Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
A cable-stayed bridge has one or more towers, from which cables support the bridge deck. A distinctive feature are the cables or stays, which run directly from the tower to the deck forming a fan-like pattern or a series of parallel lines; this is in contrast to the modern suspension bridge, where the cables supporting the deck are suspended vertically from the main cable, anchored at both ends of the bridge and running between the towers. The cable-stayed bridge is optimal for spans longer than cantilever bridges and shorter than suspension bridges; this is the range within which cantilever bridges would grow heavier, suspension bridge cabling would be more costly. Cable-stayed bridges have been known since the 16th century and used since the 19th. Early examples combined features from both the cable-stayed and suspension designs, including the Brooklyn Bridge; the design fell from favor through the 20th century as larger gaps were bridged using pure suspension designs, shorter ones using various systems built of reinforced concrete.
It once again rose to prominence in the 20th century when the combination of new materials, larger construction machinery, the need to replace older bridges all lowered the relative price of these designs. Cable-stayed bridges date back to 1595, where designs were found in Machinae Novae, a book by Venetian inventor Fausto Veranzio. Many early suspension bridges were cable-stayed construction, including the 1817 footbridge Dryburgh Abbey Bridge, James Dredge's patented Victoria Bridge and the Albert Bridge and Brooklyn Bridge, their designers found. John A. Roebling took particular advantage of this to limit deformations due to railway loads in the Niagara Falls Suspension Bridge; the earliest known surviving example of a true cable-stayed bridge in the United States is E. E. Runyon's intact steel or iron Bluff Dale Suspension bridge with wooden stringers and decking in Bluff Dale, Texas, or his weeks earlier but ruined Barton Creek Bridge between Huckabay and Gordon, Texas. In the twentieth century, early examples of cable-stayed bridges included A. Gisclard's unusual Cassagnes bridge, in which the horizontal part of the cable forces is balanced by a separate horizontal tie cable, preventing significant compression in the deck, G. Leinekugel le Coq's bridge at Lézardrieux in Brittany.
Eduardo Torroja designed a cable-stayed aqueduct at Tempul in 1926. Albert Caquot's 1952 concrete-decked cable-stayed bridge over the Donzère-Mondragon canal at Pierrelatte is one of the first of the modern type, but had little influence on development; the steel-decked Strömsund Bridge designed by Franz Dischinger is, more cited as the first modern cable-stayed bridge. Other key pioneers included Fabrizio de Miranda, Riccardo Morandi, Fritz Leonhardt. Early bridges from this period used few stay cables, as in the Theodor Heuss Bridge. However, this involves substantial erection costs, more modern structures tend to use many more cables to ensure greater economy. Cable-stayed bridges may appear to be similar to suspension bridges, but in fact, they are quite different in principle and in their construction. In suspension bridges, large main cables hang between the towers and are anchored at each end to the ground; this can be difficult to implement. The main cables, which are free to move on bearings in the towers, bear the load of the bridge deck.
Before the deck is installed, the cables are under tension from their own weight. Along the main cables smaller cables or rods connect to the bridge deck, lifted in sections; as this is done, the tension in the cables increases, as it does with the live load of traffic crossing the bridge. The tension on the main cables is transferred to the ground at the anchorages and by downwards compression on the towers. Difference between types of bridges In the cable-stayed bridge, the towers are the primary load-bearing structures that transmit the bridge loads to the ground. A cantilever approach is used to support the bridge deck near the towers, but lengths further from them are supported by cables running directly to the towers; this has the disadvantage, compared to the suspension bridge, that the cables pull to the sides as opposed to directly up, requiring the bridge deck to be stronger to resist the resulting horizontal compression loads. By design all static horizontal forces of the cable-stayed bridge are balanced so that the supporting towers do not tend to tilt or slide, needing only to resist horizontal forces from the live loads.
Key advantages of the cable-stayed form are as follows: much greater stiffness than the suspension bridge, so that deformations of the deck under live loads are reduced can be constructed by cantilevering out from the tower – the cables act both as temporary and permanent supports to the bridge deck for a symmetrical bridge, the horizontal forces balance and large ground anchorages are not required There are four major classes of rigging on cable-stayed bridges: mono, harp and star. The mono design uses a single cable from its towers and is one of the lesser-used examples of the class. In the harp or parallel design, the cables are nearly parallel so that the height of their attachment to the tower is proportional to the distance from the tower to their mounting on the deck. In the fan design, the cables all pass over the top of the towers; the fan design is structurally superior wit
Aomori West Bypass
The Aomori West Bypass is a major highway located in the city of Aomori in northern Japan. The highway main function is to link the western part of the city to its center. Signed as National Route 7, it connects the main section of National Route 7 to the northern terminus of National Route 4, meeting at Hakko Dori in front of the prefecture office of Aomori; the route carries National Route 101 to its northern terminus at National Route 4 as well. From its western terminus at the mainline of National Route 7, the bypass makes its way east to the middle of Aomori, it first meets with a bypass of National Route 280 it crosses under the tracks of the Hokkaido Shinkansen near Shin-Aomori Station. It is carried by the Aomori Viaduct over the Tsugaru Line; the bypass meets the southern terminus of National Route 280 at the east end of the viaduct. It crosses over the Ōu Main Line and Aoimori Railway Line near Aomori Station meeting its end shortly after at the northern terminus of National Route 4.
National Route 4 continues along the same roadway south towards Tokyo
The yen is the official currency of Japan. It is the third most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar and the euro, it is widely used as a reserve currency after the U. S. dollar, the euro, the pound sterling. The concept of the yen was a component of the Meiji government's modernization program of Japan's economy. Before the Meiji Restoration, Japan's feudal fiefs all issued their own money, hansatsu, in an array of incompatible denominations; the New Currency Act of 1871 did away with these and established the yen, defined as 1.5 g of gold, or 24.26 g of silver, as the new decimal currency. The former han became prefectures and their mints private chartered banks, which retained the right to print money. To bring an end to this situation the Bank of Japan was founded in 1882 and given a monopoly on controlling the money supply. Following World War II the yen lost much of its prewar value. To stabilize the Japanese economy the exchange rate of the yen was fixed at ¥360 per $1 as part of the Bretton Woods system.
When that system was abandoned in 1971, the yen was allowed to float. The yen had appreciated to a peak of ¥271 per $1 in 1973 underwent periods of depreciation and appreciation due to the 1973 oil crisis, arriving at a value of ¥227 per $1 by 1980. Since 1973, the Japanese government has maintained a policy of currency intervention, the yen is therefore under a "dirty float" regime; this intervention continues to this day. The Japanese government focuses on a competitive export market, tries to ensure a low yen value through a trade surplus; the Plaza Accord of 1985 temporarily changed this situation from its average of ¥239 per US$1 in 1985 to ¥128 in 1988 and led to a peak value of ¥80 against the U. S. dollar in 1995 increasing the value of Japan’s GDP to that of the United States. Since that time, the yen has decreased in value; the Bank of Japan maintains a policy of zero to near-zero interest rates and the Japanese government has had a strict anti-inflation policy. Yen derives from the Japanese word 圓, which borrows its phonetic reading from Chinese yuan, similar to North Korean won and South Korean won.
The Chinese had traded silver in mass called sycees and when Spanish and Mexican silver coins arrived, the Chinese called them "silver rounds" for their circular shapes. The coins and the name appeared in Japan. While the Chinese replaced 圓 with 元, the Japanese continued to use the same word, given the shinjitai form 円 in reforms at the end of World War II; the spelling and pronunciation "yen" is standard in English. This is because when Japan was first encountered by Europeans around the 16th century, Japanese /e/ and /we/ both had been pronounced and Portuguese missionaries had spelled them "ye"; some time thereafter, by the middle of the 18th century, /e/ and /we/ came to be pronounced as in modern Japanese, although some regions retain the pronunciation. Walter Henry Medhurst, who had neither been to Japan nor met any Japanese, having consulted a Japanese-Dutch dictionary, spelled some "e"s as "ye" in his An English and Japanese, Japanese and English Vocabulary. In the early Meiji era, James Curtis Hepburn, following Medhurst, spelled all "e"s as "ye" in his A Japanese and English dictionary.
That was the first full-scale Japanese-English/English-Japanese dictionary, which had a strong influence on Westerners in Japan and prompted the spelling "yen". Hepburn revised most "ye"s to "e" in the 3rd edition in order to mirror the contemporary pronunciation, except "yen"; this was already fixed and has remained so since. In the 19th century, silver Spanish dollar coins were common throughout Southeast Asia, the China coast, Japan; these coins had been introduced through Manila over a period of two hundred and fifty years, arriving on ships from Acapulco in Mexico. These ships were known as the Manila galleons; until the 19th century, these silver dollar coins were actual Spanish dollars minted in the new world at Mexico City. But from the 1840s, they were replaced by silver dollars of the new Latin American republics. In the half of the 19th century, some local coins in the region were made in the resemblance of the Mexican peso; the first of these local silver coins was the Hong Kong silver dollar coin, minted in Hong Kong between the years 1866 and 1869.
The Chinese were slow to accept unfamiliar coinage and preferred the familiar Mexican dollars, so the Hong Kong government ceased minting these coins and sold the mint machinery to Japan. The Japanese decided to adopt a silver dollar coinage under the name of'yen', meaning'a round object'; the yen was adopted by the Meiji government in an Act signed on June 27, 1871. The new currency was introduced beginning from July of that year; the yen was therefore a dollar unit, like all dollars, descended from the Spanish Pieces of eight, up until the year 1873, all the dollars in the world had more or less the same value. The yen replaced a complex monetary system of the Edo period based on the mon.. The New Currency Act of 1871, stipulated the adoption of the decimal accounting system of yen and rin, with the coins being round and manufactured using Western machinery; the yen
De-icing is the process of removing snow, ice or frost from a surface. Anti-icing is understood to be the application of chemicals that not only de-ice but remain on a surface and continue to delay the reformation of ice for a certain period of time, or prevent adhesion of ice to make mechanical removal easier. De-icing can be accomplished by mechanical methods. Trains and rail switches in arctic regions have large problems with ice build up, they need a constant heat source in cold days to assure functionality. On trains it is the brakes and couplers that require heaters for de-icing. On rails it is the switches that are sensitive to ice; these high-powered electrical heaters efficiently prevent ice formation and melt any ice that forms. The heaters are preferably made of PTC material, e.g. PTC rubber, to avoid overheating and destroying the heaters; these heaters require no regulating electronics. On the ground, when there are freezing conditions and precipitation, de-icing an aircraft is crucial.
Frozen contaminants cause critical control surfaces to be rough and uneven, disrupting smooth air flow and degrading the ability of the wing to generate lift, increasing drag. This situation can cause a crash. If large pieces of ice separate when the aircraft is in motion, they can be ingested in engines or hit propellers and cause catastrophic failure. Frozen contaminants can jam control surfaces; because of this severe consequence, de-icing is performed at airports where temperatures are to be around 0 °C. In flight, droplets of supercooled water exist in stratiform and cumulus clouds, they form into ice. This disrupts airflow over the wing, reducing lift, so aircraft that are expected to fly in such conditions are equipped with a de-icing system. De-icing techniques are employed to ensure that engine inlets and various sensors on the outside of the aircraft are clear of ice or snow. De-icing fluids consisting of propylene glycol and additives are used by airlines for de-icing aircraft. Ethylene glycol fluids are still in use for aircraft de-icing in some parts of the world because it has a lower operational use temperature than PG.
However, PG is more common. When applied, most of the de-icing fluid does not adhere to the aircraft surfaces, falls to the ground. Airports use containment systems to capture the used liquid, so that it cannot seep into the ground and water courses. Though PG is classified as non-toxic, it pollutes waterways since it consumes large amounts of oxygen as it decomposes, causing aquatic life to suffocate. Anti-icing of aircraft is accomplished by applying a protective layer, using a viscous fluid called anti-ice fluid, over a surface to absorb the contaminant. All anti-ice fluids offer only limited protection, dependent upon frozen contaminant type and prevailing weather conditions. A fluid has failed when it no longer can absorb the contaminant and it becomes a contaminant itself. Water can be a contaminant in this sense, as it dilutes the anti-icing agent until it is no longer effective. Direct infrared heating has been developed as an aircraft de-icing technique; this heat transfer mechanism is faster than conventional heat transfer modes used by conventional de-icing due to the cooling effect of the air on the de-icing fluid spray.
One infrared de-icing system requires that the heating process take place inside a specially-constructed hangar. This system has had limited interest among airport operators, due to the space and related logistical requirements for the hangar. In the United States, this type of infrared de-icing system has been used, on a limited basis, at two large hub airports and one small commercial airport. Another infrared system uses mobile, truck-mounted heating units that do not require the use of hangars; the manufacturer claims that the system can be used for both fixed wing aircraft and helicopters, although it has not cited any instances of its use on commercial aircraft. De-icing operations for airport pavement may involve several types of liquid and solid chemical products, including propylene glycol, ethylene glycol and other organic compounds. Chloride-based compounds are not used at airports, due to their corrosive effect on aircraft and other equipment. Urea mixtures have been used for pavement de-icing, due to their low cost.
However, urea is a significant pollutant in waterways and wildlife, as it degrades to ammonia after application, it has been been phased out at U. S. airports. In 2012 the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency prohibited use of urea-based deicers at most commercial airports. De-icing of roads has traditionally been done with salt, spread by snowplows or dump trucks designed to spread it mixed with sand and gravel, on slick roads. Sodium chloride is used, as it is inexpensive and available in large quantities. However, since salt water still freezes at −18 °C, it is of no help when the temperature falls below this point, it has a strong tendency to cause corrosion, rusting the steel used in most vehicles and the rebar in concrete bridges. Depending on the concen
Hachinohe is a city located in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. As of 28 February 2017, the city had an estimated population of 229,527, a population density of 756 persons per km2 in 107,598 households; this makes it the second biggest city of Aomori prefecture. The total area is 305.54 square kilometres. The area around Hachinohe has been occupied since prehistoric times, was a major population center for the Emishi people. Numerous Jōmon period remains have been discovered within the borders of Hachinohe; the area was nominally under control of the Northern Fujiwara in the Heian period, became part of the holdings granted to the Nanbu clan after the defeat of the North Fujiwara by Minamoto no Yoritomo in the Kamakura period. The Nanbu established numerous horse ranches, accompanied by numbered fortified settlements. During the Edo period, it was part of Morioka Domain, but in 1664 the Tokugawa shogunate authorized the creation of a separate 20,000 koku Hachinohe Domain for a junior line of the Nanbu clan.
The town prospered as a castle town centered on Hachinohe Castle, served as a small commercial centre and port for the fishing grounds off southeastern Hokkaido. Today, the port still serves a number of international cargo vessels. After the Meiji Restoration, Hachinohe Domain was abolished, replaced by Hachinohe Prefecture, subsequently merged into Aomori Prefecture. There was a debate as to whether the capital of newly formed Aomori Prefecture should be at Hachinohe or Hirosaki. Per the establishment of the Meiji period municipalities system on April 1, 1889, the town of Hachinohe was created within Sannohe District. In 1901, it merged with neighboring Chōja, on May 1, 1929, with neighboring Konakano and Same villages to form the city of Hachinohe; the city further expanded by annexing the village of Shimonaganawashiro in 1942, Korekawa in 1954, Kaminaganawashiro and Toyosaki in 1955 and Odate in 1958. On March 31, 2005, the village of Nangō was merged into Hachinohe. During the American occupation of Japan following World War II, a United States Army base, Camp Haugen, was located in Hachinohe, was the home of the Seventh Division.
An Armed Forces Radio Service radio station was located on the base. In 1950, after the North Korean invasion of South Korea, troops from Camp Haugen left for Korea. AFRS Hachinohe altered its broadcasts to include coverage of South Korea so Americans could benefit from its news and entertainment programs. With the final withdrawal of American forces from Hachinohe in 1956, the base was turned over to the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force and was re-designated JGSDF Camp Hachinohe. In March 2011, the city was one of those hit by the 2011 Japanese tsunami; the tsunami tossed many huge fishing boats ashore and damaged the port area. About 100 homes were destroyed. Divers from the United States Navy ship Safeguard joined with Japanese workers to help clear the port to facilitate the delivery of relief supplies via the city. On January 1, 2017, Hachinohe was given core city status. Hachinohe is located in the flatlands on the southeast coast of Aomori Prefecture, facing the Pacific Ocean. Both the Oirase River and the Mabechi River flow through Hachinohe.
A portion of the coastal areas of the city were within the borders of the Tanesashi Kaigan Hashikamidake Prefectural Natural Park, incorporated into the Sanriku Fukkō National Park in 2013. Hachinohe has a humid continental climate, with cold and snowy winters. Summers are milder than in other parts of Honshu because the city is close to the open sea, while winters if distinctly cold are much less snowy than in Aomori city or Sapporo or Wakkanai, although snowfall is higher than in Kushiro; the average annual temperature in Hachinohe is 9.9 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1165 mm with September as the wettest month; the temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 22.7 °C, lowest in January, at around -1.9 °C. Aomori Prefecture Sannohe District Hashikami Gonohe Nanbu Kamikita District OiraseIwate Prefecture Karumai Per Japanese census data: Hachinohe has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city legislature of 32 members. Hachinohe is the largest city in eastern Aomori Prefecture, serves as the regional industrial and commercial center.
Commercial fishing still plays a major role in the local economy, with Hachinohe port having one of the largest volumes of landed fish in Japan. However, since its designation as a new industrial city in 1964, Hachinohe has developed a large coastal industrial belt with a diverse range of chemical, steel and fertilizer products. Major industrial parks include the Hachinohe High Tech Park and Hachinohe North-Interchange Industrial Complex. Hachinohe Port is a major international port for northern Japan. Hachinohe Gakuin University Hachinohe Institute of Technology Hachinohe Gakuin Junior College Hachinohe has 43 public elementary schools and 24 public junior high schools operated by the city government, one private middle school; the city has eight public high schools operated by the Aomori Prefectural Board of Education, one public high school operated by the national government. There are eight private high schools; the city has three special education schools. East Japan Railway Company - Tōhoku Shinkansen Hachinohe East Japan Railway Company - Hachinohe Line Hachinohe - Naganawashiro -
Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Memorial Bridge
The Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Memorial Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge across the Charles River in Boston, Massachusetts, it is a replacement for an older truss bridge constructed in the 1950s. Of ten lanes, using the harp-style system of nearly-parallel cable layout, coupled with the use of "cradles" through each pylon for the cables, the main portion of the Zakim Bridge carries four lanes each way of the Interstate 93 and U. S. Route 1 concurrency between the Thomas P. "Tip" O'Neill Jr. Tunnel and the elevated highway to the north. Two additional lanes are cantilevered outside the cables, which carry northbound traffic from the Sumner Tunnel and North End on-ramp; these lanes merge with the main highway north of the bridge. I-93 heads toward New Hampshire as the "Northern Expressway", US 1 splits from the Interstate and travels northeast toward Massachusetts' North Shore communities, crossing the Mystic River via the Tobin Bridge; the bridge and connecting tunnel were built as part of the Big Dig, the largest highway construction project in the United States.
The northbound lanes were finished in March 2003, the southbound lanes in December. The bridge's unique styling became an icon for Boston featured in the backdrop of national news channels, to establish location, included on tourist souvenirs; the bridge is referred to as the "Zakim Bridge" or "Bunker Hill Bridge" by residents of nearby Charlestown. The Leverett Circle Connector Bridge was constructed in conjunction with the Zakim Bridge, allowing some traffic to bypass it. In a cable-stayed bridge, instead of hanging the roadbed from cables slung between towers, the cables run directly between the roadbed and the towers. Although cable-stayed bridges have been common in Europe since World War II, they are new to North America; the bridge concept was developed by Swiss civil engineer Christian Menn and its design was engineered by American civil engineer Ruchu Hsu with Parsons Brinckerhoff. Wallace Floyd Associates, sub-consultants to Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff, was the lead architect/urban designer and facilitated community participation during the design process.
The engineer of record is HNTB/FIGG. The lead designers were Sajal Banerjee and W. Denney Pate; the bridge follows a new design in which, besides having its eight primary lanes running through the towers, a pair of northbound lanes are cantilevered outside of the cable-stays. It has a striking, graceful appearance, meant to echo the tower of the Bunker Hill Monument, within view of the bridge, the white cables evoke imagery of the rigging of the USS Constitution, docked nearby; the 1975-built MBTA Orange Line's Haymarket North Extension tunnel lies beneath the bridge. The bridge's full name commemorates Boston civic leader and civil rights activist Leonard P. Zakim who championed "building bridges between peoples", the Battle of Bunker Hill. Massachusetts Governor A. Paul Cellucci sought to name it the "Freedom Bridge". In 2000, local clergy and religious leaders, including Cardinal Bernard Francis Law, requested the Zakim name shortly after Zakim's death from myeloma. Although Cellucci agreed to the naming, community leaders from Charlestown objected to the name as they felt that since the design reflected the nearby Bunker Hill memorial, it should be named the "Bunker Hill Freedom bridge".
Allegations of antisemitism were leveled against members of the white, Irish Catholic community as reasons for resistance to the Zakim name, based on some comments quoted in the Boston Globe. Several local neo-Nazis complained about the honor for Zakim and launched an unsuccessful petition drive to drop his name from the Bunker Hill one. In response, several community leaders spoke out against the allegations in a press conference, stating that the claims, made by Professor Jonathan Sarna, were his alone and did not reflect the community's historical basis of favoring the "Bunker Hill" name, though they dodged questions about the false claim that no Jews had fought in the battle of Bunker Hill. A compromise between the Boston City Council, the Massachusetts State Legislature and community activists brought about the current name; as with the Hoover Dam, different communities call the bridge by different colloquial names. Many people in the Charlestown area refer to it as the "Bunker Hill Bridge", while most, including the local press and traffic monitoring services, refer to it as the "Zakim Bridge".
Placement of footings for the Zakim Bridge required environmental permits to relocate areas of open water surface, changing the contour of the Charles River shoreline. The process of landscape design and environmental mitigation under the bridge deck and around the bridge supports allowed for the creation of a new and accessible public landscape designed by Carol R. Johnson Associates; this under bridge landscape contains a series of perforated stainless steel lighting-based public artworks, Five Beacons for the Lost Half Mile. Pedestrians and cyclists are able to travel from Charlestown toward Cambridge over the adjacent North Bank Pedestrian Bridge to North Point Park; this bridge is a link in the Charles River Bike Path. The bridge was dedicated on October 2002, in a ceremony held on the new span; the dedication speakers included members of Zakim's family, government officials, a performance of the song "Thunder Road" by Bruce Springsteen. Introducing the song, Springsteen said about Zakim, "...
I knew him a little bit during the last year of his life, he was one of those people whose, inner spi