area of San Francisco, United States. It is the largest neighborhood in the West Of Twin Peaks Neighborhoods in San Francisco; the Sunset District is the largest neighborhood within the city and county of San Francisco, with a population of over 85,000 it is the most populous. Golden Gate Park forms the neighborhood's northern border, the Pacific Ocean forms its western border; the Sunset District's southern and eastern borders are not as defined, but there is a general consensus that the neighborhood extends no farther south than Sigmund Stern Grove and Sloat Boulevard and no farther east than Stanyan Street and Laguna Honda Hospital. Prior to the residential and commercial development of the Sunset District, much of the area was covered by sand dunes and was referred to by 19th century San Franciscans as the "Outside Lands."The Sunset District and the neighboring Richmond District are collectively known as The Avenues, because the majority of both neighborhoods are spanned by numbered north-south avenues.
When the city was laid out, the avenues were numbered from 1st to 49th, the east-west streets were lettered A to X. In 1909, to reduce confusion for mail carriers, the east-west streets and 1st Avenue and 49th Avenue were renamed; the east-west streets were named in ascending alphabetical order in a southward direction after prominent 19th-century American politicians, military leaders, or explorers. 1st Avenue was renamed Arguello Boulevard, 49th Avenue was renamed La Playa Street. Today, the first numbered avenue is 2nd Avenue, starting one block west of Arguello Boulevard, the last is 48th Avenue near Ocean Beach; the avenue numbers increase incrementally, with one exception: what would be 13th Avenue is known as Funston Avenue, named after Frederick Funston, a U. S. Army general famous for his exploits during the Spanish–American War and Philippine–American War, for directing the U. S. Army response to the 1906 earthquake; the east-west streets in the Sunset appear in alphabetical order. These streets are: Lincoln Way, Irving, Kirkham, Moraga, Ortega, Quintara, Santiago, Ulloa, Wawona and Sloat Boulevard.
"X" was proposed to be Xavier, but was changed to Yorba due to a pronunciation controversy. The origin of the "Sunset" name is not clear. One claim indicates that Aurelius Buckingham, a developer who owned property in the area, coined the term in 1886. Another claim comes from the California Midwinter Exposition, held in Golden Gate Park in 1894 and known as "The Sunset City." Before construction of the Twin Peaks Tunnel in 1917, the Sunset was a vast, sparsely inhabited area of large sand dunes and coastal scrub land known as the "Outside Lands." Development was initiated in the 1870s and 1880s with construction of Golden Gate Park, but it did not reach a full scale until after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, when small lots of tract homes and row homes now characteristic of the neighborhood were built into the sand dunes. These tract homes would displace a smaller original settlement built into the dunes called Carville, so named for squatters that lived in abandoned horsecars and cable cars that were dumped in the sand dunes.
Development increased by the 1930s, as the Sunset was developed into a streetcar suburb. The post–World War II baby boom in the 1950s saw the last of the sand dunes leveled down and replaced with more single- and multifamily homes. In these developments, built by Henry Doelger, entire blocks consist of houses of the same general character, differentiated by variations in their stucco facades and mirrored floorplans, with most built upon 25-foot-wide lots with no free space between houses. Oliver Rousseau built more individualistic homes in the district; the Sunset's demographics were comprised of European Americans Irish and Italian. Beginning in the late 1960s the neighborhood saw a steady influx of Asian immigrants following the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 which lifted racial quotas allowing for more non-European nationals to immigrate to the United States. Additionally, the Handover of Hong Kong motivated many Chinese to immigrate to the U. S. due to the economic uncertainties.
Today the vast majority of the neighborhoods population is Asian with Chinese as the dominant ethnic group. There are still some small Irish enclaves however. For most of its history, the Sunset existed as a large individual area. In recent years, the neighborhood has been popularly divided into three parts with sometimes vague borders; the Inner Sunset is bordered by Lincoln Way to the north, 2nd Ave to the east, Quintara Street to the south, 19th Avenue to the west. This far-east section of the Sunset is located just west of Mount Sutro; the main commercial area is along Irving Street from 5th Avenue to 12th Avenue, dotted with a variety of restaurants and shops. The Inner Sunset is a unique part of San Francisco that hosts a variety of local businesses, including restaurants, breweries, book stores, coffee shops, ice cream parlors and shoe stores, a tattoo parlor, a wine bar. All these establishments are clustered around the intersection of Irving Street. There is a grea