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Aon Center (Chicago)

The Aon Center is a modern supertall skyscraper just east of the Chicago Loop, Illinois, United States, designed by architect firms Edward Durell Stone and The Perkins and Will partnership, completed in 1974 as the Standard Oil Building. With 83 floors and a height of 1,136 feet, it is the fourth-tallest building in Chicago, surpassed in height by Willis Tower, Trump International Hotel and Tower, Vista Tower; the building is managed by Jones Lang LaSalle, headquartered in the building. Aon Center housed the world headquarters of Aon and Amoco. Aon still maintains headquarters of its US operations there; the building is the co-headquarters of Kraft Heinz. The Standard Oil Building was constructed as the headquarters of the Standard Oil Company of Indiana, housed at South Michigan Avenue and East 9th Street; when it was completed in 1973, it was the tallest building in Chicago and the fourth-tallest in the world, earning it the nickname "Big Stan". The building employs a tubular steel-framed structural system with V-shaped perimeter columns to resist earthquakes, reduce sway, minimize column bending, maximize column-free space.

This construction method was used for the former World Trade Center towers in New York City. When completed, it was the world's tallest marble-clad building, sheathed with 43,000 slabs of Italian Carrara marble; the marble used was thinner than attempted in cladding a building, which soon proved to be a mistake. On December 25, 1973, during construction a 350-pound marble slab detached from the façade and penetrated the roof of the nearby Prudential Center. In 1985, inspection found numerous cracks and bowing in the marble cladding of the building. To alleviate the problem, stainless steel straps were added to hold the marble in place. From 1990 to 1992, the entire building was refaced with Mount Airy white granite at an estimated cost of over $80 million. Amoco was reluctant to divulge the actual amount, but it was well over half the original price of the building, without adjustment for inflation. Two-thirds of the discarded marble was crushed and used as landscaping decoration at Amoco's refinery in Whiting, one-sixth was donated to Governors State University, in University Park, one-sixth donated to Regalo, a division of Lashcon Inc.

Under a grant from the Illinois Department of Rehabilitative Services, Regalo's 25 handicapped workers carved the discarded marble into a variety of specialty items such as corporate gifts and mementos including desk clocks and pen holders. The building's facade somewhat resembles the former World Trade Center due to the upward flow of the columns; the Standard Oil Building was renamed the Amoco Building when the company changed names in 1985. In 1998, Amoco sold the building to The Blackstone Group for an undisclosed amount, estimated to be between $430 and $440 million, it was renamed as the Aon Center on December 30, 1999, although the Aon Corporation would not become the building's primary tenant until September 2001. In May 2003, Wells Real Estate Investment Trust, Inc. acquired the building for between $465 and $475 million. On August 10, 2007, Wells Real Estate Investment Trust, Inc. changed its name to Piedmont Office Realty Trust, Inc.) Real estate investors Mark Karasick and Victor Gerstein acquired the building from Piedmont in 2015 for $713 million.

On May 14, 2018 the owners unveiled $185 million proposal for an observatory featuring a thrill ride on the roof called the Sky Summit, the world’s tallest exterior elevator, new entrance pavilion. In recent years, the top floors of the building have been lit at night with colors to reflect a particular season or holiday. Orange is used for Thanksgiving, green or red for Christmas, pink during National Breast Cancer Awareness Month; the lighting matches the nighttime lighting on the antenna of Willis Tower, the John Hancock Center and the upper floors of the Merchandise Mart. In the plaza, there is a sounding sculpture by Harry Bertoia. Aon Center First Canadian Place – a similar building from the same architect List of buildings List of skyscrapers List of tallest buildings and structures in the world List of tallest buildings in Chicago List of tallest buildings in the United States List of tallest freestanding structures in the world Aon Center on CTBUH Skyscraper Center List of tenants at the Aon Center - Companies located at 200 East Randolph Street, Chicago IL

Prostitution in Rwanda

Prostitution in Rwanda is illegal in all aspects. Prostitutes and any involved third parties are criminalised by the country's Penal Code. However, a draft of a new Penal Code that does not prohibit prostitution was presented for debate in the Rwandan Parliament in December 2017. Due to the immense poverty in the country, many women have been forced into prostitution to make a living. In 2012 it was estimated, it is thought. Although prostitution is illegal it is widespread in the capital and other urban centres. Many prostitutes work from bars. Men who are seeking prostitutes sit at the bar, those who are not sit away from the bar counter. A significant number of university students use sex work to supplement their income. Sex workers report harassment from the police. On 23 September 2006, the Minister of Gender and Family Promotion Valeria Nyirahabineza ordered prostitutes in Rwanda to stop selling sex otherwise they would face legal action, she claimed. In March 2007 President Paul Kagame gave a speech stating that prostitution in Rwanda must be stopped.

He stated: "It is not part of Rwanda’s path to development and, must stop". The Rwanda Law Reform Commission started a review of the penal law in 2015 in an attempt to bring the country's laws up date; the Draft Penal Code removes the prohibition of prostitution except for forced prostitution. Parliament started debating the Draft Penal Code in November 2017. Section 4 of the Penal Code deals with prostitution:Sub-section: Obligations and penalties for failure to comply Article 204: Definition of prostitution Article 205: Obligations to be fulfilled by a prostituteAny person who engages in prostitution shall fulfill, for a period not exceeding one year, one or more of the following obligations: 1° not to leave territorial limits determined by the Court. A person who violates any of the obligations under items 1º to 5º of this Article, shall be liable to a term of imprisonment of at least three months but less than six months. If a person subsequently commits prostitution as provided under Paragraph 2 of this Article shall be liable to a term of imprisonment of six months to two years and a fine of fifty thousand to five hundred thousand Rwandan francs or one of these penalties.

The penalties under paragraph 2 of this Article shall apply to any person caught having sexual intercourse with a prostitute. Sub-section 2: Incitement to prostitution Article 206: Encouraging, inciting or manipulating a person for the purpose of prostitution Article 207: Discouraging efforts to rehabilitate prostitutes Article 208: Advertisement for facilitation of prostitutionSub-section 3: Exploitation of the prostitution Article 209: Running, managing or investing in a brothel Article 210: Sharing the proceeds of prostitution Article 211: Sharing the proceeds of prostitution by a child Article 212: Aiding and protecting prostitution Article 213: Providing a facility for prostitutionSub-section 4: Aggravating circumstances Article 214: Aggravating circumstances for prostitution-related offence A number of women prostitutes, were murdered in Kigali between July and August 2012; the total number of victims was variously reported as eighteen. The murders may have been the work of one person, with some people referring to the killer as the "African Jack the Ripper".

One victim was described by neighbours as having had the words "I will stop once I have killed 400 prostitutes" carved into the flesh of her stomach, although this was dismissed as a rumour by the police. It was reported in November 2012 that eight men had been arrested and that one of them had confessed to the murders. Rwanda is a source, to a lesser extent, destination country for women, children subjected to sex trafficking. Rwandan girls and some boys, some of whom are secondary school students between the ages of 13 to 18, are exploited in commercial sex in hotels, at times through the facilitation of hotel owners. Local human rights groups reported in 2016 that some Rwandan girls in domestic work, who become pregnant and thereby have their employment terminated by their employers and are unable to return to their home villages, are subsequently exploited in sex trafficking; some Rwandan men and children are subjected to sex trafficking to destinations around the world. Rwandan victims are reportedly exploited in sex trafficking to China.

In previous years, Rwandan victims were exploited in South Africa, the United States, Europe. In 2016, some Rwandan girls were forced into marriages with men in Tanzania and may have experienced commercial sexual exploitation through these marriages. Reporting in 2013 indicated that Kampala- and Nairobi-based labour recruiters and brokers recruited Rwandan workers through fraudulent offers of employment abroad and subjected them to sex trafficking. Refugees fleeing conflict and political violence in Burundi and the DRC remain vulnerable to trafficking in Rwanda or are subjected to exploitation in third countries after transiting Rwanda. According to an international organisation, there has been an increase in sex trafficking of Burundian male and female teenagers through Rwanda to third countries since 2015. Burundian refugee girls transited through Rwanda were exploited in sex

Barbara Jones-Hogu

Barbara Jones-Hogu was an African-American artist best known for her work with the Organization of Black American Culture and for co-founding the artists' collective AfriCOBRA. Barbara Jones-Hogu was born in Chicago, Illinois, in 1938, she received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Howard University and a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. She earned a Master of Fine Arts degree from the Institute of Design in Chicago, as well as a master's degree in printing from the Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, she pursued a Master of Fine Arts in Independent Film and Digital Imaging at Governors State University while in her early seventies. She wished to earn the degree to their work, she was described as private and thoughtful. She had one son, Kuumba Hogu, who remarked that he wanted his mother to be remembered through her artwork. Jones-Hogu was a member of the Organization of Black American Culture, contributed when they completed the mural Wall of Respect in 1967.

It is regarded as the first collective street mural in the United States. She completed the actors' section. Jones-Hogu became involved in printing, her major in Painting included courses in printmaking, she discovered that she enjoyed it while taking the coursework for her major. She was working while going to school, she was able to use printmaking facilities at the Institute of Design. Misch Kohn, the head of printmaking at the time, gave her a key to the printmaking facilities so that she could complete printmaking work there whenever she wanted on evenings and weekends. In 1968, Jones-Hogu co-founded a collective of African-American artists based in Chicago. One of her most famous works while involved with the group was "Unite", featured in many exhibitions, including at the Tate Modern in London; the work was inspired by a sculpture by Elizabeth Catlett, which she saw while visiting Catlett in Mexico in the summer of 1968. It was inspired by the 1968 Olympics Black Power salute, she remarked: " I thought we, as a people should unite as a people under this concept."

The prints of "Unite" that she made prior to joining AfriCOBRA were differentiated from the prints she made while in AfriCOBRA by an African sculpture — the prints that she had done did not have an African sculpture, instead had an African head. She created the work "Resist Order in a Sick Society" due to these events. Many of her works incorporate key phrases as titles. Jones-Hogu created a work entitled "Stop Genocide." The work was based on gangs, which she thought could be used as a force for good if they came together. However, she felt that the gangs were engaging in "self-genocide" instead of aiming to stop genocide, which she defined as "hite on black genocide and crime." She printed this work on Japanese handmade paper, instead of her usual paper that she used for AfriCOBRA prints. The latter paper started prompting her to switch, she printed at the Illinois Institute of Technology. She produced many works with the flag for her thesis at the Illinois Institute of Technology. During this time, she was filmed for a portion of the documentary Medium Cool, but her parts were not used.

Jones-Hogu said that makers of the documentary wished to ask young "radical" African-Americans about the potential turmoil in Chicago during the 1968 Democratic National Convention. She remembered that she spoke on "the racial and the political attitudes and conditions in the city", she appeared in a 2011 documentary entitled "AfriCOBRA: Art For The People," and remarked that "The people we were making art for looked like us." The "Unite" print consists of two versions - one was created prior to her co-forming the group in 1969, another version was created in 1971 after she became a member. Prior to becoming involved with AfriCOBRA, she remarked that her works were informed by a negative narrative in the context of racial politics. However, after becoming involved with AfriCOBRA, her individual work shifted and took on a more positive, hopeful narrative. One example is her 1971 screenprint Relate to Your Heritage, which borrows the aesthetics of blacklight and blaxploitation posters but, inverting their abusive or trivializing content, depicts black women in royal garb.

She wished to display more positive issues in her politics, this was a philosophy echoed by AfriCOBRA. Around 1973, Jones-Hogu shifted from painting to drawing, to a lesser degree printmaking, as her son would become ill from paint fumes, she used oil-based inks. She had her first solo show involving her drawings; the show was held by a gallery owned by African-American artists. Jones-Hogu started to prepare prints for other artists' work in AfriCOBRA, she felt. Every time she completed a print, she would always put "artist's proof" on it, she started to do block printing and intaglio, moved on to making silkscreen prints once she opened her own shop. She did lithographs for fundraising, Sammy Davis Jr. bought one. She served on the board of the South Side Community Art Center, was involved with it throughout her life; the South Side Community Center was where her work was first exhibited in the early 1970s, it went on to feature more exhibits of her work. Jones-Hogu remarked in an interview that she was told that people had complained about the number of times her work was exhibited at the center, which ended her run of exhibitions there.

She did not have a one-person show